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Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific Method Understanding the World Around Us

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Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific Method. Understanding the World Around Us. Vocabulary Introduction. Observations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true . Quantitative : numbers Qualitative : descriptions that cannot be put in numbers. Vocabulary Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Scientific Method

Scientific Inquiry and the Scientific MethodUnderstanding the World Around UsVocabulary IntroductionObservation (Facts)DefinitionExamplesObservations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true.Quantitative: numbersQualitative: descriptions that cannot be put in numbersVocabulary IntroductionTheoryDefinitionExamplesA time-tested concept that makes predictions about the natural world. Once proposed, it must be tested over again. It may be thrown out or modified.Vocabulary IntroductionLawDefinitionExamplesIf a theory survives many tests it becomes a law. It summarizes observed experimental facts. Vocabulary IntroductionInferringDefinitionExamplesAn explanation or interpretation of observations.Inferences are based on reasoning, not random guessingVocabulary IntroductionPredictionDefinitionExamplesA forecast of what will happen in the futureBased on past evidence or observations. Vocabulary IntroductionObservation(Facts)TheoryLawDefinitionDefinitionDefinitionExamplesExamplesExamplesObservations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true.Quantitative: numbersQualitative: descriptions that cannot be put in numbersA time-tested concept that makes predictions about the natural world. Once proposed, it must be tested over again. It may be thrown out or modified.If a theory survives many tests it becomes a law. It summarizes observed experimental facts. Vocabulary IntroductionInferringPredictionDefinitionDefinitionExamplesExamplesAn explanation or interpretation of observations.Inferences are based on reasoning, not random guessingA forecast of what will happen in the futureBased on past evidence or observations. Steps of Scientific InquiryUses senses to make observations.Makes inferences or predictions based on observations. Research the topicForm a hypothesisDesign a controlled experiment to test the hypothesisPerform the experiment and record dataDraw a conclusion

Hypothesis is AcceptedHypothesis is RejectedGo back and redesign your hypothesisBecomes a TheoryAccepted many times and proven mathematicallyBecomes a LawVariableThe one part of an experiment that is manipulated by the scientistPresent in the experimental group, not present in the control group. Example:If you were testing the strength of different paper towels (like you did last year) the type of paper towel will be the variable.A Controlled Experiment HasControl Group

Setup according to normal conditions

Experimental GroupSame as the Control Group, but with the variableThey are exactly the same except for the experimental group having the variable(the one difference)The larger the sample size, the more accurate the results

Important Points:Describe in detail your control groupDescribe in detail your experimental groupWhat conditions are the same between both?What is the variable (the one difference between the groups)? Describe in detail your control groupDescribe in detail your experimental groupHypothesis FormationIfThe conditions you are setting up (control group vs. experimental group)ThenYour predicted results. (what you think will happen)BecauseYour explanation for your predicted results. (why)Independent VariableThe manipulated/experimental variableThis variable is the one you manipulateWhat you the scientist can changeDependentVariableThe responding variableThis is what you measure in the experimentThis variables value depends on the independent variable. It shows the results of your manipulationExperimentDoes adding coffee grinds to plants help them grow faster?Do people prefer Jerrys Pizza or Lucios Pizza?Dep:_____________

Ind:_____________Dep:_____________

Ind:_____________Data TablesTo Properly Create a Data TableTitleThe title must describe what is being done. It must be in the following form.The Relationship Between the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable

Columns & Rows:Determine the number of rows and columns First row is for headings1st Column Independent Variable2nd Column Dependent VariableData Tables cont..To Properly Create a Data TableLabelsLabel each column (what does the data represent)UnitsPut units for the numbersExample: ml, cm, etcSort DataPlace in an order, either least to greatest or greatest to least.

Constructing a GraphTitle

Axis Labels and Units

The Relationship Between the Independent and the Dependent VariableThe independent variable goes on the x-axis (horizontal) and the dependent goes on the y-axis (verticalDependentVariableIndependentVariableConstructing a Graph cont..Line Graph vs. Bar Graph

Bar Graphs are used to graph information that is not continuous. Example: Mrs. Fugarino believes that students behavior in class is directly related to the teachers hair color. She conducted a study and discovered the following results which are graphed below.Steps of Scientific Inquiry