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Page 1: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance

Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

Page 2: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 3: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

0 1994

#Class A accidents per 100,000 flight hours

Acc

iden

t Rat

e

1996 1998 2000 20021992

1.0

2.0

U.S. Military Accident Rates#

3.0

Air Force

Army

Navy

Marine Corps

4.0

.Figure by MIT OCW. Adapted from: Aviation Week 10/02.

Page 4: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 5: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 6: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 7: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 8: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 9: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

Page 10: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Safety

y Safety Targets/Standards � Civil Air Carrier FAR Part 25 FAR Part 121 � Civil General Aviation FAR Part 23 FAR Part 91 � Military Mil Spec

y Safety Components � Vehicle Airworthiness � Training and Operating Procedures � Maintenance � Culture

� Quality Management Processes � Incident Reporting � Accident Investigation

� Liability

y Design Philosophy � Fail Safe � Fail Operational

Page 11: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Certification

y Civil � Certificate of Airworthiness (i.e. Certification)

� Guarantee to the public that the aircraft is airworthy to some standard

� Operational Approval � Operating Certificate ÐEquipment ÐProcedures ÐTraining

y Military � Procurement

y Space � Man Rated

Page 12: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Certification

y Aircraft Certificate of Airworthiness� Standard Type Certificate (STC) � Categories

� Air Carrier � Normal � Utility � Experimental � Rotorcraft � LTA � Others

Page 13: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Certification

y Component Certificate of Airworthiness� Engines � Propellers � Parts � Instruments

y Component (Parts & Instruments) Standards � Technical Service Order (TSO) � Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS)

y Software Standards � RTCA DO-178B

y Continued Airworthiness � Inspections � Maintenance

Page 14: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Federal Aviation Regulations

y Part 1 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

y Part 11 - GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES

y Part 21 - CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS

y Part 23 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES

y Part 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES

y Part 27 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT

y Part 29 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT

y Part 31 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS

y Part 33 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES

y Part 34 - FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES

y Part 35 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS

y Part 36 - NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION

y http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/

Page 15: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

FAA engineering personnel are sometimes consulted at this step

TC or STC Approval Process

Product is evaluated for marketability & certifiability

Company makes decision to proceed with development

Preliminary design completed

Detailed design completed

This is the appropriate time to initiate certification project

FAA witnesses many of the systems tests for certification

FAA witnesses all of the flight and ground tests conducted on an aircraft for certification

Close consultation with FAA engineering personnel is essential throughout design process to avoid new requirements late in process System testing completed

Installation in aircraft & certification testing completed

Idea for new avionics product is born

FAA ACO issues certificate & system is ready for operational approval

Certification plan is prepared & submitted to the ACO for review & approval. Plan will address the system safety assessment & the software aspects of certification

Testing plans & system safety assessment prepared & submitted to the ACO for review & approval

Flight test plan & balance of design approval documents submitted to ACO for review & approval

Figure by MIT OCW.

Page 16: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Safety Analysis

y Advisory Circular AC 25.1309-1A � System Design and Analysis

y Fail Safe

y Fail Operational

y Preliminary Hazard Analysis

y Functional Hazard Assessment

y Depth of Analysis Flowchart � Complex System

Page 17: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

Probability vs. Consequences Graph

Probable Improbable Extremely Improbable

Catastrophic Accident

Adverse Effect On

Occupants

Airplane Damage

Emergency Procedures

Abnormal Procedures

Nuisance

Normal

Page 18: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Descriptive Probabilities

Probability (per unit of exposure)

FAR JAR 1

Frequent

10E-3 Probable Reasonably

Probable 10E-5

Remote 10E-7 Improbable

Extremely Remote

10E-9 Extremely Extremely

Improbable Improbable

What is the correct unit of exposure : Flight hour, Departure, Failure

Page 19: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Safety Analysis

y Preliminary Hazard Analysis

y Fault Tree Analysis � Top Down Search - Presumes Hazards Known � System Definition � Fault Tree Construction � Qualitative Analysis � Quantitative Analysis

y Event Tree Analysis � Bottom Up “Forward” Search - Identifies possible outcomes

y Failure Modes and Effects Analysis � Probabilistic “Forward” Search � Requires Failure Probability Estimates � Requires Assumed Failures from PHA or Historical Data � “Target Level of Safety”

Page 20: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

Event Tree ExampleFrom : Leveson

A Reduced Event Tree for A Loss of Coolant Accident

Succeeds

Succeeds

Succeeds

Succeeds

Succeeds

Fails

Fails

Fails

Fails

Fails

Fails

1-P4

1-P4

1-P5

1-P3

1-P2

P4

P3

P2

P4

P5

P5

Available

Initiating Event

P1

P1

P1 x P5

P1 x P2

P1 x P4

P1 x P3

P1 x P4 x P5

P1 x P3 x P4

Pipe Break

1

Electric Power

2

ECCS

3 Fission

Product Removal

4 Containment

Integrity

5

Figure by MIT OCW.

Page 21: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

Fault Tree and Event Tree Examples From : Leveson

Operator inattentive

Relief Valve 1

Pressure too high

Opens

Opens

Pressure decreases

Pressure decreases

Explosion

Fails

Fails

Relief Valve 2 Explosion

Valve failure

A Fault Tree and Event Tree Comparison

Valve failure

Pressure monitor failure

Computer output too late

Computer does not

issue command to open valve 1

Operator does not know to open value 2

Computer does not open valve 1

Value 1 position indicator falls

on

Open indicator light falls on

Pressure too high

Relief valve 1 does not open

Relief valve 2 does not open

Figure by MIT OCW.

Page 22: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

Figure by MIT OCW. Adapted from: Leveson.

A

B

Critical

A

B

OpenShortOther

9055

9055

OpenShortOther

1 x 10-3 x

x

5 x 10-5

5 x 10-5

5 x 10-5

5 x 10-5

1 x 10-3

Failure probability Failure mode Failures by mode (%)

Effects

Critical Noncritical

F M E A F O R A S Y S T E M O F T W O A M P L I F I E R S I N PA R A L L E L

Page 23: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Reliability Architectures

y Analysis Values often of Questionable Integrity

y Drives Failure Mitigation Approaches

y Avoid Single String Failure � Cannot guarantee 10E-9

y Redundancy � Dual Redundant for Passive Failures

� e.g. Wing Spar � Triple Redundancy for Active Systems

� 777 Fly By Wire Ð Sensors Ð Processors Ð Actuators Ð Data Bus

� A320 Reliability Architecture by Comparison

Page 24: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICATMIT ICAT

B777 Avionics Architecture

Page 25: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation
Page 26: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

-MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Fly-by-wire - A330/A340

SEC

SEC PRIM

PRIM

PRIM

•• Flight Control computers are dual channel – one for control and one for monitoring

• Each processor has a different vendor for hardware & software – software for each processor coded in a different language

Page 27: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

Grnd spoilers, speedbrake Grnd spoilers, speedbrake

FBWFBW-- A330/A340 flight control architectureA330/A340 flight control architectureComputer / hydraulic actuator arrangementComputer / hydraulic actuator arrangement

Roll control surfaces

S1 S1S2 S2S2

* Trim Wheels

pedals

Roll control surfaces

Spoilers Spoilers

Ailerons AileronsS1

S1

S1

S2

S2 S1 S2S1

S1

S2

S2

S1

S2

S2

S1P1

P1

P1

P1 P1

P1

P1

P1

P2

P2

P2

P2

P2

P2 P2

P3

P3

P3

P3 P3

P3

P3

P3

TLU

Rudder

* Rudder

Slats

Yaw damper

Trim

Flaps

THS

ElevatorElevator

1 2 3

Page 28: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Additional Issues

y Conventional vs. New Technologies/Configurations

y Problem with Software and Complex Systems

y Emergent Behavior

y Air-Ground Coupling Issues

Page 29: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT

FAA 8040.4 Safety Analysis Process

Plan

ID Hazards

Analysis

Risk Assessment

Decision

Page 30: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Operational Reliability

y MTBF� Mean Time Between Failure

y MTBUR � Mean Time Between Unscheduled Replacement

y Dispatch Reliability � Conditional Airworthiness � Minimum Equipment List

y Relates to Life Cycle Costs

Page 31: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Maintenance

y Scheduled Maintenance� Periodic (e.g. Annual) � On Time (Time Between Overhaul) (TBO) � Progressive (Inspection Based e.g. Cracks) � Conditional (Monitoring Based e.g. Engines - ACARS) � Heavy Maintenance Checks

y Unscheduled � “Squawks” = Reported Anomalies

� Logbook Entries (ACARS) � Line Replacement Units (LRU) � Parts Inventory

� F16 Tail � Glass Cockpits

Page 32: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Logbook Entries

y Pilot: Test flight OK, except autoland very rough. y Mechanic: Autoland not installed on this aircraft. y Pilot: No. 2 propeller seeping prop fluid. y Mechanic: No. 2 propeller seepage normal. Nos. 1, 3 and 4 propellers lack normal seepage. y Pilot: Something loose in cockpit. y Mechanic: Something tightened in cockpit. y Pilot: Autopilot in altitude-hold mode produces a 200-fpm descent. y Mechanic: Cannot reproduce problem on ground. y Pilot: DME volume unbelievably loud. y Mechanic: DME volume set to more believable level. y Pilot: Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick. y Mechanic: That's what they're there for! y Pilot: IFF inoperative. y Mechanic: IFF always inoperative in OFF mode. y Pilot: Suspected crack in windscreen. y Mechanic: Suspect you're right. y Pilot: Number 3 engine missing. y Mechanic: Engine found on right wing after brief search. y Pilot: Aircraft handles funny. y Mechanic: Aircraft warned to straighten up, fly right, and be serious.

Page 33: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Typical Check Cycles

y Ramp-check before every flight

y A-check is done every 350-650 hours and includes more detailed check of electronics and systems as well as a cabin/haul check

y B-check is done every 5 month (1000 hours) and is basically an extended A-check.

y C-check is a detailed inspection of the aircraft’s structure as well as systems carried out every 8-18 month according to cycles/flying time etc.

y IL-check is made every 48 month and include detailed inspection and service of structure, wings etc. as well as very extensive tests and service carried out on electronics, hydraulics etc. Recommended improvements are also done.

y D-check is almost a total dismantle and rebuilding of the aircraft. Almost every part is checked. D-check is made every 72 month.

Page 34: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Airworthiness Directives

y Airworthiness Directives� Based on identified hazards � Time to compliance

y Service Bulletins

Page 35: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Servicing

y Fueling

y Loading � Payload � Stores

y Servicing� Food � Water � Oxygen � Oil � Hydraulics � Air

y Cleaning

y Arming

Page 36: Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance · PDF fileMIT ICATICAT Safety, Reliability, Certification, Maintenance Prof. R. John Hansman MIT International Center for Air Transportation

MIT ICAT

MIT ICAT Transition training / CCQ

100%

Full Transition Training

A330/A340to

A320

A330 to

A340

A320 to

A340

A320 to

A330

A340 to

A330

25 days

9 days 8 days 8 days 3 days 1 day