social transformation and media

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Social Transformation and Media: Realities and Challenges

Social Transformation and Media: Realities and ChallengesGENDER & MEDIA: Connections and Possibilities Mira K Desai Associate Professor & I/C HODUniversity Department of Extension EducationSNDT Womens University, Juhu Campus, Mumbai

1,18,59,58,045 people

Social Transformation..Isnt it an inevitable process of time? Is it a reality of today or future?Is it our creation of the world that we live in?What is getting TRANFROMED!! People or Technology or both? Is there anything SOCIAL about it?Is it happening in reality?


Indian Media Journey in NumbersMEDIATHENNOWNewspapers and Periodicals3000 in 1947 including 300 dailies93,985 registered publications by Dec 2012 Television Two-hour/day transmission on ONE channel and 41 TV Sets in 1962850 channels with 24X7 telecast and from 127 million in 2008 to 253 million households in 2010Films280 films in 1947 and had 150 theatres in 19211250 productions in 2010 having 13000 Cinema hallsRadio1 AM radio channel in 1947Multiple Stations: AM , FM, Community, Campus InternetInception in 1995, 4.55 million users in 2004160 ISPs, 71 million claimed users

We all Consume MEDIA

Look & SeeHear & ListenBelieve & Agree

MEDIA can be for.


Audio Media

Visual Media

Visual Media

Audio- Visual Media

Out Of House Media

Out of House Media

New Media

Media Sector AvenuesMass Media:Print: Newspapers & MagazinesRadioTVFilmsOther Media:Publishing: BooksMobile & TelecomInternetOutdoors & EventsAdvertisingActingJournalismPublic relationsGraphics-GamingBeauty & Make UpArt & DesignComputer AnimationFitnessFoodTransport

Main Stream Media TODAY..Creates HAPPY HAPPY or Sad Sad realitiesSkewed representations- one way realitiesPromotes PRESENT orientationProjects LIFESTYLES, Values consumerism, Rejects idealism, Negates rationalismAlliances with other sectors of society making the circle of influence deeper

UNREAL Realities

Trends in last two decadeOwnershipCo-existence of big and smallDistributionDigitisation & Last mile, Globalisation

ConsumptionMultiple access points, Lack of loyaltyFragmented attention

What is Gender?

Gender is constructedINSTITUTIONS

Family Education Religion Caste State Media MarketDefinitionsRoleQualitiesBehaviourValuationCONTROLS

Fertility Labour Mobility Property Resources Sexuality

WE definePEOPLE-men/women?


GENDER/Women - MediaWomen as shown in Media (subjects)Women who use Media (as audiences) Women who work in Media (professionals)Womens media ( media created by women)Women who work for those who work in media (Support services- makeup, hair, catering, stylists, etc.)

Women as Performers

In front of Camera - Behind CameraWith lots of clothes - Without clothes

Women as News Subjects

Women as Presenters

WOMEN as MEDIA Audiences

Women as Technicians

Women as CommunicatorsNovelistsJournalistsWritersDirectorsProducersFinancersPaintersSculpture artists

PoetsSingersDancersActressesFolk ArtistsPresentersAnchorsPhotographers

Women as Communicators

Women Communicators

PRIVATE ROLES attached to SEX WOMENMotherWifeSisterFriendsDaughterDaughter-in-lawMother-in-lawSister-in-lawMENFatherHusbandBrotherFriendsSonSon-in-lawFather-in-lawBrother-in-law

QUALITIES expected of SEXESWOMENPassiveSubmissiveDomesticatedDelicatePrettyCuteCaring


Behaviour expected from SEXWOMENAgree with what others sayBehave as expected in a given roleDefined boundaries of movementMENLead the wayTake control of situationLead others and given discounts to women as stupidFree to do anything

Valuation attached to SEXWOMENWhat they do in house is not of much valueIf she is working outside and independent she is ignoring familyMENIF they do any work in house they are obliging womenIf he is working from home, helping wife, he is good husband



Why difference in these women!!!Media likes to show women as suffering, sacrificing, submissive, silent, subdued, passive individual driven by others.Media creates stereotypes of mother-daughter-wife-sister which fits into subordinate roles.Media promotes women as body- worker without strength- person without own power.

MEDIA- What does it do?MIRRORs the Society..Creates MARKET by selling you ideas, products, services..MEDIATES experiences of its audiences.Provides MYTHs..Circulates and sustains themCREATES definitions of NORMAL

Media and GenderMedia creates definitions about: Who are these people?What wo/men should wear? When and where wo/men should move? How should wo/men behave? Media stereotypes Gender realities.Media perpetuates Gender existences.Media conditions gendered experiences.

Media creates DefinitionsMan should be metro-sexual.Woman should be sexy.Woman should be size ZERO.Girls are cute/vulnerable/sweet.Man can/should control women.Man is the head of the household.Woman have to/must marry.Man is free to make multiple alliances.

Media stereotypes RealitiesMother-in-law and daughter-in-law always fight, What about Father Son?Women cant be friends to each other, how many friendships do we have!!Husband has a rights over the wife, What about rights of the wife?Children are mothers responsibility, arent they joint pleasures/responsibility?

Media perpetuates Gender existencesWomen are dying to get male attention.Women need to look beautiful.Woman are body and man are brain.Woman can not survive without man.When woman say NO it is yes?Woman has no SAY in decisions of her life!Womans first priority is HOME.

Role of MEDIA Informal educator for the youngInterface for individual with societyMirror-voices of the societyPreserver of CultureRepresentation of voicelessInclusion of excluded populationSpace for sustaining democracyNOT merely a PRODUCT to make & sell

We must

Look & SeeHear & ListenBelieve & Agree


GMMP- Global Media Monitoring Projectlargest and longest longitudinal study on the gender in the worlds media.largest advocacy initiative in the world on changing the representation of women in the media. participants ranging from grassroots community organizations to university students and researchers to media and

GMMP over the yearsFIVE so far: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 20152010-10 November 2015- March 25Volunteer groups in 140 countries across the world monitored national newspapers, listened to radio newscasts and watched local television A snapshot of the representation and portrayal of women and men in news media around the world-

WOMEN and Media.asNews Providers/SourcesMedia ProfessionalsNews SubjectsPortrayal in news

GMMP 2010Sample: 6,902 news items and 14,044 news subjects, including people interviewed in the news.Themes: Politics/government dominate the biggest chunk of coverage (27% of the total number of stories), crime/violence comes second at 20%, and the economy third at 18%.People: 24% of the people interviewed, heard, seen or read about in mainstream broadcast and print news are female; only 16% of all stories focus specifically on women. Change: GMMP 1995 recorded only 17% of the people in the news were women which became 24% n 25% in 2015. ONLY 8% rise in visibility of women in last 20 years.

GMMP: Global Local.Gender??GlobalIndiaMumbaiWomen as News subjects24% 76% M22% 78% M 20% 74% MWomen news reporters37%34%14%Women central stories13%12%8%Gender policy reference10%9%6%Highlighting G. equality6%5%8%


ChallengesWomen/people as human being Individual with aspirations, needs, lifePeople as equal partners of civilizationWomen for being what she is rather than what she should beMen as essential players in the process of empowerment of women

PossibilitiesMedia literacy and gender sensitization as curricular change for general public as well as media students and professionalsIndividual users can boycott media that represent gender in inappropriate mannerSupport alternate media spacesMedia houses can take on gender sensitive portrayal and education as their mandateSociety to give women their dues

THANK YOU for your TIME & ATTENTIONfeel free to [email protected]@[email protected]