sanity, insanity

Click here to load reader

Post on 16-Jan-2015




5 download

Embed Size (px)




  • 1. Sanity, Insanityand Common Sense written by:Rick Suarez, Ph.D.Roger C. Mills, Ph.D.Darlene Stewart, M.S. Review by: Amy Romanus

2. Albert Einsteinonce stated

  • The world we have made as the result of the level of thinking we have done thus far, creates problems we cannot solve at the same level at which we created them.

3. Life as a perception..

  • Originates in thought.
  • Human beings live in the reality of their own thought-created perceptions.
  • Life is lived from the inside out rather than the outside in.

4. Beyond a specific realm of details lies a deeper understanding

  • Realizing the principle of what the mind is and how it functions to generate individual and cultural realities made up of specific details, beliefs, values, opinions, attitudes, perceptions and behaviors.

5. This new tool

  • Is not an external device, belief system, or ritual, but a realization of an understanding that exists at a deeper level of consciousness.. a consciousness that is as accessible as the air we breathe.

6. There is a way to understand.

  • The complete range of human experiences which include not only problems, but also states of happiness or mental health.

7. There are principles

  • That have held consistently across the entire range of human experience.

8. Like the principlesof mathematics.........

  • These principles impersonally describe a function and the impact of that function on a system of experiential variables.

9. Four Principles of Human Psychological Functioning

  • 1. The capability of each human being to formulate thought and the thoughtsystem that each human being has created.
  • 2. The separate reality of individual differences that every unique thought system creates.
  • 3. The capability of human beings to understand the nature of their own psychological functioning.
  • 4. Feelings and emotions as indicators of the quality and direction of human psychological functioning.

10. Principle One:A Human being has the capacity to think and what that person thinks has the power to shape ones personal reality.

  • Thought is the dimension that determines the quality of our experience at any given time.
  • The contents of our thoughts (beliefs, values, theories, and assumptions) are an effect of the fact that we are thinking.

11. The Common Denominator

  • is every human beings ability to think which underlies all the content of what is thought about.
  • Cannot exist at the level of thought content because no two people have the same thought content; So, content is a variable.
  • The ability to think enables the individual to create a variety of content.

12. The Thought System

  • Our ability to think facilitates storing and developing a personal thought system.
  • This system is a sophisticated, interwoven network of habitual thought patterns, that interpret our experience.
  • This system includes concepts, judgments, attitudes, opinions, assumptions, beliefs and expectations.

13. A bundle of associations

  • Like a computer stores bits of data we use this thought system as a basis for interpreting our experience in the present from the perspective of our experience in the past.
  • Past experiences exist in the present in the form of thoughts.
  • Thoughts facilitate navigation by storing contents such as our address and phone number so that we can recall it when we need it.

14. Central Themed Thoughts

  • are called beliefs and there is a unique interdependence and logical connection among the thoughts or beliefs.
  • Beliefs result in certainperceptions and behaviorswhich, in turn, will elicit aparticular response.

15. Example If a person believes that someone of another race cannot be trusted.

  • The person will perceive the situation in a way that conforms with and validates their system of thinking. So their belief will be validated in the external situation.
  • THUSA person who believesthat someone of another racecannot be trusted is a person who will never experience someone from another race that one can trust.

16. The Experience

  • That comes out of our separate reality is real to us regardless of how non-existent they may be to others, or how non-existent they are in fact.
  • There is a direct connection between personal beliefs and personal experiences.

17. A Thought System is

  • A perceptual filter through which people screen and interpret all incoming data, as perception is based on interpretation.
  • The content of thoughtbecomes the perceptualfilter through whichwe screen events, situationsand people to create ourmoment to moment reality.

18. Because, we have a thought system

  • To one degree or another we all unconsciously interpret our experience to mean what it has meant to us in the past .
  • So, we continuallycontaminate thepresent with ourmemories of the past.
  • We innocently believe thatour thinkingis TRUTH with a capital T and the world exists as we personally interpret it.

19. Each Human Being has the capacity to take a thought - created world and bring it to life.

  • Thought produces reality that becomes our experience.
  • We have thoughts about people, objects and events.

20. We Assume.

  • That our thoughts are fairly reliable descriptions of the thing they represent
  • But, this is notalways the case.

21. On Being Sane in Insane Places(1973)

  • Brilliantly demonstrated how easily a misperception of reality could be shaped by even Doctors misdiagnosing (psuedopatients) as having a mental illness a type II error.
  • Even more interesting ishow easily the misperceptionof reality illustrated in thisexperiment could be reshapedinto an opposite misperception..a type I error.

22. On Being Sane in Insane Places(1973)

  • A follow-up experiment was carried out among the staff of a research and teaching hospital, who doubted that such errors could occur at their hospital.
  • To test the possibility, thepsychiatric staff wasinformed that during thenext three months.. one or more pseudopatients would try to gain admission to their hospital.

23. The Result

  • Out of 193 patients admitted for psychiatric treatment.
  • 41 were judged with a high level of confidence to be pseudopatients by at least one staff member.
  • 23 patients were suspected of being pseudopatients by at least one psychiatrist.
  • 19 patients were suspected of being pseudopatients by one psychiatrist and one staff member.

24. What is interesting about these results?

  • The experimenters never sent any pseudopatients to the hospital.
  • The only thing that was sent wasa thought (an expectation)and the pseudopatientssuddenly appeared.

25. This characteristic of a thought system..

  • Exists to point out that the acceptance of a new idea is limited to, and affected by, the existing content.
  • A system of thought willreshape the new idea toconform to the context ofwhat is already accepted.
  • If this new idea is not compatible to existing beliefs, that new idea will be attacked or disregarded.

26. Thus, the key to the solution is....

  • To realize that thinking is avoluntaryfunction, it is something that we do.
  • Thoughts have no life of their own, separate and apart from the thinker.
  • To understand this wemust make the distinctionbetween the contentof thinking and the
  • capability to think.

27. Common Denominator Revisited

  • Again, theabilityto think is the common denominator ( Independent Variable ) because that is what gives the human being the power to formulatecontentor details of what is thought about ( Dependent Variable ).
  • Our reality is self-createdand we have the power tochange that reality bycontinuing, dropping orsustaining a pattern ofthoughts that hold togetherthat reality.

28. The Existence of Thought Systems

  • Is revealed by perceptions, feelings, and behaviors that result from it.
  • When human beings do notrecognize the voluntarynature of their ability toselectively utilize their ownthought system, they have no choice but to unconsciously function within the limits of their thought system.

29. Unconsciously Living Within the Limits of A Past Thought System

  • Means that an individual will perceive life in the form dictated by the content of his or her past without ever realizing what is behind his or her experience in the present.

30. When a Individual is Conscious of What a Thought System Is

  • One can more appropriately utilize the information within it as he or she consider necessary.
  • So the activated thought system will determine exactly what an individual is experiencing at any given moment.

31. T