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DE D lCATED TO

gfifi m-m t g (MARIA ALTO )

WHOSE ' R IE NDSH IP HAS BE EN A REVE LATloN

O ' THE

POET IC INST INCT, THE DRAMAT IC IMPULSE

AN D THE NOB lL lTY O ' C HARACTE RH IDDE N BE NEATH THE STO ICAL MASK O ' OUR

PR IM IT IVE PEOPLE

pa g e 3 3 24 1 02

gllluatrafim tz

Lower -Green Valley

Mountain Pines

Mount Guatay

Laguna

I llustration s from Ph otog raph s by

IRV ING LE E. PALME R

P lates by

G EORG E. C . G R IE R

Cover Design by 'a,

'

AL ICE. WH ITNEY SM ITH

filaments of this finnklet

TABLE

Foreword

H ilsh Ki ’e Pine Tree

Huts-tab Ta-m il ’tah H anging Head

Ah-h a ’ Wi Ah-h a ’ Water Colder Water

Ah Kwer-rup D isease Cure

H uI-ya-oo’

N im oo-lu kah . Phantom Basket

Na-wa-Ti ’e Big House

In-yar ’en Ah-h a N 0 Eyes in Water

Seen-u-how ’ How-wak ’ Old Woman ’s Twins

Seen-u-how ’ Hum-poo ’ Old Woman ’s Whip

Kwut ah Lu ’e-ah Song Dance

Ah KW ir ’ Red Paint

1 1

1 3

1 5

1 5

1 6

17

1 9

22

24

26

V ision Is

th e Peop lePerish '

CUYAMACA PEAK

Pag e 7

ND IAN lore of the Cuyam aca Mountains andsurrounding region in San D iego County, Californ ia , abounds in myt hs and legends handeddown from generation to generation by tribalsong and squaw-tale . Y et so swiftly has thehand of civilization wiped out the old traditions

and customs, that but few I n d i an s remain who rememberthem , and fewer still are ,

those willing to divulge them . Onlywhen one comes into intimate contact with t hem is one accorded the privilege and honor of hearing the tales of their ancestors .And it is through the friendsh ip '

of some of ' the'

old-type'

Indians , that the author has been allowed a glimpse of the innershrine of their lives .

Cuyam aca is evidently a Spanish corruption of the Indianwords Ah-h a ’ Kwe-ah-mac ’

(Water Beyond) , a name used bythe Indians , first to des ignate a location high on the middlemountain , but afterward applied to the entire g roup .

These mountains had distinctive names also . The one farth est north , they called E -yee ’

(Nest) , because they believedthat a big nest

or den was on one of its slopes in which the wildanimals dissappeared when hunted , thus safely evading pursuit .The middle one

,Hal-kwo-kwilsh ’

(Tough Strong) , gained thistitle in the battle of the peaks , when he proved very formidable .

The one known as the Cuyam aca Peak , acquired the name ofPoo-kwoo-sqwee

(Crooked Neck) , in the same battle . Andbefore t h e battle still another peak , H ilsh Ki

’e (Pine Tree) ,

belonged to the group , so the Indians say ,

'

but now lives faraway

PRONUNCIATION

The Indians accent their words strongly , and enunciate withtheir teeth very nearly closed , which gives their language arhythmical cadence quite pleasing to the ear

Page 8

flashfit 2 (Pine Tree)

TH E BATT LE O' TH E PEAKS

T h e Indians cla im that Corta M adera M t or H ilsh K ' e (P ine T ree) , as

they call it, was on ce a part of the Cuya m a cas, and d fwel t in wha t is n ow th elower end of G reen Valley . T hey te ll a story of a great upheaval of naturecwh ich to o k p lace in preh is tor ic times

,after wh ich H i lsh K i

'

e (P ine T ree)was d is covered far rem oved from h is bro th er p eaks .

AN Y , many ages ago , far beyond recal l ing , them ig h t y peak s of Ah-h a

’ Kwe-ah-mac’ (Water Beyond ) numbered more than now . In those daysanother peak occupied all t h e lower part of wh ati s now a fe r t i l e val ley . Together they raisedtheir shaggy heads in proud t r iumph o ’er the

mountains round about them . For the Ah ha’ Kwe ah-mac’

(Water Beyond ) wore beautiful long hair of sweet-smellingpine and cedar trees , and they gazed with disdain upon theothers whose heads were covered with short hair of lilac , elm ,

and such scrub brush .

A sign of servitude then was short hair . And the longhaired mountains clung close together, never mingling withtheir inferiors .

Page 9

There came a time when they quarreled among themselves .

No one knew just how it beg an . Some said it was because thelovely spring Ah-h a ’ Wi-Ah-h a ’

(Water Colder Water ) betrothed herself to Ah-h a ’ Coo-mulk’ (Water Sweet ) , whowish ed to carry her far below among the short-haired mountains .

The trouble grew . At length they came to blows , and formany days the conflict raged . The great rugged peak H ilshKi ’e (Pine Tree) , down through whose arms glided the sparkling river Ah-h a

Coo-mulk '

(Water Sweet) , persisted in shielding it . He said that since the little stream was born , had h eguarded‘ and cherished it , and he refused to part with it .Infuriated beyond measure , the other peaks besieged h im .

They belched out huge rocks upon his head . They lashed hisup

-turned face with whips of fire from out the sky . And unseenhands snatched up his long strands of hair by the roots .

Sturdily he returned blow for blow , but made no impressionon the north peak, nor the middle one , who proved to be exceeding ly strong and tough . He managed

,however , to twist

the head of the south peak and leave a crook in his neck forever .Valiantly he strove against them

,but it was an unequal struggle .

Finally, in desperation , he gave a mighty wrench , freed himselffrom their fierce embrace and fled .

Out in the deepest darkness of the night he plunged . Thecrashing thunder and the shrieking wind covered his flight . Onand on he sped , never stopping , never heeding that many of hislong locks of hair were falling by the way . Through the whole

flight and all the following day he ran and ran away from h is

ome .

Exhausted at last, he fell in the midst of the low-browedmountains with short-cropped hair. And th at is where you findhim today grand old H ilsh Ki ’e (Pine Tree) with pine-toppedcrest and a ragged , j agged , rough-hewn scar where he broke offsharp from Ah-h a ’ Kwe-ah-mac ’

(Water Beyond ) , thereamong aliens far, far from his people .

Page IO

(Tan ia-1515

(

dials-m il tah (H ang ing H ead)

On th e wes t s ide of the s ou th peak of the Cuya m a cas, far up the o ld H igh

T ra il, is a p lace called by the Indians, Huts tah T a h m i l tah , (HangingHead) . T h e fo llow ing legend

,wh ich has been handed down from time im

memorial,e' p la ins the nam ing of th e p lace .

T was the moon of the lilac blossoms in the dayslong since flown

,and all the earth was rousing

from the drowsy sleep m which it had lain duringthe time of the chilling blast . No more did thebiting lash of E n -yah ’ Kwik (East Wind ) sting thecheeks or

.

numb the fingers of the hunter whobraved the mountains in search of game . Now , the soft, warmKa-wak ’ Kwik (South Wind ) was blowing , bringing life-givingshowers that filled every little canyon with talking water . B irdswere singing thei1 love songs ' p lants bursting their flower buds 'and all nature was teeming with the vigor of Che-pum (Springtime) .The Indians had returned from their winter sojourn in the

balmy air of the coast, and were busily engaged m establish ingthemselves once again in th eir village H elsh ow ’ Na- ’

wa (Rabbit House) at the base of the towering peak Poo kwoo-sqwee

(Crooked Neck) ' when a Yuma Brave , having found his wayacross the sands of the desert , came to visit them .

Tall and slender was this Brave from a st range tribe , andas straight as an alder . His sinewy body glistened like a redrattler, and his long mane floated out from his head as doesthat of a racing pony . Above his brow he wore high plumes ofgay-colored feathers , red , yellow, and green , and quite rare alsowere the wings which completed his head dress . Over hisshoulders hung a quiver made of wildca t skin , and it was filledwith arrows whose heads were carved from the hyacinth andother precious stones found on the edge of the desert .So superior was h is

'

m agnificen ce that , notwithstanding hecame with friendly intent, he was the cause of much envy .

One clear day a party of the young warriors escorted himto the top of the high peak to show him the place from whencelooking toward E n -yak (East) he could gaze upon his own , BigWater of the desert, or turning to Ah-wik

(West) behold theGreat Sea Water merged in the western skyline .

Glad to find something In which they excelled , they boastedof the greatness of their body of water, decrying the inferiorityof his smaller one .

A quarrel ensued in which the Yuma Brave was killed . Farup on the mountain side they left his scalp lock with its long

Page I I

streaming hair . and gorgeous feathers hanging on the brush .

There it fluttered for many a day, the irridescent colors gleaming afar in the sunlight . And , as time passed on , the g reatspirit of In ’

ya (Sun) in compassion , t ransformed it into bright

golo

lred flowers and trailing vines growing among the rocks and

us es .Now, in th at self-same spot, after the blue clouds of lilac

bloom have vanished from the hills below , onemay see patchesof color like a field of tiger-lilies and other brilliant—hued flowers nodding and swaying in the breeze .

Were one strong-armed as the Indians of yore , one couldthrow a stone from Oon ’

-ya Kwolt

(High Trail) straight intothat place , and hear mysterious sounds , as did they, whenit fell midst the vines and the flowers . Sounds , soft and low ,

as of wierd wailing o ’

er the body of the slain , for the flowers areplaintively ch anting the requiem of Huts-tah ’ Tah-mil ’-tah ,

'

(Hanging Head)

Page I 2

g h~hd mi~g h~hd (Water Colder Water)

T h e Co ld S pr ing, lo ca ted on the h igh peak of th e Guya m a cas, is we ll‘

known to all lovers of these m oun ta ins , and th e Indians , w h o must ever havea reason for th e e' istence of th ings, tell h ow i t was created and named by on eof the ir myth ical creatures of lo ng ago .

T one time in the ages past , the Ah-h a’Kwe-ah

mac ’

(Water Beyond ) mountains were infested bymonstrous giants with loathsome , ill-shapen bodles, who terrorized the surrounding country . Thesemarauders , lurking and watching their opportunity, frequently stole the Indian maids from their

villages , keeping them in bondage as slaves .

One of the giants , named Hum-am’Kwish

’wash (Whip

to Kill People) , lived in the vicinity of Pam -mum ’ am -wah ’

(Green Valley) .

He reveled in the most fiendish ogrisms , but his innate senseof the beautiful was keen and strong . He not only selected themost delightful places in which to live , but surrounded himselfwith objects pleasing to t he eye . Always he stole the fairestof the Indian maids , and . required them to weave the most exquisite designs known in their art of basket making .

Page I 3

His cruelty was extreme , and did his slaves displease himin the least , they met with the most horrible death imaginable .

This hideous being possessed supernatural powers which heemployed in various ways . It seem s he that wanted nothingbut the coldest water to drink . He tried the water in thestreams , and tried the water in the springs which aboundthroughout the country, but never did any of it suit his taste 'so he created for himself a spring of colder water .In on e of the most alluring spots on the mountain side

,in

the dense shade of the fragrant forest of pines and cedars,he

brought forth a crystal spring of m y water, and named it Ah h a’

Wi-Ah-h a ’

, (Water Colder Water) .Here in this nook of surpassing loveliness , where the grace

ful lil ies n od their stately heads , -and delicate fronds of lacelikegreenery push their way up through the carpet of velvet moss

,

he sent his slaves with their beautifully woven water-basketsto fetch him a drink when he grew thirsty .

One day, calling a slave he comm anded her to bring som ewater instantly, with dire threats of punishment should it become insipid before it reached h im .

This maiden , radiant with the beauty of the starlight, wasso good , so pure , so true , that she had been fairly adored byher people before she was so cruelly snatched from theirmidst .Swiftly she wound her way up through the towering aisles

of solemn pines , softly intoning their prayers to the heavensabove them . Wist fu l ly lon g in g to be free from the dreadful ogrewho held her captive, she begged the trees to plead with the greatIn ’

ya (Sun) , who rules over all , to take pity on her distress .The flowers and the birds felt the quivering throb of her

angu ish . The starry-eyed snow-flowers, gleaming in the shadeby the wayside

,gave their incense to be waf ted on

h ig h by thewhispering breeze ' the cooing dove sent its most plaintive cryabove ' and every other living thing along . the pathway offeredits gift in her behalf to In ’

ya (Sun ) riding the heavens in hisflaming ball of light .When she reached the spring she sat on its brink, and filled

her basket with its cold , refreshing water . Gazing into thecrystal depths she caught a glimmer of a shadow quickly passing ,and at once knew it to be that of the good spirit of the spring .

She beseeched and plead with it to save her from the clutchesof Hum-am

Kw ish’wash (Whip to Kill People) ' and as she

leaned over farther and farther, trying to get one more glimpseof the shadow

,the waters rose up and gently engulfed her .

All nature hush ed in a sweet silence of gratitude as she wasdrawn into the protecting arms of 'Ah-h a ’ Wi—Ah h a ’

(WaterColder Water) ' and there she has dwelt in safety ever since .

' Page I 4

(All(

gl itter-run (D isease Cure)

Near the place called Huts-tah’ Tah-m il ’tah , on the west

side of Cuyam aca Peak in an almost inaccessible spot, is a huge ,white rock , as large as a house . It looks as if it might havebeen sprinkled with blood , for it is fleck ed with spots of brightred

, a nd a sharp c left divides it in twain .

The name of this rock is Ah Kwer-rup (D isease Cure) ' Inancient times the Indians believed that it possessed the powerto dispel aches and pain , and the medicine men took their sick ,who were suffering from any painful malady, there to be healed .

Wonderful and miraculous were some of the cures said tohave been performed there . But in time it lost its power andfell into disuse .

However, some of the Indians say, that even now, if one getsnear enough to fling a stone against the big rock , it sings orcheeps like a young birdling ' and they still hold it in reverence

gflubgw nn'

fiim fl fl dur

bl ah (Ph antom'

Bask et)

On this same enchanted side of the mountain is anothergreat rock , which no one , has ever succeeded in reaching on ac

count of the dense brush and sharp rocks surrounding it .On top of this rock, just at the break of day, suddenly is

seen an‘

im m ense basket filled with eagle feathers and wings ofthe black crow sticking up in the center . Its appearance varies .Sometimes the basket is very beautiful and new

,and the feath

ers shining and bright as though freshly plucked from the birds 'again it looks old and dingy, and the feathers are dull andfrayed at the tip .

No one has ever been able to reach the place,but many are

the Indian s who have gone up Oon ’

ya Kwolt’

(High Trail ) befort

sIsunrise to behold the phantom basket appear on top of the

m e

fia-fna flit 2 (Big H ou se)

OUN T GUATAY or Na-wa Ti ’e (Big House) asthe Indians call it , lies near D escanso , only a fewmiles distant from the Cuyam aca Peak It loomsup from all points of view like a giant W igwambuilt for some great chieftain of the Golden Age .

Its massive frame is royally covered by a thickrobe of velvet verdure , with plumes of rarest cypress along thenorthern ridges .The glory and peace and silence of its broad expanse is ever

the same , whether raised to the smiling sun or draped in thefilmy gauze of evening’s amethyst veil .Seemingly it might be inhabited by a benign spirit of guar

dian sh ip ,as it looks so serenely and ca lmly o ’er the valley bear

ing its name . But m the days.

when the village Hum-poo ’ Arrup

’ ma (Whip of the Wind) in the upper edge of the valleyrang with sounds Of busy activity, it was entirely d ifferent .Then the comely Indian maids , pounding their acorn meal

in the H am oo-ka ’e (mortars) on the rocky knoll of the village ,were

,

fearful of incurring the displeasure of Na-wa Ti ’e (BigHouse) . Even the valiant warriors , brave in their fierce array ,dared not ascend the mountain side , or pluck one branch of the

the world , which would seal its eyes to earthly sight forever . Sothroughout the night they lay in Waking dread .

As the first grey line of dawn pushed up through the blackness of the night the cries ceased , and a strange woman creptinto the village faintly calling for help .

Eagerly the people succored her ' and , when her strengthreturned , she told h ow those in her own village had been killedby foes , she alone escaping .

How , after wandering about for several days , she had heardin the night just passed , the screams of a baby l n distress

,and

set out at once to find it . Stumbling in the dark,over rocks

and thorny brush , she at last entered an open space soft underfoot wi th the touch of new grown grass . As she drew nearerand nearer to the sounds , she reached a

bank,mucky and wet .

Here she stooped down to pick up the baby, thinking she hadfound it ' but her hands plunged into a pool of water instead ,and , as the sharp cries rose again from h er very feet, she fellback paralyzed with fear .Not until dawn had she been able to move . Then she

crawled to the nearest W igwam which she saw rising ghost-likeon th e hill before her . Little did she know what had befallenher ' but the people , who well knew , kept her with them caringfor her tenderly t il l her little one was born .

Only after she had seen how tightly closed were his tiny .

eye-lids , resisting all efforts to open them , did they tell her ofKwin Ma-ri ’ (Blind Baby) , dwelling in the bewitched spring ofI n -yar ’ en Ah-h a ’

(No Eyes in Water) , and h ow it had th epower, could it but touch the mother, of blinding her little unborn babe

Page I S

fieerm r-hnfn' (

fintm tnah’

(Old Wom an’

s Tw ins)

A mys terious woman figures largely in the my ths con nec ted with theLaguna m oun ta i ns, wh ich l ie ad'acen t to the Cuya m a cas o n the east . T heseare probably of as an c ien t or igin as any now i n th e remembran ce of theIndians

,and date far back to th e t ime when th e an imals were the bro thers of

man,sp eak ing h is language

,and the var ious de it ies were of m iracu lous birth .

ROM Out of E n -yak ’ one knows how ,

nor when , nor where , came a woman , and dweltin a cave in the mountains , and her name w as

Seen-u-how ’. This happened in the long forgot

ten days , and no one can tell exactly how shelooked . Sometimes she was young and beautiful '

again she appeared as a wizened , old hag , feeble , and bent withage . One only knows that she existed from the beginning oftime , possessing the power of dispelling her age by bathing inAh-h a ’ Kwe ’se-i (Bewitched Water) .She lived alone in her cave , and one morning when sh e went

down to an enchanted pool of clear spring water to bathe andrenew her youth , she found How-wak ’

(twins) floating on thebosom of its limpid pureness . In those days man was not bornof woman , but sprang in infancy from the living water of crystalsprm g s .

Home to her cave she took the twin boys and that night theygrew in some marvelous , mysterious manner to full-fledged man

Page I9

Lag una

hood ' but as different as are the deepest twilight shadows fromthe rose-light blush of dawn .

The one she named Par-a-han was pensive and sad of heart,

while the other, called Sat-e-co’

, sparkled with laughter andsong .

Many , many ages did they live in the cave with Seen-uhow ’

, never growing any older, neither did their dispositionsvary . Par-a-han ’ was always sorrowful , Sat-e-co

’ ever gay .

From the young shoots of an elderberry bush they fashioneda flute on which Sat-el co ’ played joyous melodies as he wandered far and near o ’er the country . Haunting , rippling , lilting ,little tunes that floated off on the breeze .

One day two Indian maids , in the far distance , heard theecho of those seductive tones and stole away from their peopleto follow t h e enchanting strains . Finally reaching the placewhere dwelt Seen-u-how ’ with her sons , they became enamoredof

.

the How-wak’ (twins) ' and they staid and became theirW I ves .

Yet they dared not remain away from their people for anylength of time , for fear they might be followed and punished .

For the Chief , th eir father, had h eard of the woman of magica

l

r

l

rd her queer sons , and forbidden any of his tribe to go neart em .

So , regretfully telling Par-a-han ' and Sat-e-co ’ good-bye ,and promising to com e back to them as quickly as possible , thetwo Indian women returned to their home , never saying wherethey had been . Their father, who was an exceedingly wise man ,surmised the truth , however , and kept close guard over themlest they go again . He knew that after awhile the How-wak ’

(twins) would come seeking , and then he could kill them .

Darkness followed the light, and time went on . Par-a-hanand Sat-e-co' grew tired of waiting and told Seen-u-how ’ thatthey intended to search for their women and bring them backto live in the cave again .

Seen-u-how '

, knowing all things ere they happened , warnedthem of the Chieftain ’s anger ' begged them not to go , and foretold the horrible manner in which death would overtake them .

Heeding not her warning , and feeling sure of outwitting theChief , nothing could dissuade them . But before setting out onth eir j ourney across the wilderness of mountains , they twisteda long rope from the strong fibre of the mescal plant, stretchingit taut from one pine tree to another in front of their cave .

They told their mother,should any evil befall them , the rope

would break in the center and one end fly to Ka-tulch (North)and the other fly to Ka-wak ’

(South ) . Then they started offto find their wives .

Page 20

The trail was long and beset with many difficulties . Whenthey reach ed the border of the great Chief

s domain , they laiddown to rest before making the final dash after his daughters .But he

,with some of h is warriors , discovered them while they

slept,and seized them , putting them to death after the most

hideous tortures .Seen-u-how '

, desolate and forsaken in the cave , knew theywere dead ere she peered out of the gloom and beheld the ropeof mescal parted in twain , the one end h aving flown to Ka-tu lch(North) , and the other to Ka-wak

(South ) . Loudly, and longshe wailed and wept for her departed How-wak ' (twins) . Thenin anguish disappeared in E n -yak ’

(East) mysteriously as shehad arrived— no one knows how

,nor when

,nor where .

Bu t there is a point on Ah-h a’ Mut-ta-ti’ e (Water Moun

tains) where one may stand and look out across the vaststretches of desert sand while the mystic shades of night aredeepening, and see a light in the far east ,— a light like theflicker of a torch . As one looks it illumines a cave in whichsits an old woman , h ag gered and shriveled , and all alone. Thenher image vanishes . Lookin g again one sees the form of abeautiful maiden , in all the glory of her youth ' her long, blackhair shines in the glimmering light , and the beads of her necklace sparkle like twinkling stars . She too

,is alone

, an d fadesaway .

It is Seen-u-how ’ dwelling in E n -yak ' (East) , and there sherenews her youth from time to time by bathing in the dew ofthe fleecy clouds which float about her

Page Z I

fi BBI I -i I -hflfil’

gaunt-pad (Old Wom an'

s Whip )

fl n oth er s tory of th e Lagunas te lls h ow S een -u-how ' marked the birds andan imals wi th her Hum -po o

'

(wh ip) . T h e Hum -poo'

(wh ip) is a s tick ofto ugh wo od shaped l ike a half circle and very sharp at o ne end. T h e Indiansco u ld throw the Hum -poo

'

(wh ip) wi th great accuracy and often used it tok ill game .

OM EWH E RE on the precipitous side of ' Ah-h a ’

Mut-ta-ti ’e (Water Mountains) where the atmosph ere quivers with a mystical radiance , and rocksassume fantastic shapes , is a cave formed like ahalf moon . Seen-u-how the old woman of magic

,

lived there in olden times with her How-wak ’

(twins) ' one of whom was so happy and light-hearted that helaughed and . sang the whole day long , wh ile the other was exceedin g ly quiet and sad , spend ing most -of his time in the darkshadows of the cave bemoaning his fate .

The j oyous son wandered back and forth o ’er the mountainsday after day . Free from care he roamed , making friends withthe birds and animals ' talking with them , and learning theirwisdom . They, in turn , became devoted to him , often following him home

,even staying there at timeswhen he was on d is

tant journey s .In those days the animals resembled each other so closely

(as did the birds also) , that they‘could hardly be told apart , and

they all had the gift of speech .

But Seen-u-how’ and the sorrowfu l son never said a word tothem

,though at times so many congregated there t hat the cave

was crowded to overflowing .

The animals could see , however , the weird , mysteriousthings which transpired there in the dim light . Sometimes theylooked at the wrinkled face of old Seen-u-how and she changedinto a beautiful maiden

,clad in finest buckskin , wearing strings

of glittering beads around her neck , on her feet were moccasinswoven from the mescal plant , such as t hefleet runners wore onlong j ourneys

,and she seemed short of breath as though having

come swiftly a long distance . Meanwh ile , the son of t h e saddened heart softly wailed and mourned out his dismal life .

One day,when most of the people of the animal world had

gathered in the cave,Huta—pah ’

(Coyote ) felt a drop of watersplash on h is face. He wh ispered to the other people that itmust be raining . The shadows were so deep he could not seethat the woe-be-gone son sat weeping near him in the gloom .

The others thought Huta-pah ’

(Coyote) was mistaken , butsaid he

,

' Hush ' listen ' and you can hear the drops falling .

'

Page 22

And listening,they did hear the patter of t h e tear-drops fa ll in g

from the eyes of the sorrowful one , yet knew not what it was .

So they all rushed th rough the low opening of the cave to seeif it really was raining .

This angered Seen-u-how ’ and , as they dashed by her, shestruck each one with her Hum-poo (whip ) ' not killing any, butgreatly changing their appearance , however .

She made three marks down the back of Ma—pa ' cha (Badger) ' tore the tail of Huta—pah (Coyote) , and now it i s bushyinstead of long and pointed ' pounded Nim-me ’

(Wildcat) sohard that the marks of t h e blows remain on its body yet ' Quck(D eer) carried a long tail before it was whacked off by the Humpoo ’

(whip) 'poor To-luk’

(owl) had his eyes so injured that he only sees by night since then ' even the smallest bird of all , with itsruby colored throat , shows where it felt the flick of the whip .

Scarcely a beast or a bird of the wildwood but received th atday some mark of Seen-u-how ’s Hum-poo ’

(whip) , and that isthe reason they can now be distinguished one from another

Page 23

ififm d'

ah Ifiu’

e~ah (S ong Danc e)One of th e anc ien t ri tes performed in by-go ne days by th e Indians dwell

ing in th e v i llage H elsh -ow'

N a -w a'

(R abbit House) at th e fo o t of th e Cuyamaca P eak w as th e Kw u t

'

a h Lu'

e-ah (S o ng-D ance) given in honor of In'

ya(S un ) ' T h e summ it of V ie'as m oun ta in , 'ust o n th e o th er s ide of th e ir v illage ,was ch os en as the p lac e for th is celebratio n to be held, and they

‘nam ed the m ounta in Kwa t

'

ah Lu '

e-ah (S ong-D an ce) o n accoun t of i t .

ONG b e f o re Kwut’ah Lu ’

e-ah (Song -D ance )mountain fel l into the hands of See-i (Evil One) ,the Indians made a pilg rimage once

'

a year to itsvery top to watch In ’

ya (Sun) come out of E nyak ’

(East) , and praise and h onor him with songand dance . For In ’ya (Sun) was the great Ruler

of All Things . He governed the universe ' he commanded theearth ' noth ing grew unless he caused it ' he even dominated thebodies of men , some of whom he made energetic and strong ,others weak and lazy . When hedissappeared at night he casta drowsiness o ’

er the worl ,d so that everything slept until it wastime for him to come again in the morning . Such a greatruler as he , received due reverence and worship .

For many preceding moons th e young Braves preparedthemselves for the race which began the celebration of Kwut ’

ah Lu ’

e-ah (Song-D ance) . They ate no meat, nuts , or oily

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