ryanair - brand audit

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Author: joshua-peace

Post on 18-Feb-2017




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ILIR GASHI (W1521232)MAXWIN YEO (W1496949)JOSHUA PEACE (W1581062)YEN NGUYEN (W1512604)1


Hi, my name is Joshua, I am your pilot in todays journey. My name is Maxwin, I am your co-pilotMy name is Ilir, I am your StewardAnd my name is Yen, I am your stewardess


AgendaBrand OverviewBrand Value PropositionCurrent Brand Communications AuditSummary & Conclusions14


RecommendationsBrand Overview


Brand Value Proposition


Current Brand Communications Audit


Product Category Analysis


Conclusion & SWOT


Our journey will approximately last 12 minutes and we will be taking an holistic approach to the Ryanair brand by starting with the recommendations, to which we then prove the conjectures and link back throughout the presentation. We then end with the conclusion and SWOT analysis which will evaluate the Ryanair brand and its opportunities to improve.3

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Short TermImprove digital footprint to get the brand message out thereMedium TermImprove employee relations to become brand ambassadorsLong TermIncrease fleet size and destinations to maintain low cost brand equity

[JOSH] thanks for flying with us, Before we take off, I would to remind everyone to fasten their seat belts, put your seats in the upright position, stow.. up straight and . Fire exists are here, there and here. Please get your boarding passes ready and read the safety instructions provided. Thank you and enjoy your flight!


SHORT TERM GOALimprove their digital footprint (website and app) and use social media to support the brand make it consistent with visual quality and get the brand message out there in the form of customer reviews and experiences.

MEDIUM TERM GOALimprove relations with its staff to get them to become brand ambassadors by retraining employees and get the internal systems working correctly

LONG TERM GOALIncrease fleet size. Consider flying to new and central locations in Europe and also enter growing markets (long-haul flights) into Asia, the Middle East and Africa. We need lots of customer to remain inexpensive which is the main point of our Brand Image.5

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#1 RankedAirline for growth in Europe (2015)About us


74 +5% (2014)Bases in Europe

100M +11% (2014)Passengers in 2015

1,600 +11% (2014)Daily Routes

31 +2% (2014)Connected Countries

315 +21% (2014)New Boeing aircrafts

185 +4% (2014)Airport Destinations

10,500 +3% (2014)Skilled Professionals


Ryanair is Europe's largest low-fare short-haul airline, which is headquartered in Ireland. This is a public listed company who trade in Dublin, London and New York stock exchange stocks. Our mission statement is committed to low cost airfares that aims to generate increased passenger traffic while maintaining a continuous focus on cost commitment and operation efficiencies.

Our destinations, we travel to over 185 locations in 31 countries carrying over 100 million passengers in 2015.

This has made us the number 1 ranked airline for growth in Europe in 2015. 7

Our Brand Owning Organisation

Ryanairs owning culture is based on a highly centralised power base centralising around O'Leary as he drives the organisation from a top down structure (Creaton, 2004).

Decision making is very specific and controlled as one particular function at the centre of Ryanair (Creaton, 2004). Board may not be able to challenge the CEO, and CEOs methods may be involved in group think (Janis, 1982).Figure 1. Power Culture (Harrison, 1993).


Michael O'Leary is current CEO of Ryanair and has been since 1988. During his time, he has shaped Ryanairs owning culture which is now based on a highly centralised power base; centralising around O'Leary as he drives the organisation from a top down perspective (Creaton, 2004). As shown in Figure 1, the structure of the organisation has been kept flat to ensure that is lean and agile in all aspects.

Because of this, decision making is very specific and controlled as one particular function at the centre of Ryanair. The challenge that the organisation therefore faces is that all the CEOs force of character may take them into an incorrect direction as there is no input from other personnel (Creaton, 2004). 8

2015 Net Sales

By Business SegmentBy Geographic RegionBy Market Maturity

Car rentalsTicketsAncillaryTaxHotel


Primary AirportsSecondary Airports

NET SALES ( millions)OPERATING CASH FLOW ( millions)As you can see, Ryanair has had a 66% increase in profit after tax to 411,110 million in 2015. This strong performance was driven by an 11% increase in customers, a 5% increase in load factor which rose by 88%, and a decrease in costs. Our operating profits reached into 1,208 million which was an 33% increase in previous years.


Despite this, Ryanairs financial has been constantly increasing. As you can see from the figures above, Ancillary revenue and hotel rentals accounts for over 60% of the profit from passengers, so ancillary is extremely important for Ryanair as they dont operate any cargo so most of the revenue comes from passenger flights(Sarah, 2013).

By geographic region, most of the sales for Ryanair are located in the Scandinavian and Germanic routes, with Spanish and Portuguese flights close behind. In terms of the market maturity, Ryanairs profits from flying to secondary airports provide them more growth and stability than primary airports, as over 61% of the profits come from secondary airports.

Moving onto our recent performance, as you can see, Ryanair has had a 66% increase in profit after tax to 411,110 million in 2015. This strong performance was driven by an 11% increase in customers, a 5% increase in load factor which rose by 88%, and a decrease in costs. Our operating profits reached into 1,208 million which was an 33% increase in previous years. 9

1985: Ryanair founded and launched 2 routes1987: First Jet used1988: Restructuring and introduction of low cost model1995: Largest Irish airline, overtaking Air Lingus and BA2000: Launched online website and booking2007: Acquisition/merger with Aer Lingus failed2013: New Branding and Marketing Push

2009: Reports first annual loss in 20 years2003: Simplification of Logo and branding design2004: Expansion of EU and new routes launchedOur Brand History


Since its establishment in 1985, founders Christopher Ryan, Liam Longergan and Tony Ryan has grown Ryanair from being a small airline flying the short journey from Waterford (South East of Ireland) to London Gatwick into one of largest carriers in Europe (Harteveldt, 2012).

But it has not always been easy. Back in the late 1980s, Ryanair was very much driven by its customer service - offering customers free food and much generosity, but the airline was losing millions in profit (Macalister, 2016). In 1988, today's CEO Michael O'Leary was appointed to rescue the brand (Mangla, 2015) and between 1990 and 2010 made significant changes to the business to reduce costs and get rid of any unwanted space. 10

Our New Branding Push

Figure 2 Ryanairs brand logo history (2016).Figure 3. Old Ryanair logo, 2001 - 2012Figure 4. New Ryanair logo, 2013 - current


The period of simplification during Michael OLeary presence as CEO can be reflected through the changes in the Ryanair Logos between 1987 and 2013, as shown. The emblem was removed and the logo simplified to symbolise Ryanair's new values of being low fare, simple and easy to remember.

As mentioned, in 2013 Ryanair updated its brand logo and re-included its emblem which was the start of a new marketing and branding push that wanted to rediscover its past and clarity. This new current logo has become a new part of the visual identity of Ryanair which symbolises "Efficiency, Innovation and Transparency by the harp shape logo and the clean white letters, which directly influences the company's new visual identity of purity. Creatively, this was achieved by focusing on the visuals of a class - a symbol of transparently, honesty and purity which is being used across all branding and marketing efforts as will be discussed in the current brands communications audit.


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Successful brands develop a very clear sense of who they are and what they stand for and then project that identity so intensely to the point where, like a lighthouse, consumers notice you (and know where you stand) even if theyre not looking for you (Morgan, 2004).




What are Ryanair doing to build brand equity?How is that identity then seen in the eyes of the consumer?


Now this regard, brand image is not only about what the company is doing to build brand equity but it also is how that individual brand is seen in the market which then translates into brand image. 14


Distance: Short Haul vs. Long Haul flights.Psychographics: Lifestyles (Leisure/family vs. Business).Intentions: Private purpose, small or starting business.Income: Social class and Middle class.Age: 15 64.Leisure: Price sensitive, seat only product; point-to-point, secondary airports, punctuality and reliability.Business: Efficient and more options, e.g. seat allocations, bigger room space, primary airports as well as secondary. Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning



Positioning using Marketing Mix

LEISURE PASSENGERSProduct: Ordering new Boeing 747s and being innovative in spaceProcess: 91% arrival rate on time, better punctuality and fewer lost bags.Price: Constantly lowering ticket pricesPlace: Hotel & Leisure agreements, contracts with cheaper airports to keep slots locked up for good price/termPeople: using social media to deal with customer service, complaintsPromotion: online booking and mobile appPhysical evidence: covers all EU market, fly an branched out to capture customers by opening on more secondary airports



Positioning using Marketing Mix

BUSINESS PASSENGERSProduct: Ordering new bigger Boeing 747s Process: 91% arrival rate on time, better punctuality and fewer lost bags.Price: change in pricing model lower longer dated prices and higher short term (1-2 months ahead) of pricingPlace: Agreements with American Express to facilitate business travellers, agents and corporate travel departments.People: more cabin space, seat allocations, ticketing flexibility, group services onlinePromotion: pre-online reservation, business class website improved.Physical evidence: opening at more primary airports (Rome, Lisbon and Athens)




Now this positioning and marketing mix can be best represented through using Kapferers identity prism which identifies 6 aspects Ryanairs brand identity in terms of their Physique, relationship, reflection, self image, culture and personality [AS SHOWN HERE]. All these aspects however that makes the company perspective ONLY come to life if and only that brand identity is able to communicate that same exact message to the consumer. This leads onto the market perspective.18

Market Perspective

Kapferers CBBE Model


As shown above, Ryanair excels when it comes to the first two layers which in terms of customer and market perspective, means that customers know who Ryanair are and what Ryanair offers (functionality). However, as we go deeper into the model, it becomes clear that Ryanair lacks the emotional connection which can be seen as damaging to the brand image due to the fact that there is limited interaction between the service and product with the customers, i.e. staff have very little interaction, the product does very little to induce excitement however, because Ryanair is low fares no frills airline it can be argued that customers should not expect emotional connections.

Moreover, psychologist Sampson (2009) discusses the idea of Pain-Pleasure Gap and argues that the greater the contrast between the pleasure that a customer gets from using a product and the pain required to do so, the more memorable the experience (Serusi, 2014; Sampson, 2009). In this way, Ryanair has developed a unique brand value that is synonymous with its service delivery as customers are aware of its brand values because customers experiencing Ryanair are being reinforced the brand values of low fares and being the least expensive.


SummaryFunctional Benefits: Less expensive than its competitors. Better punctuality and fewer lost bags.Emotional benefits: brand is committed to its target and authenticity, expect to receive the same clarity and transparencyBrand differentiation/positioning: customers know exactly where Ryanair stands, quick and simple service due to its no frills experience. Brand Values: clarity, transparency, efficiency and innovation. Brand Essence/Aura: no frills. Low fares made simple. Safe and reliable.Brand Promise: We are an low fare airline, good on time record, few cancellations and few lost bags. If you want anything more, go away


Functional benefits: less expensive than its competitors, safe. Better punctuality and fewer lost bags. You get what you payed for.

Emotional benefits: brand is commitment to its targets and authenticity, with Ryanair you know what you are getting and can guarantee and expect the same clarity and transparency.

Brand differentiation/positioning: For Ryanair, its customers know exactly where it stands (its value proposition) as being less expensive than competitors and quick service because of its no frills experience.

Brand values: clarity, transparency, efficiency and innovation. New marketing and branding push.

Brand Essence/Aura: No frills. Low Fares made simple. Efficient and reliable.

Brand Promise: Ryanairs brand identity is built on a solid foundation and personified by its CEO which sends users a very clear message that Ryanair is something different, less expensive than other airlines and is a very quick and easy service as shown on the companys website (Olmsted, 2016). 20

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Communication Tools

Advertising CampaignTV CommercialBillboardSales PromotionRyanair Business PlusFamily PlusInternet MarketingCorporate WebsiteDirect MarketingRyanair App


Ryanair implements several brand communication tools to promote their brand to current and potential clients, which includes advertising campaigns, internet marketing, sales promotion and direct marketing.

These different tools are important for Ryanair because as discussed previously my colleague, Ryanairs brand value proposition is heavily based on word of mouth people discuss the low fares and bad quality which reinforces their message. But in order for Ryanair to be successful in their new marketing and branding push, they need to employ communicate tools that work together to send the new message about the brand.


TV commercialAllocated seatingChange in baggage ruleRedesign of Ryanair.comBillboard

Advertising Campaign

Figure 6. Ryanairs Billboard advertising (2015).Figure 7. Ryanairs Billboard advertising (2015).Figure 8. Ryanairs Billboard advertising (2013).


For their advertising campaign, Ryanair released 3 separate short TV commercials last year that introduced three changes to the company operations, which are the new allocated seating, a changed to the strict baggage rule and a complete redesign of their corporate website

Ryanair also uses billboards throughout streets of London, underground stations as well as the airports that they operate in23

Corporate WebsiteSearch and book flightsOnline check-inInformation on hotels and car hires

Internet Marketing

Figure 9. Ryanairs website in 2011Figure 10. Ryanairs website in 2013


As for Ryanairs internet marketing, their main tool would be their corporate website: ryanair.com. Visitors can search and book Ryanair flights through the booking system as well as checking in online, gain information on hotels and car hires24

Ryanair Business PlusPriority boarding, fast trackFamily ExtraDiscount for children

Sales PromotionFigure 11. Ryanairs business sales promotion (2014).Figure 12. Ryanairs business sales promotion (2014).


Ryanair offers additional sales promotion techniques to reach out to their clients, which are the Ryanair business plus, and family extra both can be found on the corporate website.

As the names suggests, these two features are intended to target business people and families who are looking for a cheap airline to fly by offering bonuses to them at a more expensive fare25

THE FUTUREEXCITING AND DEMANDING.We are constantly improving services



A NEWPARTNERSHIPSuccess lies in the combination of both talent and business savvy, the magic comes through partnership between both.

- Kenny Jacobs, Chief Marketing Officer at Ryanair



Direct Marketing

Ryanair Mobile AppAllows user to store electronic boarding pass

Figure 13. Ryanairs newly promoted mobile app (2015).


The app sends booking information and flights details to the user, also letting them keep an electronic boarding pass on the phone, making the check-in process simpler28

Pull Marketing

Lowest fareAlways changing for the betterNo hassle Word of MouthMass media promotionsSales promotions

Communications StrategyAbove the lineBrand MessageMobile AppCorporate WebsiteTV & Commercials


Overall, Ryanairs communication tools follow an above the line, pull marketing strategy in order to attract current and potential customers and solidify their brand image of quality.

The tools are well integrated so it stays consistent to their main message they are getting across: which would be lowest fare, always changing for the better and no hassle!


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PEST AnalysisSignificance to IndustryImpact on RyanairShort TermLong TermShort TermLong TermPOLITICALECONOMICALSOCIALTECHNOLOGY


This slide shows you a visual of PEST impact and significance to industry and Ryanair.

5 stars is impact a lot, 1 is impact little

As you can see, political and social will impact Ryanair more in the long term, whereas short term it will be technological. However for the industry, as you can see political and economical for the long term whereas short term it will be social and technological.



PEST Analysis

PoliticalEuropean Commission airline regulation on foreign investment (Davies, 2015)Boost in European/Asian flight industry (Mangla, 2015)EconomicalUK Travel industry shows promising growth (Thomas, 2014)More job creation for this industry (Thomas, 2014)SocialIncrease in consumers wanting to spend more time travelling (ABTA, 2015).Increasing trend for travelling cheaper (Tobin, 2016)

TechnologicalTechnology and social media advancements (Leight, 2014)More people book flights, arrange holidays through online (Israle, 2015)


Political:Davies (2015) says that the European Commission plans to soften restriction on foreign investment on European airlines, in order to increase competitiveness of flight industry against rapid growing markets such as Middle East, Asia, Dubai. With these changes, there will be a significant boost in European and Asian flight industries, as well as for Ryanairs operations (Mangla, 2015)

Economical:According to Thomas (2014), the UK travel industry shows a promising growth within the next few years, Creating more employment opportunities for jobs surround this industry. This can benefit Ryanair as they attempt to rebrand their company, attracting a larger work force.

Social:ABTA (2015) is a travel trends company and they reported that there is an increase in consumers wanting to spend more time travelling in their holidays, in addition, (Tobin, 2016) argues that there is trend showing that consumers are looking more into flying with cheaper airlines. This can be really beneficial to Ryanairs business as they do specialise in offering cheap flight fares.

Technological:With advancements in technology and social media, it becomes easier for people to book flights, arrange holidays through online rather than going to a travel agency. Establishing the new brand image also becomes easier through social media and other communication means. And with its new website, Ryanair can successfully attract people to fly with them in the future.

Another technological advantage that Ryanair has is their fleet size and their innovation by being able to produce planes that continues to seat more people, this helps Ryanair maintain low prices

People moving online 22 avg sites for trip booking (relates to skyscanner etc.)Over 90% of household have high-speed internet in the UK


Porters Five Forces


Porters five forces analyses the strength of a firm in relation to its substitutes, competitors, and supplier. We took this model and used it to inspect the current state of and future potential for the Ryanair brand.33

Product Category Analysis

Operations costs are high, fuel accounts for 10-12% and labour accounts for 35% [Investopedia, 2014). In 2015, profit margins for airline industry was 4%, or 5.90 per customer (Adamcyzk, 2015).

Barriers to entranceOperation CostsProfit MarginsLow Success Rates


How is the industry?Barriers to Entrance A new airline needs airplanes to start operations, which are incredibly expensive. Also an airline would need to work out contracts with airports to start transporting people. (not easy or cheap)Operation Costs As said previously operations cost are sky high, nearly 35% percent goes directly to employees and 12% to fuel. (that can fluctuate upwards) Profit Margins these are low mostly due to the high operations costs. The statistic above should be added verbally (2015 industry made 4% or 5.90 avg. on customers. Low Success Rates due in part to the tiny profit margins and high operations costs many new airlines collapse.


Product Category Analysis

Figure 14. Price vs. Quality map of the Passenger Airline Industry (Ryanair and competitors).

Important Mergers:Lufthansa has merged with Swiss Airline (Done, 2008)British Airways bought Iberia Airline (BBC, 2010)


For the companies who have survived its because of their expert positioning on this graph shown here. The upper right corner and the bottom left are the money zones. (Explain PvQ tea example) Ryanair has done an above average job within its bottom left corner. Many Legacy airlines or full service airlines have noticed the success in this bottom left corner and are trying to emulate. What we are seeing is airline companies trying to operate in both corner and they have done so wither by creating in house LCC brands or merging with companies who can help them provide cheaper flights to more destinations.This trend may shape Ryanair's future competitors.35

Substitute Analysis and the Future

Figure 15. Overview of airline traffic and commercial flights (Sarah, 2013).

Within the EU, high speed rail accounts for 10% of in-land travel (European Commission, 2014). Airline passengers are set to increase to 7 billion by 2034 (IATA, 2016)Chinese market set to increase to 1.2 billion airline passengers by 2034, overtaking the US (IATA, 2016)


So after telling you all the negatives of the airline industry you may be wondering is there a long term future for Ryanair or maybe the industry in general. Well the good news is Substitutions are weak; vehicles have existed for awhile their affect on the airline industry is already in affect there will not be a big enough change in vehicle tech basically until they fly to be a threat.High speed rail is advancing thought Europe but rail is expensive both to make and to operate and is constrained in many way by environment. Most rail travel is over the short haul within countries and due to relatively high ticket prices a good majority of travellers are business people.

Not only are substitutions weak; prospects are glowing. Every year air passenger increase, within the industry massive growth is predicted in across the globe but specifically in Asian, African, and Middle Eastern countries which have high populations entering the air travel game. 36

. expected turbulence


Then there are our direct competitors.

Easyjet, airlingus, luftha, british, 37

Most competitive LCC in our market.EasyJet flies around 20m passengers a year, less than Ryanair in 2015 (Thomas, 2014a).

Competitor Analysis Short Term

In 2010, EasyJet introduced flexi-fare (EasyJet, 2010).


Short term EasyJet

If you recall back to our Price vs Quality graph Ryanair was situated firmly in that bottom left corner. That low price below average quality is where our short term competitors lie. Easyjet is by far the most significant competitor in this area, virtually the only one worth focusing on. Although they operate on a smaller scale than we do about 20 mil less passengers a year, they are beating us in one crucial brand value characteristic and that is customer service.

Easyjet in 2010 introduced Flexi fare which gave customers the ability to select seats have priority boarding change their flight last minutes for no penalty, all business related advances, if that wasnt enough to put the pressure on since 2005 when easyjet constructed its massive new staff training academy it has focused on making an environment of customer appreciation and accommodation that Ryanair is not known to share.38

Competitor Analysis Long TermEurope is estimated to have the slowest global passenger growth with only 2.7% every year until 2034 (IATA, 2016).

Long Term British Airlines & Lufs

How theyre successful, dominate the long-haul market, they have the physical planes (physical assets) to box people out of the industry, but because were so successful in short term destinations, we need to re-invest in the LCC brand to more popular long term destinations.


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Conclusion and SWOT Analysis

Main StrengthsBrand equity Strong Asset base (money and fleet) Operational Efficiency and Strategic PositioningMain WeaknessesDestinationsPoor CRM, employee relations and public perception Limited Partnerships

Main OpportunitiesAsian/Middle-Eastern and African markets are growing People expecting more from airlinesMarket fragmentation

Main ThreatsInsufficient differentiationThreat of EU/Breakdown of EU relations and EU economicsCompetitors


MAIN STRENGTHS Brand equity their brand image is what they intended (low fares), everything works together to build the brand value proposition.Strong Asset base (money and fleet) Big fleet, physical advantage, bigger fleet than competition (EasyJet) and ability to carry more passengers.Operational Efficiency and Strategic Positioning Lowest fares; Rapid at checking flights and boarding people; bagging fast).

MAIN WEAKNESSESDestinations Travel to secondary airports which has often deterred passengers in the past and has low frequencies on its routes compared to competitors.Poor CRM, employee relations and public perception limited advertising and money spent on employee relations is damaging the brand perception.Limited Partnerships

MARKET OPPORTUNITESAsian/Middle-Eastern and African markets are growing better leads and more airlines are expanding rapidly in transatlantic routes.People expecting more from airlines customers are changing. Need better service and convenience within the industry. People are choosing cheap with a good experienceMarket fragmentation Airlines are protecting themselves by adding the competition or creating version of their competition. Merging with an airline that provides what you cannot strengthens the company and increases resources.

MAIN THREATS1. Insufficient differentiation - Difficult to adapt to growing markets and not alienate their primary market (of being low fares).2. Threat of EU/Breakdown of EU relations and EU economics3. Competitors - EasyJet damages Ryanair low fares brand


RecommendationsSHORT TERM GOALImprove their digital footprint (website and app) and use social media to support the brand and get the brand message out there

MEDIUM TERM GOALImprove relations with its staff to get them to become brand ambassadors by retraining employees and get the internal systems working correctly

LONG TERM GOALConsider flying to new and central locations in Europe and also enter growing markets (long-haul flights) into Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

[visuals -> use business context box and darker theme]

Thank you,,, thanks again for choosing Ryanair. I would like to ask you how many (hands), can you tell us what you thought?

Were known for low quality, low prices? Led onto recommendations!

SHORT TERM GOALimprove their digital footprint (website and app) and use social media to support the brand and get the brand message out there

MEDIUM TERM GOALimprove relations with its staff to get them to become brand ambassadors by retraining employees and get the internal systems working correctly

LONG TERM GOALConsider flying to new and central locations in Europe and also enter growing markets (long-haul flights) into Asia, the Middle East and Africa. 42

Further Penetration

Market Penetration -- Penetrating further into market that does exist and a new

[2014]We flew approx. 98 million passengers in 2014.Our existing UK market has approx. 178 million passengers in 2014.The Total UK market was close to a total of 238 million customers in 2014.The Larger EU market (main operation) had approx. 880 million passengers in 2014.43

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References Gillette, F. (2010). Ryanairs OLeary Ponders One-Euro Toilets, Standing Passengers. [online]. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2010-09-02/ryanair-s-o-leary-ponders-pay-toilets-standing-passengers-in-profit-quest (Accessed on 6th March 2016). Gordon, S. (2013). Ryanair unveils new easy-to-use website as it revamps its image. [online]. Mail Online. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2510450/Ryanair-unveils-new-website-tries-revamp-negative-image.html [Accessed 5 Mar. 2016]. Gov.uk. (2013). Air traffic at UK airports. [online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/avi01-traffic-passenger-numbers-mode-of-travel-to-airport (Accessed on 6th March 2016). Harteveldt, H. (2012). The Future Of Airline Distribution A Look Ahead To 2017. [online]. Cambridge, MA: Atmosphere Research Group LLC., pp.1-32. Available at: https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/stb/Documents/future-airline-distribution-report.pdf [Accessed 1 Mar. 2016]. Iata.com. (2013). Airlines Expect 31% Rise in Passenger Demand by 2017. [online] Available at: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/pages/2013-12-10-01.aspx [Accessed 1 Mar. 2016].


References O'Hallaron, B. (2015). Ryanair shelves plans for low-cost transatlantic flights. [online] The Irish Times. Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/business/transport-and-tourism/ryanair-shelves-plans-for-low-cost-transatlantic-flights-1.2364628 (Accessed 3 Mar. 2016). Olmsted, L. (2016). Don't Fly - Why Trains Are the Best Way to Travel Overseas. [online]. Forbes.com. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/larryolmsted/2011/10/31/dont-fly-why-trains-are-the-best-way-to-travel-overseas/#6695ce1f6bec (Accessed 2 Mar. 2016). Paris, N. (2014). Which airlines are the worst for legroom?. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/news/Which-airlines-are-the-worst-for-legroom/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2016]. Plunkettresearch.com, (2014). Travel Airline: Hotel & Tourism Industry Market Research Instant access to trends, Statistics, Data, Analysis and Companies. Available at: https://www.plunkettresearch.com/industries/travel-tourism-market-research/ (Accessed on 6th March 2016).


References Referenceforbusiness.com. (2016). Ryanair Holdings plc - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Ryanair Holdings plc. [online] Available at: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/78/Ryanair-Holdings-plc.html [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016]. Ritson, M. (2010). Aggression: A Worthy Brand Builder | Branding Strategy Insider. [online] Branding Strategy Insider. Available at: http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2010/07/aggression-a-worthy-brand-builder.html#.VuBk2fkS_cs [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016]. Rus, G. and Barron, I. (2009). Economic analysis of high speed rail in Europe. Bilbao: Fundacion BBVA, pp.33-38.Ryanair.com. (2016). History of Ryanair. [online] Available at: http://corporate.ryanair.com/about-us/history-of-ryanair/ [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016]. Sarah, C. (2013). Legacy vs low-cost carriers: Spot the difference. [online]. Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/gulliver/2013/03/legacy-vs-low-cost-carriers (Access on 6th March 2016).


References Serusi, M. (2014). The Secret to Success of the Ryanair Brand. [online] SimpliFlying - The Leading Airline Marketing Consultancy. Available at: http://simpliflying.com/2014/ryanair-branding-success-customer-perception/ [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016]. Thomas, N. (2014a). EasyJet vs Ryanair: who is winning the battle for passengers?. [online]. Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transport/11015987/EasyJet-v-Ryanair-who-is-winning-the-battle-for-passengers.html [Accessed 6 Mar. 2016]. Thomas, N. (2014b). From budget to business: how the low cost airlines are winning us over. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/transport/11059009/From-budget-to-business-how-the-low-cost-airlines-are-winning-us-over.html (Accessed on 6th March 2016). Tobin, L. (2015). UK airlines in battle for routes as budget carriers and luxury flying "suites" take off. [online] Available at: http://www.standard.co.uk/business/business-news/uk-airlines-in-battle-for-routes-as-budget-carriers-and-luxury-flying-suites-take-off-9960200.html (Accessed on 6th March 2016).


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