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    Selecting a suitable

    EEG recording capTutorial

    Version 001

    10 November 2009

    Brain Products GmbH

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    Contents

    -3-

    Preface........................................................................................................................................ 5

    Chapter 1 Areas of application and suitable caps ................................................................... 7

    1.1 EEG .............................................................................................................................7

    1.2 ERP & EP......................................................................................................................9

    1.3 EEG & MEG .................................................................................................................11

    1.4 EEG & TMS................................................................................................................. 12

    1.5 Combined EEG-fMRI acquisition................................................................................. 13

    1.6 Brain Computer Interface (BCI)................................................................................... 14

    1.7 Sleep EEG.................................................................................................................. 16

    1.8 eXtreme EEG.............................................................................................................. 18

    Chapter 2 Other properties - material, size, cut .................................................................... 21

    2.1 Material.....................................................................................................................21

    2.2 Sizes.........................................................................................................................22

    2.3 Acquisition areas and cuts.........................................................................................23

    Appendix A Overview of areas of application and suitability of caps ....................................... 27

    Appendix B Standard models available................................................................................... 29

    B.1 actiCAP......................................................................................................................29

    B.2 BrainCap FastnEasy .................................................................................................. 31

    B.3 BrainCap MR..............................................................................................................33

    B.4 EasyCap ....................................................................................................................35

    B.5 EasyCap active ..........................................................................................................37

    B.6 FastnEasy Cap ..........................................................................................................39

    B.7 FastnEasy MEG .........................................................................................................41

    B.8 FastnEasy TMS..........................................................................................................43

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    EEG caps | Tutorial -5-

    Brain Products GmbH offers a wide range of EEG recording caps that are suitable

    for a variety of different areas of application. This tutorial is intended to help you

    to select the cap that best suits your purposes.

    Common characteristics of all

    caps

    All the electrodes used for our caps have Ag/AgCl sensors. Ag/AgCl sensors are

    characterized by the very best levels of clarity and extremely faithful reproduction.

    They allow both DC acquisition and acquisition across the entire spectrum of fre-

    quencies that occur in the EEG (e.g. brainstem potentials).

    All the caps presented here are compatible with virtually all EEG amplifiers

    available on the market. Our caps are also characterized by their long service lives

    and are extremely comfortable to wear.

    Our caps can be freely configured with respect to electrode arrangement: You can

    choose between an arrangement conforming to the international 10/20 system

    and its extensions, an arrangement using the equidistant system and different

    montages and entirely custom configured caps.

    Active electrodesSome caps are available with active electrodes. Active electrodes are equipped

    with preamplifiers/integrated impedance conversion. You will find a description of

    the special features of active electrodes in this tutorial.

    Which cap for what area of

    application?

    If you combine EEG acquisition with other procedures such as fMRI, MEG, TMS or

    if you wish to acquire EEGs under difficult conditions, you must select a suitable

    cap. When choosing an EEG cap, a number of different criteria play a role. These

    include the time taken to prepare the cap, signal quality, versatility and cost fac-

    tors.

    If you do not yet know what cap is the best suited to your purpose, we recommend

    that you read the section in chapter1Areas of application and suitable caps that

    best describes your area of application.

    If you wish to obtain information on a particular cap, you will find an alphabetical

    list of all EEG recording caps available from Brain Products GmbH in Appendix B:

    Standard models available.

    Preface

    Caps, electrodes, applications

    Preface

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    EEG caps | Tutorial -7-

    1.1 EEG

    Requirements from the EEG area of application

    EEG acquisition demands comfortable, closely fitting and robust caps. The caps

    should allow the electrodes to be positioned precisely. They should be easy to

    prepare and clean.

    You can choose from the following caps for EEG acquisition:

    X actiCAPFor a detailed description of the actiCAP, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.1 on page 29.

    X BrainCap FastnEasyFor a detailed description of the BrainCap FastnEasy, please refer to Appendix

    B, Section B.2 on page 31.

    X EasyCapFor a detailed description of the EasyCap, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.4 on page 35.

    X EasyCap activeFor a detailed description of the EasyCap active, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.5 on page 37.

    X FastnEasy CapFor a detailed description of the FastnEasy Cap, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.6 on page 39.

    1 Areas of application and suitable caps

    Areasofapplicationandsuitablecaps

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    EEG

    -8- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Figure 1.1: Suitability of available caps for the EEG area of application

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -9-

    1.2 ERP & EP

    Requirements from the ERP & EP area of application

    ERP/EP acquisition demands comfortable, closely fitting and robust caps. The

    caps should allow the electrodes to be positioned precisely. They should be easy

    to prepare and clean.

    You can choose from the following caps for ERP/EP acquisition:

    X actiCAPFor a detailed description of the actiCAP, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.1 on page 29.

    X BrainCap FastnEasyFor a detailed description of the BrainCap FastnEasy, please refer to Appendix

    B, Section B.2 on page 31.

    X EasyCapFor a detailed description of the EasyCap, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.4 on page 35.

    X EasyCap activeFor a detailed description of the EasyCap active, please refer to Appendix B,Section B.5 on page 37.

    X FastnEasy CapFor a detailed description of the FastnEasy Cap, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.6 on page 39.

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    ERP & EP

    -10- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Figure 1.2: Suitability of available caps for the ERP & EP area of application

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -11-

    1.3 EEG & MEG

    Requirements from the EEG & MEG area of application

    MEG acquisition demands comfortable, closely fitting and robust caps. The caps

    should allow the electrodes to be positioned precisely. In addition, they must be

    fitted with very flat, demagnetized electrodes.

    X For MEG acquisition, you should use the FastnEasy MEG.For a detailed description of the FastnEasy MEG, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.7 on page 41.

    Figure 1.3: Suitability of available caps for the EEG & MEG area of application

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    EEG & TMS

    -12- EEG caps | Tutorial

    1.4 EEG & TMS

    Requirements from the EEG & TMS area of application

    TMS acquisition demands comfortable, closely fitting and robust caps. The caps

    should allow the electrodes to be positioned precisely. In addition, they must be

    fitted with extremely flat, rotatable electrodes.

    X For TMS acquisition, you should use the FastnEasy TMS.For a detailed description of the FastnEasy TMS, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.8 on page 43.

    Figure 1.4: Suitability of available caps for the EEG & TMS area of application

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -13-

    1.5 Combined EEG-fMRI acquisition

    Requirements from the EEG & fMRI area of application

    In order to protect the test subject, the electrodes used for combined EEG-fMRI

    acquisition must not touch the subject's skin. To achieve this, the electrode cables

    must be attached to the exterior of the cap. The electrode cables must also be ther-

    mally insulated. Finally, care must be taken to route the cables over paths that are

    as short and straight as possible.

    X For acquiring data safely in an MRI scanner, use the BrainCap MR.For a detailed description of the BrainCap MR, please refer to Appendix B,Section B.3 on page 33.

    Figure 1.5: Suitability of available caps for the EEG & fMRI area of application

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    Brain Computer Interface (BCI)

    -14- EEG caps | Tutorial

    1.6 Brain Computer Interface (BCI)

    Requirements from the BCI area of application

    BCI acquisition demands comfortable, closely fitting and robust caps. The caps

    should allow versatile positioning of the electrodes. They should be easy to prepa-

    re and clean. In addition, caps used for acquisition which is performed outside a

    screened EEG cabin must not be susceptible to electromagnetic interference (50

    Hz).

    You can use the following caps for BCI:

    X actiCAPFor a detailed description of the actiCAP, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.1 on page 29.

    X BrainCap FastnEasyFor a detailed description of the BrainCap FastnEasy, please refer to Appendix

    B, Section B.2 on page 31.

    X EasyCapFor a detailed description of the EasyCap, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.4 on page 35.

    X EasyCap activeFor a detailed description of the EasyCap active, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.5 on page 37.

    X FastnEasy CapFor a detailed description of the FastnEasy Cap, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.6 on page 39.

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -15-

    Figure 1.6: Suitability of available caps for the BCI area of application

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    Sleep EEG

    -16- EEG caps | Tutorial

    1.7 Sleep EEG

    Requirements from the sleep EEG area of application

    To acquire EEGs while the test subject is sleeping, you require a very comfortable

    cap. To ensure the best possible pressure distribution over the head of the

    subject, it should therefore be possible to insert additional electrode holders in

    the cap. In addition, the cap must ensure that the electrodes cannot slip.

    To improve the pressure distribution and allow the test subject to lie comfortably,

    we can insert additional, empty electrode holders in the cap on request.

    You can choose from the following caps for sleep EEG acquisition:

    X BrainCap FastnEasyFor a detailed description of the BrainCap FastnEasy, please refer to Appendix

    B, Section B.2 on page 31.

    X EasyCap activeFor a detailed description of the EasyCap active, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.5 on page 37.

    X FastnEasy CapFor a detailed description of the FastnEasy Cap, please refer to Appendix B,Section B.6 on page 39.

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -17-

    Figure 1.7: Suitability of available caps for the sleep EEG area of application

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    eXtreme EEG

    -18- EEG caps | Tutorial

    1.8 eXtreme EEG

    Requirements from the eXtreme EEG area of application

    Acquisition under difficult conditions demands comfortable, closely fitting and

    robust caps. The caps should allow the electrodes to be positioned precisely. It

    should be possible to prepare the caps extremely quickly and they should be re-

    silient against exogenous artifacts (50-Hz interference from the power network,

    movement artifacts, etc.).

    You should use the following caps for EEG acquisition under difficult conditions,such as outside a screened cabin or if the test subject is moving:

    X actiCAPFor a detailed description of the actiCAP, please refer to Appendix B, Section

    B.1 on page 29.

    X EasyCap activeFor a detailed description of the EasyCap active, please refer to Appendix B,

    Section B.5 on page 37.

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    Chapter 1: Areas of application and suitable caps

    EEG caps | Tutorial -19-

    Figure 1.8: Suitability of available caps for the eXtreme EEG area of application

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    EEG caps | Tutorial -21-

    For each cap that is available, you can select between different material types, cap

    sizes and cuts.

    2.1 Material

    You can choose between rigidandflexible material.

    The benefits of the rigid material lie in the fact that the electrodes can be posi-

    tioned extremely precisely and rest firmly against the surface of the head. In addi-

    tion, the rigid material dries quickly, is very resilient and has a long service life.

    The flexible material adapts very well to the shape of the head. In addition, a single

    flexible cap allows you to cover a wider range of head sizes compared with a cap

    made from a rigid material.

    2 Other properties - material, size, cut

    Otherproperties-material.size,cut

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    Sizes

    -22- EEG caps | Tutorial

    2.2 Sizes

    All caps are available in sizes36 through 62.

    Flexible caps of sizes 56 and 58 make it possible to perform EEG acquisition for

    approx. 80 % of all adult test subjects.

    A range of caps made from rigid material in the sizes 54, 56, 58 and 60 make it pos-

    sible to perform measurements with virtually any adult.

    The following table will help you to select the most suitable cap size for your pur-

    pose:

    Size Test subject

    36 Newborn babies

    38 Three-month girls

    40 Three-month boys

    42 Seven-month girls

    44 Seven-month boys

    46 Three-year girls

    48 Three-year boys

    50 Six-year girls

    52 Six-year boys,adult women with a small head size

    54 Nine-year children,adult men with a small head size

    56 Adult women with a normal head size

    58 Adult men with a normal head size

    60 Adult men with a large head size,adult women with an above-average head size

    62 Adult men with an above-average head size

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    Chapter 2: Other properties - material, size, cut

    EEG caps | Tutorial -23-

    2.3 Acquisition areas and cuts

    Subtemporal vs. infracerebralEach cap is available in a subtemporal and an infracerebral version. The versions

    differ in respect of their acquisition area. The acquisition area of the subtemporal

    cap ends below the temporal lobe. The acquisition area of the infracerebral cap

    goes beyond the cerebrum.

    Figure 2.1: Subtemporal version of the EasyCap active

    Because the infracerebral cap also has additional, "deep", electrode positions, a

    better sphere can be calculated from the acquisition results. It is therefore particu-

    larly suitable for procedures that require the largest possible distribution of elect-

    rodes over the surface of the head. This includes procedures such as CSD and ICA

    and all source localization procedures (e.g. LORETA).

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    Acquisition areas and cuts

    -24- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Figure 2.2: Infracerebral version of the EasyCap (special electrode

    arrangement)

    The infracerebral cap is also characterized by greater stabilization. In particular,

    the fit of the occipital and frontal electrodes has been improved.

    For this reason, we also offer the infracerebral cut in combination with standard

    electrode arrangements (i.e. all arrangements other than the infracerebral layout)

    for smaller sizes (36 through 48).

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    Chapter 2: Other properties - material, size, cut

    EEG caps | Tutorial -25-

    Figure 2.3: EasyCap with infracerebral cut and standard electrode arrangement

    Please note: If you secure the infracerebral cap with a chin strap, artifacts are pro-

    duced in the EEG when the test subject moves their mouth during acquisition. In

    order to avoid this, we recommend using the infracerebral cap with a chest strap.

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    Acquisition areas and cuts

    -26- EEG caps | Tutorial

    All caps are also available in what is known as the asiacutversion.

    The asiacut was specially developed for our Asian customers. Caps with this cut

    have a particularly good fit and a high degree of comfort for Asian test subjects.Compared with caps using a traditional cut, the firmness of the fit can be si-

    gnificantly improved when acquiring data with Asian test subjects.

    You will find detailed information on the asiacut on our web site at

    http://www.brainproducts.com/productdetails.php?id=29&tab=3, under

    Brochures & Material > document New Cap Shape: Asia Cut better fit, better data.

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    EEG caps | Tutorial

    Appendix A: Overview of areas of application and suitability of caps

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    actiCAP

    -30- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The actiCAP has active electrodes with impedance conversion. The electrodes are

    plugged into electrode adapters.

    The electrodes are brought together in the splitter box. The splitter box is con-nected to the actiCAP ControlBox with a ribbon cable. The actiCAP ControlBox is

    connected to the amplifier with a ribbon cable.

    Replacing electrodes When you have opened the splitter box, you can carefully remove individual elec-

    trodes from the splitter and replace them with new ones.

    Figure B.2: actiCAP electrode with LED

    Figure B.3: actiCAP ControlBox (A) and splitter box (B)

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -31-

    B.2 BrainCap FastnEasy

    Features of the BrainCap

    FastnEasy

    The BrainCap FastnEasy is a version of the FastnEasy Cap manufactured specially

    for Brain Products GmbH. The special features of this cap are the multiple connec-

    tors that are matched to the Brain Products EEG amplifiers and the standardized

    electrode montage. The electrodes of the BrainCap FastnEasy are built-in pin elec-

    trodes. The electrode cables are brought together in a connector box that can be

    connected directly to the EEG amplifier using a ribbon cable. The cap can be prepa-

    red quickly. Because the electrodes are fastened into the material directly without

    using adapters, the BrainCap FastnEasy is extremely comfortable and is characte-

    rized by a very precise fit. Furthermore, it is impossible to inadvertently mix up the

    electrodes during preparation. A suitable BrainVision Recorder workspace is sup-

    plied with the cap.

    Note to usersThe electrodes of the BrainCap FastnEasy cannot be replaced individually.

    Figure B.4: BrainCap FastnEasy

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    BrainCap FastnEasy

    -32- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The BrainCap FastnEasy is fitted with sintered Ag/AgCl pin electrodes. The elect-

    rodes do not have adapters. Instead, they are permanently fastened into the ma-

    terial. If you are using an amplifier of the BrainAmp family, the electrode cables arebrought together in the BrainCap Box, that is directly connected to the BrainAmp

    using a ribbon cable. A special connector adapter is required for connection to all

    other amplifier models. This is manufactured specially at your request.

    Replacing electrodes Because the electrode cables of the BrainCap FastnEasy are grouped together to

    form a single bundle, it is not possible to replace electrodes individually. Instead,

    the cap must be returned to the manufacturer if this becomes necessary.

    Figure B.5: BrainCap FastnEasy, electrode cables and connector box

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -33-

    B.3 BrainCap MR

    Features of the BrainCap MRThe following product features of the BrainCap MR ensure the highest possible le-

    vels of safety when acquiring EEG data in an MRI scanner:

    The cap is fitted with externally secured cables. Securing the cables in this way

    prevents the formation of dangerous loops. Because the cables run around the ex-

    terior of the cap, they do not come into contact with the surface of the test

    subject's skin. Furthermore, the electrodes have a special thermal insulation and

    are extremely flat.

    To protect the test subject, the electrodes and the splitter box of the BrainCap MR

    feature built-in 5-kOhm safety resistors. The separate ECG electrode features a

    built-in 15-kOhm safety resistor and an additional plastic sheath.

    Alongside safety and reliability, the BrainCap MR guarantees high levels of data

    quality, as neither the electrodes nor the cables cause any artifacts in the MR data.

    Note to usersThe electrodes of the BrainCap MR cannot be replaced individually. In addition, a

    separate set of electrodes is required for each cap size.

    Figure B.6: BrainCap MR

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    BrainCap MR

    -34- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The BrainCap MR is fitted with Ag/AgCl pellet pin electrodes with built-in 5-kOhm

    resistors. The electrodes are fastened into the cap without adapters. The electrode

    cables are secured to the exterior of the cap.The cap is connected to the amplifier via a connector box fitted with 5-kOhm resis-

    tors.

    Always observe the safety information in the operating instructions for the amp-

    lifiers BrainAmp MR, BrainAmp MR plus and BrainAmp ExG MR before using the

    BrainCap MR in an MRI scanner.

    Replacing electrodes Because the electrode cables of the BrainCap MR are grouped together to form a

    single bundle, it is not possible to replace electrodes individually. Instead, the cap

    must be returned to the manufacturer if this becomes necessary.

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -35-

    B.4 EasyCap

    Features of the EasyCapThe EasyCap is supplied by default with one set of electrodes and two size 56 and

    58 cloth caps. Before carrying out measurements, you should determine the head

    size of the test subject and then select the appropriate cap size and attach the

    electrode set. If you require further cloth caps in addition to the sizes supplied by

    default, these can be ordered subsequently without difficulty. The EasyCap is par-

    ticularly good value for money because several caps (sizes) can be used with a

    single set of electrodes. In addition, it is easy to replace individual electrodes.

    Thanks to its modular design, the EasyCap is particularly suited for educational

    purposes and offers the greatest possible degree of versatility in research pro-

    jects.Note to usersThe preparation time for the EasyCap is long by comparison, because each of the

    electrodes must be plugged into the adapters one after another.

    Figure B.7: EasyCap

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    EasyCap

    -36- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The EasyCap is fitted with Ag/AgCl ring electrodes. The electrodes are plugged into

    electrode adapters (A06). The cap is connected to the EEG amplifier either using a

    DIN 1.5 mm touch-proof safety socket connector (B10-S-200) or using a 2 mm pinconnector (B10-P-120).

    Replacing electrodes The individual electrodes of the EasyCap can be replaced quickly and easily.

    Figure B.8: EasyCap electrode and electrode adapter

    Figure B.9: EasyCap electrode with connection plug

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -37-

    B.5 EasyCap active

    Features of the EasyCap activeThe EasyCap active is fitted with active electrodes with integrated impedance con-

    version with the result that you can obtain a very high signal quality even with a

    comparatively high transition resistance (50 kOhm) between the subject's head

    and the electrode. Compared with traditional, passive electrodes, this means that

    the period between preparing the test subject until the start of EEG acquisition can

    be considerably reduced, particularly when a large number of channels are used

    for acquisition. The EasyCap active is also extremely resilient against external ar-

    tifacts.

    Note to usersThe electrodes for the EasyCap active represent a comparatively expensive solu-

    tion.

    Figure B.10: EasyCap active

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    EasyCap active

    -38- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The actiCAP has active Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes. The electrodes are plugged into

    electrode adapters. The electrode cables can be grouped together to form a single

    bundle and terminated in the closed power supply box. Alternatively, the powersupply box is also available as the Head Box version. In this case, the individual

    electrodes are plugged into the inputs of the Head Box.

    If you are using an amplifier of the BrainAmp family, a ribbon cable (supplied) is

    used to connect the power supply box to the amplifier. A special connector adap-

    ter is required for connection to all other amplifier models. This is manufactured

    specially at your request.

    Replacing electrodes If you are using the power supply box with electrode cables grouped together to

    form a single bundle, the individual electrodes can be replaced without soldering

    after the box has been opened.

    Individual electrodes can also be replaced without difficulty in the Head Box ver-

    sion of the power supply box.

    Figure B.11: EasyCap active electrode

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -39-

    B.6 FastnEasy Cap

    Features of the FastnEasy CapWith the FastnEasy Cap, you are supplied with a separate set of electrodes for

    each cap size. The electrodes are permanently fastened into the cap. This consi-

    derably reduces the time required for preparing the cap. In addition, it is not pos-

    sible to inadvertently mix up the electrodes during preparation.

    The FastnEasy Cap is fitted with pin electrodes with safety connectors to allow the

    cap to be used in combination with the EIB 64 electrode input box and with other

    commercially available EEG amplifier head boxes (adapters for different models

    are available). Because the electrodes are fastened into the material directly wit-

    hout using adapters, the FastnEasy Cap is extremely comfortable and is characte-

    rized by a very precise fit.Note to usersBecause a separate set of electrodes is required for each cap size, the FastnEasy

    Cap is a comparatively expensive solution, but at the same time is very convenient

    for the user.

    Figure B.12: FastnEasy Cap connected to a BrainAmp using a connector box

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    FastnEasy Cap

    -40- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The FastnEasy Cap is fitted with Ag/AgCl pellet pin electrodes. The electrodes are

    fastened into the cap without adapters. The cap is connected to the EEG amplifier

    either using a DIN 1.5 mm touch-proof safety socket connector (single connector)or an amplifier-specific connector box (multiple connector).

    Replacing electrodes The FastnEasy electrodes are not typical single electrodes as used in the EasyCap

    or actiCAP. The method used to replace electrodes depends on the way in which

    the electrode cables are routed: If the electrode cables are grouped together to

    form a single bundle, it is not possible to replace individual electrodes. The cap

    must be returned to the manufacturer. If the cap is fitted with electrode cables

    secured loosely in a cable tie, you can replace individual electrodes by

    withdrawing them from the cable tie. Where electrode cables are not secured at all,

    i.e. not bundled together, you can replace individual electrodes easily and quickly.

    Figure B.13: FastnEasy electrode

    Figure B.14: FastnEasy electrodes in different colors

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -41-

    B.7 FastnEasy MEG

    Features of the FastnEasy MEGBecause its electrodes are extremely flat, the FastnEasy MEG fits in the MEG

    helmet exceptionally well. The special cable arrangement and the method of secu-

    ring the cables using plastic threads guarantee high quality MEG acquisition. The

    electrodes of the FastnEasy MEG are manufactured using a special procedure,

    which makes them completely demagnetized.

    Note to usersBecause a separate set of electrodes is required for each cap size, the FastnEasy

    MEG is a comparatively expensive solution.

    Figure B.15: FastnEasy MEG

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    FastnEasy MEG

    -42- EEG caps | Tutorial

    Technical details The FastnEasy MEG is fitted with Ag/AgCl pellet pin electrodes. The electrodes are

    fastened into the cap without adapters. The electrode cables are secured with

    plastic threads. The cap is connected to the EEG amplifier either using a DIN 1.5mm touch-proof safety socket connector (single connector) or an amplifier-specific

    connector box (multiple connector).

    Replacing electrodes The method used to replace electrodes depends on the way in which the electrode

    cables are routed: If the electrode cables are grouped together to form a single

    bundle, it is not possible to replace individual electrodes. The cap must be retur-

    ned to the manufacturer. If the cap is fitted with electrode cables secured loosely

    in a cable tie, you can replace individual electrodes by withdrawing them from the

    cable tie. Where electrode cables are not secured at all, i.e. not bundled together,

    you can replace individual electrodes easily and quickly.

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    Appendix B: Standard models available

    EEG caps | Tutorial -43-

    B.8 FastnEasy TMS

    Features of the FastnEasy TMSThe extremely flat electrodes of the FastnEasy TMS make it possible to place the

    magnetic coil very close to the surface of the test subject's head. The electrodes

    can be freely rotated, so that you can easily change the positions of the electrode

    cables. If you wish to use only a small number of channels or wish to work with a

    variable application point, you can rotate the electrode cables away from the

    application point without difficulty.

    Figure B.16: FastnEasy TMS

    In addition to the standard version of the FastnEasy TMS, you can request that the

    electrode cables are secured with plastic threads in the arrangement you require.

    This special version is particularly suitable for working with a large number of

    channels or for working with an identical application point.

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    FastnEasy TMS

    Figure B.17: FastnEasy TMS, securing the cables using plastic threads

    Note to users If you are using a cap where the cables are not secured, you must rearrange the

    cables for each new test subject. If the cables are secured with plastic threads

    reconfiguration involves considerable effort.

    Technical details The FastnEasy TMS is fitted with Ag/AgCl pellet pin electrodes. The electrodes are

    fastened into the cap without adapters. The cap is connected to the EEG amplifier

    using a DIN 1.5 mm touch-proof safety socket connector (single connector).

    Replacing electrodes Where electrode cables are not secured, you can replace individual electrodes

    easily and quickly.

    If you are using electrodes with cables secured using plastic threads, you can re-

    place individual electrodes by carefully releasing them from the securing points.