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Sarbajanain Durga Puja Kali Puja and Diwali Celebrations 2005 ORGANISED BY WALES PUJA COMMITTEE Cardiff, Wales Registered Charity No. 1050138

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Page 1: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Sarbajanain Durga Puja Kali Puja and Diwali Celebrations



Registered Charity No. 1050138

Page 2: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali
Page 3: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Wales Puja


Welcomes you to the Festivities of


(8– 12 OCTOBER 2005)

Kali Puja

(Tuesday 1st. November 2005)



(Saturday 5th

. November 2005)



CF83 2PE

For further Information visit:


Page 4: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali


SASHTHI & BODHAN Saturday 8 October 2005

Puja, Prasad 6.30 – 9.30 pm

MAHA SAPTAMI Sunday 9 October 2005

Puja & Anjali 11.30 am – 1.30pm

Prasad & Bhog 1.30 – 2.30pm

Arati & Refreshments 7.30 – 9.30pm

MAHA ASHTAMI Monday 10 October 2005

Puja & Anjali 10.30 – 12.30pm

Prasad & Bhog 1.00 – 2pm

Arati & Refreshments 7.30 – 9.30pm

MAHA NAVAMI Tuesday 11 October 2005

Puja & Anjali 11.30 – 1.30pm

Prasad & Bhog 1.30 – 2.30pm

Arati & Refreshments 7.30 – 9.30pm

DASHAMI & VISARJAN Wednesday 12 October 2005

Puja & Arati 10.30am – 12.30pm

Visarjan 12.30 – 1.30pm

Prasad & Bhog 1.30 – 2.30pm


TUESDAY 11 OCT. 2005 8.30 – 9.30 AM


WEDNESDAY 12 OCTOBER 2005 7.30 – 10.00PM

Refreshments available

Page 5: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Indian Mela DVD presentation during the day.




BHOG & VISARJAN 9.30 – 10.30pm

Please bring your friends and family as there will be a small fire work as well during the evening



th. NOVEMBER 2005

7.30pm – LATE


Food Included, Bar facilities


Adults: £10.00

Children (5-15) £5.00

Under 5’s Free

Book Your Ticket to avoid disappointment

Dr Nath 029 20 484498

Dr Das 029 20 563356

Page 6: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Dr Mukherjee 029 20 736619

Mr Kundu 029 20 419406

Dr Raha 01656 768327


CHAIRPERSON Dr Ashok Mukherjee


SECRETARY Dr S Guha-Niyogi



Dr Angshuman Mukherjee


Mrs A Narayan


Mrs I Haldar


Dr P Banerjee Dr C Banerjee Mr S Bhowmick Mrs M Bhowmick

Mrs R Choudhury Dr S Das Dr R Dutta Dr A Haldar

Mr T K Kar Mr D K Kundu Dr R Majumdar (Hon.) Mrs S Nath

Mrs J Majumdar (Hon) Dr M L Nath Mrs M Mukherjee Dr R D Narayan

Mr S K Palit Dr H V Shah Dr R Sinha-Ray Mrs B Sinha Ray

Mr Kingshuk Nath Mrs S Basak Mrs S Sharma Dr A Dutta

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October 2005 with its early shivers heralds the coming of winter and with it, the long awaited Durga Puja It

has taken a full one year for us to congregate and celebrate the occasion together. Let us therefore enjoy the

occasion and look forward to many more in the future.

We from Wales Puja Committee take this opportunity to welcome you all and thank you for your relentless

support over the many years. We are delighted that you all attend our functions despite your personal

hardships. Your efforts make it worth our while, giving wings to our thoughts and shapes to our dreams to try

and create an environment so close and important to our lives. I seriously hope that we have been able to

achieve this. Keep your supports coming and we will come up with the rest!

As you may know, our agenda is not merely conducting religious and social functions, but also, contributing

to the host community in a very big way. Our yearly programmes include cross community ventures in which

we make financial contributions to the needy and promote racial integration through social events.

We are very large group and have functioned an exemplary fashion for over 33 years in South Wales. Our

office bearers and members put in selfless effort, looking into and caring for every detail that makes our

committee truly democratic. I would like to thank and congratulate all.

Our especial thanks and respectful salutations go to Dr Acharya, Mr Misra and Mr Chatterjee for conducting

our Pujas with divine devotion. Our thanks also to the management of Penyrheol Community centre for

allowing us to avail their facilities over the years.

On a sad note I wish to convey our condolences to the friends and family of MS Christine Mackay who sadly

passed away two months ago in Cardiff. She was an active member and a dear friend of Wales Puja


And finally, as always we welcome your suggestions and value your opinions with regards the functioning of

our committee.

Wishing you all the very best on the occasion of Dusherra.

Dr Ashok Mukherjee

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SECRETARY’S REPORT Once again we are preparing to celebrate our annual festival of Durga Puja followed by Kali Puja and Light Festival of Diwali at Penyrheol community Centre at Caerphilly. Presence of you and your family and friends during the celebrations makes the effort worthwhile. To introduce our cultural heritage to the next generation and to sustain continuity, we need your support not only by your presence during the festivals but also by participating in our ongoing events each year. Together what we could achieve was see during the Indian Mela on 25th. June 2005 in St. David’s Hall, Cardiff. In my previous report I mentioned that we were invited to take part in the centenary celebrations of the City of Cardiff. Dr Sandip Raha led the team, members masterminded endless tasks, and the result was a magnificent show of Colour, music, dance, art, culinary diversity of the Indian subcontinent, an achievement we can be proud of. We thank all those who helped WPC by participating in all sorts of activities. We needed and succeeded to deliver a very gallant show of colour and culture of the subcontinent, which was exhibited by the both professional and amateur performers in the MELA. The natural disaster caused by tsunami in South East Asia touched all our soul, the scale of loss of human life and devastation was not seen before in the modern time. Wales Puja Committee donated £500 for relief works in South East India. Published itinerary of the Puja festivals may serve as a helpful guide for your diary to join our events. I on behalf of Wales Puja Committee wish to thank all our patrons for their continued support including Karda for keeping our Protima, Peter Goodridge for transportation of Protima and Pharmaceuticals Representatives who support financially during Durga Puja by providing stands. I would like to conclude by conveying our sincere thanks to our priests, all the members of Puja Committee and the management of Penyrheol community centre for their continued support. Best wishes and Subho Vijoya Dr Sakti Guha–Niyogi

Page 9: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali


Ragmala Painting of Ragini Asawari (reproduction of Mewar School)

The music of India is one of the oldest unbroken traditions in the world, whose origins stem from a past shrouded in

mystery, with the paucity of written historical evidence, prior to the 13th

century. It has survived centuries, however, by

word of mouth, as well as the legends that had grown over the centuries to have a seal on an enduring musical legacy.

There are differing views on the creation of “sangeet” which is the basis for Indian music. The origins of the Indian music

go back to the days of Vedas, the holy scriptures of the Hindus. According to one legend, it was created by Lord Bramha or

by his strength Debi Saraswati and spread by their son Narad. According to another it had been created by Lord Shiva. For

centuries it was agreed that the “sangeet” was a gift from the gods for the mankind living in the Indian sub-continent. From

the ancient book Sangeet Damodor we came to know that when Lord Krishna was playing flute in Brindavan, 16,000

Gopis gathered and each sang a song and each song became either a rag or a ragini, depending on the gender. Therefore

16,000 rags and raginis were created at the time. But over the centuries, their numbers eventually dwindled down to only

6 rags and 36 raginis. Hundreds of rags and raginis were created with the help of these rags and raginis, many of which

have become obsolete. There are today approximately 120-150 rags in use. When one follows the paradigm of the creation

of rags and raginis, it can be seen that they were inspired by the names of the Gods and Goddesses of the Hindu pantheon

and also crossed the cultural boundaries by including visual art forms for their depictions (as seen in the painting at the top

of this article).

The advent of modern historical and cultural research has also given us a good perspective on the evolution of Indian

classical music. This has shown that Indian music has developed within a very complex interaction between different

peoples of different races and cultures. At the end of the 13th

century we saw a further amalgamation of cultural ideologies

with the arrival of Islam. Amir Khusrau (1253-1325 AD), the 12th

century Indo-Persian poet and musician associated with

the royal courts of Delhi Sultanate created the Khayal form of north Indian classical music by modifying the style of

Dhrupad and by adding Persian melody and beat (Parsi Gazal) to it. Probably Khayal originated from Qawwalis that he

created on the lines of Bhajans. Khusrau also created the musical instrument 3- string Sitar. Some historians believe that

he also invented Tabla. We also came to know of great Mian Tansen (1520-1589 AD) from the royal court (durbar) of

Akbar, the Mugal Emperor of India, who created rags like Darbari Kanara, Mian- Ki- Malhar, Kalabati, etc.

The present system of Indian music is based upon two important pillars: rag and tal. Rag is the melodic form while tal is

the rhythmic. Rag may be roughly equated with the Western term mode or scale. There is a system of seven notes

(sa,re,ga,ma,pa,dha,ni,sa) which is similar to the western arrangement of Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti. The interpretation of

the rag and the tal is not the same all over India.

Today, there are two major traditions of classical music, that of the north Indian and the south Indian traditions. Both

systems are fundamentally similar but differ in nomenclature and performance practice.

The Hindi word "rag" is derived from the Sanskrit "raga" which means "colour, or passion". It is linked to the Sanskrit

word "ranj" which means "to colour". Therefore rag may be thought of as an acoustic method of colouring the mind of the

listener with an emotion. It has specific characteristics.

There must be the notes of the rag. They are called the swar. There must also be a modal structure. This is called that in

North Indian music and mela in south Indian carnatic music. There is also the jati. Jati is the number of notes used in the

rag. There must also be the ascending or arohana and descending or avarohana structure. Rags have also traditionally

been attributed to particular times of the day. They have also been engendered into families of male and female rags.

Page 10: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

After this initial introduction I would like to endeavor into describing few of my favourite rags which have been adopted

into the modern day Bollywood film music:



This is an old rag. It is characterized by the use of Komal Re and Komal Ni. This is an early morning rag. Ahir Nhairav is

very well known through old film songs such as "Pucho Na Kaise" and "Meri Bina Tum Bin Roye Sajana".



Rag Asawari is considered to be the fundamental rag in Asawari that. One common song in this rag is "Meri Yad Me Tum

Na Ansu Bahana". Asawari is a morning rag. It is Audav - Sampurna due to the omission of the Ga and Ni in the

ascending structure.



This rag is the main representative of Bhairavi That. It has traditionally been performed in the early morning hours.

However, due to the fact that performances lasted all night, it has now become common to consider Bhairavi to be the

finale. Today this rag is performed at any time provided it is the concluding piece. A few common songs in this rag are,

"Babul Mora Naihar Chutohe Jai", "Jyot Se Jyot Jagate Chalo", and "Laga Chunari Me Dag Chupaun Kaise".



This rag is known by several names; Kalyan, Iman, Eman, or Yaman. Strangely enough, Yaman Kalyan is a different rag.

Kalyan is very popular and some commonly known examples of songs in this rag are "Ansu Bhari Hai Jai Jivan Ki

Rahen", "Ja Re Badara Bairi Ja Re" and "Jiya Le Gayo Re Mora Sanvariaya". Yaman is a sampurna rag which is

performed in the first part of the night.



This rag is one of the most common in Indian music. Although it is used in the classical styles, its romantic character

makes it much more appropriate to the semi-classical and lighter styles. It is traditionally ascribed to the second part of the

night. "Kuch To Log kahenge" and "Nazar Lagi Raja Tore Bungal Par", are two well known examples of common songs

in this rag.



Rag Kafi is the primary rag in Kafi That. One common song in this rag is "Biraj Me, Holi Khelat Nand Lal". It is a

sampurna-sampurna rag that is very straightforward in its execution.


There can be no doubt that Darbari Kanara is one of the most popular rags in the entire North Indian system of classical

music. It is a night time rag. It is said to have been invented by Tansen who sang in the durbar (royal court) of the

Emperor Akbar, hence the name Darbari Kanara. A few common film songs are "Ghunghat Ke Pat Khol Re Tohe Piya

Milenge", "Jhana Jhanak Tori Baje Payaliaya".

Banani Sinha Ray

(Sangeet Provakar & Sangeet Bisharad)

Page 11: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Shaadi Mubarak

Love; Life; Liberty;

Gifts received at birth, taken for granted and given away at ease.

The sounds of the shennai are as awe inspiring as they are entertaining.

Thank god summer has passed! One more June wedding, and I was ready to use the “thoughtfully” provided

disposable camera, on parts of my anatomy that no one would want to frame.

Oh how the weak have fallen… I have this year watched many of my friend’s line up at the mandap. Trying

their hardest to hide the imprint of fear on their face, proclaiming in secret how this won’t change them. But it

does and two weeks later, the dust has settled, the honeymoon’s over, and the photographers been paid.

Suddenly the trips to East Asia, the ideas of joining MSF, the new business plans are all a life time ago. All they

talk about is the latest greatest sale at homebase and how Ikea furniture, though practical may not suit the

eclectic vibrancy of their new semi.

A month later you’re invited to dinner, with a dining table! And placemats! Surprising you see because only a

few months ago, the distinguished gentleman sitting opposite, was finishing of the remains of your kebab. I

wonder if his wife knows that story.

Another month passes, and though it hasn’t been that long, you’re back for dinner. Though the placemats are

the same you’ve noticed a distinct change in the quality of the food. Then, to you horror, you discoverer he’s

made most of it himself! You’re forced to examine his face, the once youthful exuberance has long faded, those

wrinkles aren’t laughter lines and I’m sure the ball and chain has put on weight.

So the change is in full swing. The once helpful, bend over backwards, single friends have become a burden. As

in many Hitchcock movies the monster appears from the shadows, not one but two. From now on until your

demise, or worse, the following statement will frame your life. We know a nice single girl (she isn’t nice,

recently annulled, and there’s only a fifty percent chance she’s a girl). What you have before you is the match

making monster from hell. It is true, misery loves company!

Perhaps they are happy in their new circumstance, perhaps theirs is something to be envied, or perhaps they’re

delusional and the three hours of Sanskrit they sat through caused something in their head to break.

Perhaps I shouldn’t be so despondent, June is now many months away… and the shennai, well it doesn’t sound

that bad!

Angshuman Mukherjee

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Sindhur Khela and Visarjan Pictures from 2004

On The Tug Boat – Cardiff Ba

Ready Steady and Visharjan

Page 13: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Stuffed Courgette with Aubergine sauce.

Ingredient :

6 courgettes, 1 medium size aubergine, 1/2 cup phool makhanee, 2 tbl.spoons of poppyseeds, 1 tbl.

spoon mustard seeds, 1 tomato, 1/2 tea spoon heeng, 1/2 tea spoon haldi,2 tea spoons grated ginger, 2

tea spoons chopped green chillies, 3 tbl spoons plain flour, oil for shallow fry and for making sauce,

salt to taste.

Roast aubergine, remove outer skin. Wash courgettes,top and tail and cut into lengthways,scoopout the

pulp and save them for stuffing. Grind poppy and mustard seeds..

Stuff courgette shells with mixture of phool makhanee,poppy and mustard, half of ginger,chillies,salt

and courgette pulp.

Dip stuffed courgettes in batter made with flour, salt and water. Shallow fry. Arrange them in oven

proof dish.Put 3tbl spoons oil in the pan, when hot temper with heeng, add mashed roasted

aubergine,chopped tomato, grated ginger, chopped chillies, haldi and salt. Keep stirring over low heat

until oil start to seperate. Add cup of water,bring to boil and pour over arranged courgettes. Cook in

oven for 25 min in medium heat.

Serve with rice or nun.

Ila Haldar

Page 14: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali



• Mince Meat 250gm Garlic Paste 1 teaspoon

• Garlic paste 1 Teaspoon (tsf) Ginger paste 1 tsf

• Chilli Paste 1 tsf Turmeric Powder ½ tsf

• Salt ½ tsf Garam masala powder ½ tsf

• Oil 1 tsf Roasted Cumin powder ½ tsf

• Corn Flour 1 tsf Oil 2 tsf

Cashew Nuts

Double cream 1 ½ cup

Green Chillies

Coriander Leaves

Tomato 1

Onions 2

Instructions: To make the kofta, mix all the ingredients into the mince meat and then make small balls. Shallow fry

these until they are brown. Simple as that!

Before you make the gravy, boil the two onions to make a paste and chop and fry the cashews. For the

gravy, heat oil or ghee in a frying pan and add the onion, chilli, and garlic paste to it. Fry until the oil

separates. Now chop and add the tomatoes, fry these until they’re soft. Next add the double cream

(don’t worry the calories are worth it) and salt to taste. Now sit back and simmer gently… enjoy the


When off the stove, sprinkle with garam masala, roasted cumin, coriander, chopped green chillies, and

the cashew nuts.

The next step is probably the most difficult; now that it’s made you’ll have to decide whether you

want to share.

From the kitchen of :

Mahua Mukherjee

Cook extraordinaire

Quality assured

Page 15: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

PATUAs (Folk-Painters) from Bengal

Courtesy: Late Christine Mackay in the picture

In Memory of Christine Mackay 1942 --- 2005 Christine Mackay was a close friend and an active member of Wales Puja Committee. She was the

main inspiration behind CREATING DURGA – THE ART OF HINDU IMAGE MAKING project

which we commissioned in Cardiff in 2003. She actively helped our committee to organise displays of

our Durga image in the National Museum of Wales in 2001 and 2003 to raise awareness of our

activities amongst the local population. She retired as the chief conservationist from the National

Museum of Wales in September 2004 and spent her first retirement vacation in India during Durga

Puja in 2004 experiencing the festivities in Kolkata.

On behalf of the Calcutta Tercentenary Trust Christine went out to Calcutta for the first time in 1994.

Her commitment was to restore the weather ravaged paintings at the city’s Victoria Memorial. She

loved India and its rich cultural heritage and especially art and crafts like Patas, Kalighat paintings

(which she resurrected in the National Museum of Wales). During numerous trips to India she

collected many rich cultural artifacts and displayed them proudly in her house in Cardiff. I had the

privilege of knowing her closely and after a brave fight against cancer she died peacefully in the

University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff.

We will miss her immensely and her guidance and help in many future projects of our Puja committee.

Compiled by Dr Sandip Raha

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Our Saraswati Puja by Mr Misra

Page 17: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali


Wedding Sarees Childrenwear

Salwar Fabric for

Kameez Asian & African

Hall Mark 22 ct Gold Jewellery


10 am – 6 pm Mon – Sat 12 -5 pm Sunday

85 Tudor Street, Riverside, Cardiff

Tel: 029 203444527

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Saree – Salwar Kameez

Lehenga Chandeliers Jewellery Paintings

Decorative Frames Ornaments

Much Much more! And with That

Different Touch

1a Leckwith Road, Canton – Cardiff

Tel: 029 20341155 Mob: 07968 437970

Open 10 am – 6 pm ( Sunday Closed)

SHAHAN Halal Food Store

Fresh Produce Vegetables Halal Meat Imported directly from Bangladesh Fish Great Variety of Spices

Specialist Suppliers Keema of Meat & Kheema to Restaurants & Takeaways

24 Ninian Park Road, Riverside, Cardiff Tel: 029 20399260

Page 19: Sarbajanain Durga Puja - Wales PUJA · Wales Puja committee Welcomes you to the Festivities of DURGA PUJA (8– 12 OCTOBER 2005) Kali

Different Forms of Durga

As the ten-armed Goddess, Goddess Durga presents a radiantly beautiful form that is bewitching to

behold. That special form is somehow simultaneously wrathful and benign and transmits profound spiritual

teachings in an exacting manner. The nine-day period from the new moon day to the ninth day of Ashvina

is considered the most auspicious time of the Hindu Calendar and is hence the most celebrated time of

the year as Durga Puja. The nine different forms of Devi are worshiped over the nine days. These are the

most popular forms under which she is worshiped:

Durga Shailputri (Daughter of Mountain)

She is a daughter of Himalaya and first among nine Durgas. In previous birth she was the daughter of

Daksha. Her name was Sati - Bhavani. I.e. the wife of Lord Shiva. Once Daksha had organized a big Yagna

and did not invite Shiva. But Sati being obstinate, reached there. Thereupon Daksha insulted Shiva. Sati

could not tolerate the insult of husband and burnt herself in the fire of Yagna. In other birth she became

the daughter of Himalaya in the name of Parvati - Hemvati and got married with Shiva. As per Upanishad

she had torn and the egotism of Indra, etc. Devtas. Being ashamed they bowed and prayed that, "In fact,

thou are Shakti, we all - Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are capable by getting Shakti from you."


The second Durga Shakti is Brahmacharini. Brahma that is who observes penance (tapa) and good conduct.

Here "Brahma" means "Tapa". The idol of this Goddess is very gorgeous. There is rosary in her right hand

and Kamandal in left hand. She is full with merriment. One story is famous about her. In previous birth

she was Parvati Hemavati the daughter of Himvan. Once when she was busy in games with her friends.

Naradaji came to her and predicted seeing her Palm-lines that, "You will get married with a naked-terrible

'Bhole baba' who was with you in the form of Sati, the daughter of Daksha in previous birth. But now you

have to perform penance for him." There upon Parvati told her mother Menaka that she would marry none

except Shambhu, otherwise she would remain unmarried. Saying this she went to observe penance. That is

why her name is famous as tapacharini - Brahmacharini. From that time her name Uma became familiar.


The name of third Shakti is Chandraghanta. There is a half-circular moon in her forehead. She is charmful

and bright. She is Golden color. She has three eyes and ten hands holding with ten types of swords - etc.

weapons and arrows etc. She is seated on Lion and ready for going in war to fight. She is unprecedented

image of bravery. The frightful sound of her bell terrifies all the villains, demons and danavas.

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Name of fourth Durga is Kushmanda. The Shakti creates egg, i.e. Universe by mere laughing .She resides

in solar systems. She shines brightly in all the ten directions like Sun. She has eight hands. Seven types of

weapons are shining in her seven hands. Rosary is in her right hand. She seems brilliant riding on Lion. She

likes the offerings of "Kumhde." Therefore her name "Kushmanda" has become famous.

Skanda Mata Fifth name of Durga is "Skanda Mata". The daughter of Himalaya, after observing penance got married

with Shiva. She had a son named "Skanda." Skanda is a leader of the army of Gods. Skanda Mata is a deity

of fire. Skanda is seated in her lap. She has three eyes and four hands. She is white and seated on a lotus.


Sixth Durga is Katyayani. The son of "Kat" as "Katya". Rishi Katyayan born in this "Katya" lineage.

Katyayan had observed penance with a desire to get paramba as his daughter. As a result she took birth

as a daughter of Katyayan. Therefore her name is "Katyayani”. She has three eyes and eight hands. These

are eight types of weapons missiles in her seven hands. Her vehicle is Lion.


Seventh Durga is Kalratri. She is black like night. Durga hairs are unlocked. She has put on necklaces

shining like lightening. She has three eyes which are round like universe. Her eyes are bright.

Thousands of flames of fire come out while respiring from nose. She rides on donkey. There is sharp

sword in her right hand. Her lower hand is in blessing mood. The burning torch (mashal) is in her left

hand and her lower left hand is in fearless style, by which she makes her devotees fearless. Being

auspicious she is called "Shubhamkari."

Maha Gauri

The Eighth Durga is "Maha Gauri." She is as white as a conch, moon and Jasmine. She is of eight

years old. Her clothes and ornaments are white and clean. She has three eyes. She rides on bull She

has four hands. The above left hand is in "Fearless - Mudra" and lower left hand holds "Trishul." The

above right hand has tambourine and lower right hand is in blessing style. She is calm and peaceful

and exists in peaceful style. It is said that when the body of Gauri became dirty due to dust and

earth while observing penance, Shiva makes it clean with the waters of Gangas. Then her body

became bright like lightening. There fore, she is known as "Maha Gauri”.


Ninth Durga us Siddhidatri. There are eight Siddhis, they are- Anima, Mahima, Garima, Laghima,

Prapti, Prakamya, Iishitva & Vashitva. Maha Shakti gives all these Siddhies. It is said in "Devipuran"

that the Supreme God Shiv got all these Siddhies by worshipping Maha Shakti. With her gratitude

the half body of Shiv has became of Goddess and there fore his name "Ardhanarishvar" has became

famous. The Goddess drives on Lion. She has four hands and looks pleased. This form of Durga is

worshiped by all Gods, Rishis-Munis, Siddhas, Yogis, Sadhakas and devotees for attaining the best

religious asset.

Compiled by Sandip Raha

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To What Extent was Indian Independence a Direct Result of World War Two?

Is it very difficult to say whether India gained its independence from Britain hi 1947 as a result of World War Two? As although

the war had a great impact on Britain's capacity to continue to act as a front rank imperial power, the contribution of a

growing powerful and vocal Indian national movement must not be put to the sidelines. Before the War, India's political

awareness had already been awakened and there was a desire to re-establish its identity.

The social and economical problems caused by the War, brought to the fore the problems of an ageing empire whose cracks had

begun to show. In a climate of shrinking resources, post-war Britain took a conscious decision to remove itself from its

responsibilities in India, to focus on regions that were, as a result of the war, more vital to its global power and prestige, such as the

oil rich middle east. By 1946 Britain owed India more than £1,300 million as a result of India becoming a vital source of men,

money and war materials. Expenses for defending the colony during the war from the invading Japanese soared during 1944-5

and between 1941 and 1946 India provided £286.5 million worth of textiles, clothing and ordinance for the war. Britain could

no longer assume that India would provide a protected market for British goods as tariff policy had been controlled in India

before the war, and could not be reversed. As Lord Wavell the Viceroy of India said to Winston Churchill in 1944, “The most

serious risk of all is that India after the war will become a running sore which will sap the strength of the British Empire”.

The war badly affected the Indian population, as by 1940 it had resulted in rampaging inflation and a serious shortage of

essential commodities such as food. Rationing allocated by the authorities sentenced people to dire hardship when the

system collapsed such as in Bengal in 1943. These were the words of Lord Wavell about the Bengal famine-“one of the greatest

disasters that has befallen any people under British rule”. Incidents such as these caused irreparable damage to the credibility of

British rule.

This increased the growing fear within the ‘Raj’ that they could no longer trust the 'steel' with which they ruled. The army and

the police were predominantly manned by Indians and the War caused many numbers of the police force to resign and join the

army, which had left the police services in some areas seriously degrade leaving the ‘Raj’ exposed. Meanwhile the threat of Japan

as well as reports that many Indians felt that the Japanese were coming solely to liberate them from colonial rule, were a

further factor which had shaken British minds.

The emergence of the Indian National Army, where prisoners captured by the Japanese fought against the British, was a special

case of disaffection mainly due to the fact that disaffection was scarce. The INA was organised by Netaji Subhas Chandra

Bose who had fled Bengal in 1941 to join the axis. Although the INA did little damage, the fact that thousands of Indian soldiers

had seen fit to renounce their oath of allegiance, raised serious doubts about whether the military could be relied upon to

enforce British imperial authority. Indian and American scholars generally accept the view that INA’s role in Indian

independence was vital, particularly the political impact of the Delhi trials.

It was after the war, however, that the loyalty of the police and troops came to be seriously doubted, with several strikes such as

in 1946, there were police strikes in Bihar and Madras. For many service conditions, communal strife as a result of the harsh

life, and that many were suffering as a result of the war, were the real causes for complain.

The effects of the war were also the fact that it brought the Labour Party in Britain into government in 1945 following a

landslide victory in the general elections, with the electorate drawn to the party’s claims in their manifesto, of providing

employment and reviving Britain's war torn economy. There is the argument that the war actually delayed India from gaining

its independence. The leaders of the opposition Labour party were willing to pass a comprehensive independence bill if they

were able to get into power in 1938. The arrival of war prevented this from happening. However, this does

not explain the fact that in the Labour party's 1945 manifesto it stressed a global role for Britain and the maintenance of her


National unrest in India had been growing before the war. The mid-nineteenth century saw the emergence of a considerable

body of more well-educated Indians, often studying in Britain. On the basis that governments survive by providing the needs of

their citizens, the ‘Raj’ failed to satisfy this group with high taxation and the fact that writers such as William Digby suggesting

that the tax money was not being well spent. The idea of Nationalism had spread throughout the world, and these educated groups

in India saw that it was essential to create a credible organisation to politically oppose the ‘Raj’. The Indian National Congress

was formed in 1885. Although initially only a middle class party, by 1938 it had four and a half million paying members.

After 1920, the Congress demanded independence because it had no faith in continual British declarations of democratic

intent. The Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 introduced representative institutions in the provinces. However, they

empowered the British Viceroy to veto any legislation introduced as a result of provincial legislatures which in the eyes of

Indian Nationalists did not represent a democratic system. Jawaharlal Nehru even described it as 'a charter of bondage'.

To counter the Congress demand for liberty, the British sought the support of politically and socially conservative Indians such

as landlords, princes and the All India Muslim League. The Congress strategy to undermine any imperial claim to legitimacy was

to build up a democratic organisation with elected office bearers, open to all Indians, and the civil disobedience movements

took its message to the far flung countryside.

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Congress's electioneering machine was vital. It was the one party which had accumulated skills of mass propaganda and was

highly professional in their approach, directly appealing to the electorate, and sometimes promising considerations in return for

votes and assistance. Also the Congress manifesto was often modified by local men to suit local conditions. With each seat

contested, about 4000 Rupees were spent which made it imperative that Congress chose candidates that could finance

themselves. By contrast opposing parties were poorly organised and funded, such as the Justice Party in Madras, which relied

on old methods of electioneering and failed to gain enough popularity to offer ordinary people any viable alternative. In the

provincial elections held in 1936-7, the mass support enjoyed by the Congress enabled it to rout conservative landlords. By

1939 the spread of the Nationalist message rendered the loyalist princes politically ineffectual. As the legitimacy of Congress as

a potential ruling party increased in public mind, for many who chose to be active in politics, Congress became the inevitable

political environment in which they operated.

Many of the Congress candidates in the 1937 elections joined from other political parties. The party organised a campaign of

mass protest, law-breaking and non-payment of taxes under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi. On the 26 January 1930, huge

crowds gathered in cities and towns to show support for an ultimatum issued to the government to remove the pernicious salt tax

and joined the 'Salt march'. This made the position of Congress look reasonable to the world. This was the second campaign to

try and topple the ‘Raj’ following an initial campaign of peaceful non-cooperation in 1922, where there was a boycott of British

goods, and of government schools, colleges, law courts and legislatures. Non-cooperation began as Gandhi lost faith in the

British Empire, following the Amritsar massacre and British treatment of Turkey following the First World War, which in

the eyes of Muslims showed British duplicity. Gandhi's expectation that the ‘Raj’ would wither away didn't come into being. In

his fear of the prospect of the movement falling into the hands of the mob, he targeted areas of the government where participation

of Indians would not result in confrontations with the police. But by doing this full scale non-cooperation was never reached. An

example of his distaste for mob violence came in February 1922, where just as the first round of civil disobedience was

about to start, he found out about Congress workers in a village who had torched a police station killing 22 constables. As a

result of this, he suspended the entire movement. As he says in a letter to Nehru, “I assure you that if the thing had not been

suspended we would have been leading not a non-violent struggle, but an essentially violent struggle”.

Open opposition to the ‘Raj’ increased the numbers of non-paying supporters for the Congress, and with Gandhi using tactics

called ‘satyagraha’ or ideas of peaceful resistance, brought many more sympathisers. But the congress leaders did not always stop

at peaceful protest and showed a readiness to experiment with more drastic forms of agitation, a mood encapsulated in Gandhi’s

slogan for the Quit India movement of 1942, ' Do or Die'. Violent protests were taken further by the revolutionaries. In 1930,

Bengal extremists killed the District Magistrate of Midnapore when raiding an armoury.

However, the country's nationalist organisations never managed to translate their common anti-imperialism into an unified

campaign for freedom, because they held different conceptions of what a free India should be like, and although Congress gained

respect, both of its campaigns were ultimately outlasted by the ‘Raj’.

Up to the time of World War Two the mood in India was changing. An increase in educated Indians provoked a rethink of

India's nationhood and identity. The subsequent freedom campaigns by organisations such as Congress dispelled a major

argument that India needed to have democracy implemented by the British. Meanwhile, increased pressure on Britain from

America was growing, who had begun to take a keen interest in the topic of Indian Independence. India was still a valuable

commodity to the British and it was unlikely that Britain would have given India its independence until later on in the century.

The Second World War acted as a catalyst and forced Britain to relinquish its colony, as in the end, the priority came to become a

peaceful separation to maintain trade links.

Ricky Sinha Ray

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ACCOUNTS 2004/2005

Expenses Income


Durga Puja 3735.25

Donations 875.00

Kalipuja 439.78

Diwali 1419.50

Saraswati Puja 690.56

Bank Interest 145.15


Durga Puja 4452.95

Hall & Related Charges 591.45

Transport of Protima & Visharjan 592.75

Souvenir 527.00

Fruits,Flowers,Food/Provisions 2389.40

Miscellaneous 352.35

KALI PUJA 659.98

Hall & Related Charges 92.86

Fruits,Flowers & Provisions 481.15

Miscellaneous 85.97

DIWALI 1539.39

Hall & Related Charges 92.86

Entertainment 350.00

Food/Provisions 641.75

Miscellaneous 454.78


Hall &Related Charges 152.86

Fruits,Flowers & Provisions 320.53

Entertainment 150.00

Miscellaneous 291.93


WPC Website 318.42

Donations to Noah's Arc & Tsunami 750.00

Amplifier,Microphone etc 389.99

Indian Mela 2005 901.66

Miscellaneous 35.00

TOTAL 9962.71 7305.24

Surplus/Deficit -2657.47

Balance B/F 10136.00

Balance C/F 7478.53

Cash in Bank 7478.00

Dr Kanti Nath


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This is the centenary year of Banga-Bhanga, the infamous ‘Partition of Bengal’ of 1905. George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquis of Kedleston, the Viceroy and Governor General of India at the time, felt that the Presidency of Bengal, comprising of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, was an administrative nightmare. Particularly when the religious majority population of East Bengal was not getting (he thought) the bliss and bounty of the British Raj. Hence the presidency needed to be cut up into two. The Eastern half, with fifteen districts of the Rajshahi, Dacca and Chittagong divisions was to be joined to Assam to form the new province of ‘East Bengal and Assam’. The Western half of Bengal appended with Bihar and Orissa would form the province of ‘Bengal’. With the authority and power vested in him Curzon did just that in 1905.

Lord Curzon’s sudden concern about administrative difficulty was his camouflage for diffusing the surge of Nationalism in which Bengalee intelligentsia took a leading role. Additional bonus for him was – deepening the religious divide between Hindus and Muslims. Also, getting the Muslims on his side in crushing all united political activities in Bengal. This partition back fired on Curzon, yet in his habitual arrogance Curzon proclaimed – ‘Bengal partition is a settled fact’. The country cried out – ‘We shall unsettle this settled fact’. Political agitation in Bengal by the Bengalees, for the first time in the history of India’s Freedom Movement, adopted new tactics in protesting. In addition to usual political meetings, Hartaals (general strikes), Nagar Samkirtans (large-scale processions, singing patriotic songs), Rakhi-Bandhan (tying of solidarity bands on each others’ wrists), Arandhan (nonpartaking of cooked food as a mark of mourning) and boycotts (shunning all British manufactured goods) were practised. In some quarters armed protest showed its ugly face. All the leading Bengalees took part in this agitation. Rabindranath Tagore was enormously vocal in this agitation. He composed over twenty patriotic songs for the movement. Not only that, he lectured and processed all over Bengal tirelessly, as did many of the Bengalees of all political statures.

This truncated state of Bengal existed for the following six years as did the political unrest in the partitioned Bengal. However, eventually the Raj caved in a limited way. In December 1911 a Royal Proclamation at Delhi Durbar announced that reunification of Bengal was to be granted – without Bihar, Orissa and Assam. The latter were to constitute individual provinces. The Bengalees were jubilant again.

Alas, such jubilation was only to last for a little over three decades. Bengal once again was partitioned in 1947 and the eastern part of Bengal constituted a part of the newly born Muslim country of Pakistan. Eventually, in 1971 East Pakistan became the sovereign country of Bangladesh. Whatever the name acquired by its eastern part, the fact remained that it was the result of Bengal’s partition in 1947. Thus, George Nathaniel Curzon had the last laugh in the matter.

Dr Bishnu P Choudhury

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On 25 June, 2005 Wales Puja Committee organised an Indian Mela at the St. David’s hall, Cardiff. The

event was sponsored by Cardiff 2005(Cardiff city council) to celebrate Cardiff’s city status for 100 years

and as Capital city Wales for 50 years. Mela was inaugurated by His Excellency Sri Kamalesh Sharma,

Indian High Commissioner in the United Kingdom.

There were variety of stalls of food, Jewelleries, Indian Arts & crafts, handmade Indian greeting cards,

mehendi, head massage, Indian tourism to name a few. Chairman of WPC’s welcome address and the

High commissioner’s speech were soon followed by a vibrant and colorful cultural programme.

There were absorbing Folk songs and dance performances Rajasthani, Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi as well

as in English and Welsh. Performances of India dance Wales and Bharatnatyam were particularly

enjoyable. There was also Tabla recital, story telling and comic bytes. The highlight of the daytime

programme was a spectacularly choreographed and very colourful Indian fashion parade by the


Evening programme included an enchanting sitar recital and the performance of the kathak dance was

simply mesmerising. The entire cultural events were compered by Annand Jasani, MBE and the co-

ordinator of the Mela was Dr Sandip Raha.

The entire event was a memorable and a roaring success.

Compiled By Dr Asit Haldar

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Similarities and dissimilarities of Hinduism and Christianity



1. Believe in a one, all pervasive Supreme being, who

is both immanent and transcendent, both creator and

unmanifest reality

2. Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the

world’s most ancient scripture.

These primordial hymns are God’s word and the

Bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion.

3. Hindus believe in endless cycle of creation,

preservation and dissolution of universe

4. Karma, the law of cause and effect by which each

individual creates his / her own destiny by their

thoughts, words and deeds, is the basis of Hindu


5. Reincarnation of the soul, evolving through many

births until all Karmas have been resolved and

moksha, liberation from cycle of rebirth, is

Attained is central to Hiduism. Not a single soul

Will be deprived of this of this destiny.

6. Hindu believe that all life is sacred, to be loved

And revered, and therefore practice ahinsha,

noninjury, in thought, word and deed.

7. Hindu believe that there are divine being in unseen

Worlds. Temple worship, rituals, sacraments and

Personal devotionals create communication with

these devas and Gods.

8. Hindu believe that no religion teaches the only

way to salvation above all others, but all genuine

paths are facets of God’s light, deserving tolerance

and understanding.

9. Hindus believe that an enlighten master, or Satguru

Is essential to know the transcendent absolute, as

are Personal discipline, good conduct, purification,

Pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation and

Surrender in God.

1. Christians believe that the Bible is the uniquely

Inspired and fully trustworthy word of God. It

is the final authority for Christians in matters

of belief and practice, and though it was

written long ago, it continues to speak to

Believers today.

2. Christians believe that world was created once by

the divine will, was corrupted by sin, yet under

God’s providence moves towards final


3. Christians believe in one God in three persons.

He is distinct from his creation, yet involved

With it as its sustainers and redeemer.

4. 4. Christians believe that , through God’s grace

and favour, lost sinners are rescued from guilt,

power and eternal consequences of their evil

Thoughts, words and deeds.

5. Christianity believes that it is appointed for

Human beings to die once and after face judgement.

Those who are called by God and respond to his

grace will have eternal life. Those who persist in

rebellion will be lost eternally.

6. Christians believe that spirit beings inhabit the

Universe, some good and some evil, but worship

is due to God alone.

7. Christians believe that God has given us a clear

Revelation of himself in Jesus and the sacred

Scriptures. He has empowered by his spirit

Prophets, apostles, evangelists and pastors who

are teachers charged to guide us into faith and

Holiness in accordance with his word.

8. Christians believe that life is to be highly esteemed

but that it must subordinated in the service of

Biblical love and justice.

9. Jesus is the God incarnate and therefore, the only

sure path to salvation. Many religions may offer

ethical and spiritual insights, but only Jesus is the

way. The truth and the life.

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