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SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations in Europe Dr. Stefan Fischer , Klaus Rusch, Dr. Bernd Amon, SINOx Emissions Control Argillon GmbH SINOx ® Emissions Control SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 2 General Drivers for Emissions Control Technology Presentation Overview Advantages of SCR Technology Technical Description of SCR Technology Technical Performance of SCR Systems Boundary Conditions for Using SCR Conclusions

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    SCR Technologyto Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations in Europe

    Dr. Stefan Fischer, Klaus Rusch, Dr. Bernd Amon, SINOx Emissions ControlArgillon GmbH

    SINOx Emissions Control

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 2

    General Drivers for Emissions Control Technology

    Presentation Overview

    Advantages of SCR Technology

    Technical Description of SCR Technology

    Technical Performance of SCR Systems

    Boundary Conditions for Using SCR

    Conclusions

  • 2

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 3

    Emissions Regulation for HDDV

    NOx[g/kWh]

    PM [g/kWh]Japan

    USA EuropePM [g/kWh]

    NOx[g/kWh] 1 2 3 4 52345

    0.16

    0.12

    0.08

    0.04

    0.16

    0. 12

    0.08

    0.04

    EU 3 (2000)

    EU 4 (2005)EU 5 (2008)

    US 2004

    US 2007 2010

    JP 2005

    JP 2008

    JP 2003

    1

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 4

    Strategies To Reduce Diesel Emissions

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    0

    NOx / PM / BFSC Tradeoff

    DPF

    EGR

    NOx Emissions [g/kWh]9863210 1074 5

    0,04

    0,06

    0,08

    0,1

    0,12

    0,14

    0,16

    0,18

    PMEm

    issio

    ns[g

    /kWh]

    0,02

    Fuel

    Cons

    umpt

    ion

    (BSF

    C)

    EURO 2

    EURO 3

    SCR

    Fuel & PM-opt. engineEURO 4EURO 5

    Pathways for Euro 5:EGR & DPFfuel-optim. engine & SCR

  • 3

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 5

    Fuel Benefit in Using SCR Technology

    Fuel consumption Euro 4

    100 102

    93

    105

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    120

    Euro 3 EGR +DPF

    SCR LNT +DPF

    BSFC

    [%]

    Fuel consumption Euro 5

    100

    107

    94

    107

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    120

    Euro 3 EGR +DPF

    SCR LNT +DPF

    BSFC

    [%]

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Source: ACEA Report on Selective Catalytic Reduction, ACEA, 2003

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 6

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    ACEA Statement on the Adoption of SCR Technologyto Reduce Emissions Levels of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    European heavy-duty commercial vehicle manufacturers (DAF Trucks, DaimlerChrysler, IVECO,MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Renault Trucks, Scania and Volvo Trucks) have chosen the SelectiveCatalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to further reduce NOx emission levels. SCR systems will beintroduced in combination with the use of AdBlue (a 32.5% urea solution in water meeting theDIN 70070 standard), as reagent. This reagent is needed to reduce the oxides of nitrogen (NOx)into nitrogen (N2), a natural component of the air we breath. The SCR technology will bephased-in gradually as from 2005 until 2006.

    This move by the heavy-duty commercial vehicle industry has been taken to ensure compliancewith the new emission standards, which will come into force in 2005 (EURO IV) and in 2008(EURO V). It will bring about the introduction of exhaust gas after-treatment systems on heavy-duty commercial vehicles, which today are equipped exclusively with diesel engines, as a resultof their high level of reliability and their low fuel consumption, two key characteristics soughtafter by all operators.

    The SCR technology offers an efficient solution to the dilemma of the trade-off between exhaustemission levels and fuel consumption. Field tests and extended durability runs have confirmedthe effectiveness and reliability of this exhaust after-treatment technology, which is applicable toall engines and all missions.

    The introduction of the SCR technology will require the installation of AdBlue dispensers at thevehicle refuelling facilities to ensure the availability of this reagent.The heavy-duty commercial vehicle industry is engaged with the industries active in theproduction and distribution of AdBlue, as well as with the oil companies, to make this a reality.

    (15 July 2003)

    Decision of European Truck Manufacturers to use SCR for Euro 4 and 5

    Source: ACEA

  • 4

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 7

    SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) is a well-established andwell-known technology to reduce exhaust emissions in various stationary applications all over the world

    About SCR Technology

    Power Plants

    Gas Turbines

    Marine Engines

    Stationary Engines

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 8

    SCR reaction:

    4NH3 + 4NO + O2 4N2 + 6H2O4NH3 + 2NO2 + O2 3N2 + 6H2O

    2NH3 + NO + NO2 2N2 + 3H2O

    Hydrolysis reaction:

    (NH2) 2CO + H2O 2 NH3 + CO2Urea solution

    Chemistry of the SCR reaction

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

  • 5

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 9

    SCR System Setup

    reducingagent

    (NH2) 2COdiagnosis

    SINOx SCR Catalyst

    NOx, O2

    purifiedexhaust

    N2, H2O

    Urea Injection Unit

    exhaust

    operatingdata

    (NH2) 2COEDC

    ECU DCU

    engine

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 10

    SCR Components on the Truck

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SINOx Catalyst

    Urea Tank with Pump Unit

    Urea Nozzle to Exhaust Pipe

    Urea Metering Unit

    Compressed Air Supply

  • 6

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 11

    NOx Reduction Rate in the European Steady State Cycle (ESC); example 1

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    0

    600

    1200

    1800

    2400

    3000

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13mode

    NO

    x[g

    /h]

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    NH

    3 [p

    pm]

    2002_04_19a.stufe.xlsCatalyst: 26.4l SCR

    Engine: 12 l, 330 kW

    NOx before SCRNOx after SCRNH3 Slip

    NOx Reduction: 79% NOx before SCR:NOx after SCR:

    9.21.9

    g/kWhg/kWh

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 12

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    0

    400

    800

    1200

    1600

    2000

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13mode

    NO

    x[g

    /h]

    0

    30

    60

    90

    120

    150N

    H3

    [ppm

    ]

    03_07_09a

    Catalyst: 35l SCREngine: 12 l, 290 kW

    NOx before SCRNOx after SCRNH3 Slip

    NOx Reduction:88%

    NOx before SCR:NOx after SCR:

    7.50.9

    g/kWhg/kWh

    NOx Reduction Rate in the European Steady State Cycle (ESC); example 2

  • 7

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 13

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800time [sec]

    NOx without SINOx: 11.0 g/kWhNOx with SINOx: 2.3 g/kWhNH max. 8 ppm3

    NO

    x [g

    /h]

    02468

    10

    NH

    3 [p

    pm]

    NOx reduction81 %

    NOx Reduction Rate in the European Transient Cycle (ETC)

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 14

    NO

    x[ p

    pm]

    0300600900

    120015001800

    NO

    x[p

    pm]

    0300600900

    120015001800

    10 min50 15 min1050

    5 min020 min151050

    System PerformanceOn Road Results - measured with NOx Sensors

    Uphill Freeway

    UrbanRural after Cold Start

    NOx Sensor before SCRNOx Sensor after SCR

    NOx: 80% NOx: 85%

    NOx: 89% NOx: 80%

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

  • 8

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 15

    Combination Systems for Post Euro 5, US2007, and Japanese Post New Long Term Regulation

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Diesel ParticulateFilter

    SCRCatalyst

    Diesel Engine

    Urea Injectionpurifiedexhaust

    Reduction of > 90% PM with Continuous or

    Dis-continuous Regeneration

    Reduction of >80% NOx

    Combined NOx / PM Reduction System for Highest Conversion Rates

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 16

    NOx and PM Reduction with Combined SCR/DPF Systems

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Frame Conditions

    Conclusions

    US FTP Results with a SCR + DPF Combination System

    FTP results on a MACK E7, 12l Engine, 355/380hp, 6gr/bhp-hr NOx raw emissions

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    NOx

    [gr/b

    hp-h

    r]

    76% 82%

    NOx

    0

    0.01

    0.02

    0.03

    0.04

    0.05

    0.06

    0.07

    0.08

    0.09

    0.1

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    PM [

    gr/b

    hp-h

    r] 22%

    90%

    & PM

    0

    0.01

    0.02

    0.03

    0.04

    0.05

    0.06

    0.07

    0.08

    0.09

    0.1

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    HC [

    gr/b

    hp-h

    r]

    81%99%

    & HCare below the US 07 emission limits

  • 9

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 17

    Boundary Condition Required for SCR

    Urea Infrastructure

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 18

    Urea Infrastructure

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Logistical Implementation

    1st stageFilling stations at Trucking companies

    2nd stageAutomotive filling stations at truck stops along the major highways

    3rd stagePublic filling stations

    Joint project realized by theOEMs, urea industry, oil industry, component suppliers Urea filling station in Stuttgart (source: Total)

  • 10

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 19

    Urea Specification in the EU

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Tabelle 1 Qualittsmerkmale

    GrenzwertPrfmerkmal Einheit

    min. max

    Prfverfahren

    Harnstoffgehalt Gew.-% 31,8 33,3 VDA 2025-1-1 oder 2Teil 1 gilt als Schiedsmethode

    Dichte bei 20C g/cm 1,080 1,100

    DIN EN ISO 3675 oder DIN EN ISO12185Schwingquarz 1/185 gilt als Schieds-methode

    Brechzahlbei 20C

    1,381 1,385 DIN 51423 Blatt 1 oder Blatt 2Teil 2 gilt als Schiedsmethode

    Alkalitt als NH3 % - 0,2 VDA 2025-3

    Carbonat als CO2 % - 0,2 VDA 2025-4

    Biuret % - 0,3 VDA 2025-5

    Formaldehyd mg/kg - 10 VDA 2025-6-1 oder 2Teil 2 gilt als Schiedsmethode

    Unlsliches mg/kg - 20 VDA 2025-7

    Phosphat (PO4) mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-8Teil 1 gilt als Schiedsmethode ???

    Calcium mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-9

    Eisen mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-9

    Kupfer mg/kg - 0,2 VDA 2025-9

    Zink mg/kg - 0,2 VDA 2025-9

    Chrom mg/kg - 0,2 VDA 2025-9

    Nickel mg/kg - 0,2 VDA 2025-9

    Magnesium mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-9

    Natrium mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-9

    Kalium mg/kg - 0,5 VDA 2025-9

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 20

    AdBlue Demand for Western Europe (Forecast)

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Tons

    / ye

    ar

    (source: ACEA)

  • 11

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 21

    Conclusions

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    SCR is a feasible and well-proven technology to reduceDiesel emissions and make to use of fuel optimized engines

    All European HDV manufacturers have decided to use SCR to comply with Euro 4 (2005) and Euro 5 (2008) emissionregulations and reduce fuel consumption

    For future emissions regulation in Europe, but also in US and Japan SCR in combination with filter technology offersa solution even for the most stringent emission limits

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 22

    THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Boundary Conditions

    Conclusions

    Summary

    SC

    R

    impleost - effective

    obust ... for a clean future of Diesel engines

  • 12

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 23

    Drivers for SCR

    Advantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Frame Conditions

    Conclusions

    NOx Reduction JE05 (Japanese Transient Cycle)

    0

    400

    800

    1200

    1600

    2000

    0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800time [sec]

    NO

    x[g

    /h]

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    NH

    3 [p

    pm]

    NOx before SCRNOx after SCRNH3 after SCR

    Catalyst: 35l SCR + 4l Pre-OxiEngine: 12 l, 290 kW

    03_06_17a

    NOx Reduction: 87% NOx before SCR:NOx after SCR:

    8.11.1

    g/kWhg/kWh

    SCR Technology to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations Dr. Stefan Fischer 24

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

    time [sec]

    NO

    x[p

    pm]

    NOx Reduction: 79% Drivers for SCRAdvantages of SCR

    Technical Description

    Performance

    Frame Conditions

    Conclusions

    NOx Reduction Hot US FTP

    NOx before SCRNOx after SCR