smith & ragan instructional design theory
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- 1. Gurminderjeet Kaur a/p Kartar Singh (P66326) Siti Nadia binti Mohamad (P66515)
- 2. S & R model is rooted in the learning theory of Robert Gagne. S & R model is a system-oriented model Suitable for large amounts of instruction e.g entire course or curriculum focuses on developing strategies The design process is iterative
- 3. Analysis Strategy Development Evaluation Each phase is interconnected with each other
- 4. Has 4 components a) contextual analysis (need assessment, description of environment) b) learner analysis (cognitive characteristics) c) task analysis (6 primary step in conducting task analysis) d) planning for assessment of the learning ( 6 sequenced step in designing the assessment)
- 5. 3 characteristics Organizational The expanded events of instruction (expanded version of Gagnes Nine Events) - to sequence events at the lesson level Delivery Developing specific knowledge of instruction Management Scheduling and allocation of resources.
- 6. Implementation Putting designs into use in the intended context Four key concept of implementation: diffusion, dissemination, adoption and stakeholders Encourage implementation by stages of the adoption process: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption, and integration. Management Design team + managers function efficiently Larger project scope = more documentation Evaluation Determines if the instructional strategies and materials function as intended. Formative and summative evaluation
- 7. Smith and Ragan proposed a summary of their theories in two points: 1. An optimal instructional strategy goes as far toward the generative pole as possible while providing sufficient support for learners to achieve learning in the time possible, with a limited and acceptable amount of frustration, anxiety and danger. 2. During instruction in a particular knowledge area/ learning task, the instruction should progressively move toward the generative pole, as learners gain skill, knowledge, motivation and confidence.
- 8. Christopher, A. Model Resource. Retrieved on 21st March 2014 from http://www.angelachristopher.net/uploads/8/3/2/4/832462 /model_resourceassignment.pdf Moore, D., Bates, A. & Grundling, J. 2002. Instructional Design. Skills Development through Distance Education 71. Retrieved on 21st March 2014 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.18 0.7948&rep=rep1&type=pdf http://prezi.com/ku1ynlfjwywj/smith-ragan-instructional- model/