spotted wing drosophila / brown marmorated stink...

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IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension 05/15/2013 1 Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture Specialist Grant Bolton Doctoral student Spotted Wing Drosophila (a vinegar fruit fly) Significance Unlike other fruit flies, SWD attacks sound ripening fruit, also attacks some vegetables Once eggs laid in fruit, no longer able to control with pesticides Short lifecycle and overlapping generations make spray timing difficult Requires sprays near harvest time Requires multiple sprays which can lead to pesticide resistance How to identify SWD Serrated egg- laying structure (ovipositor) MALE FEMALE Flies with no dots on wings could be: SWD females Native Drosophila species Need to detect presence of ovipositor Ovipositing female SWD. Source: E. Beers, Washington State Univ. 1 female = 300 eggs 150 females = 45,000 eggs 22,500 females = almost 7 million eggs The “1 - 2 - 3” IPM Approach for SWD This and other SWD articles available at: http://ipm.missouri.edu/ipcm/ and http://www.LU-IPM.net

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Page 1: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

1

Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Patrick ByersRegional Horticulture Specialist

Grant BoltonDoctoral student

Spotted Wing Drosophila(a vinegar fruit fly)

Significance

Unlike other fruit flies, SWD attacks sound ripening fruit, also attacks some vegetables

Once eggs laid in fruit, no longer able to control with pesticides

Short lifecycle and overlapping generations make spray timing difficult

Requires sprays near harvest time

Requires multiple sprays which can lead to pesticide resistance

How to identify SWD

Serrated egg-laying structure

(ovipositor)

MALEFEMALEFlies with no dots on wings could be:

SWD femalesNative Drosophila

species

Need to detect presence of ovipositor

Ovipositing female SWD. Source: E. Beers, Washington State Univ.

1 female = 300 eggs150 females = 45,000 eggs22,500 females = almost 7 million eggs

The “1-2-3” IPM Approach for SWD

This and other SWD articles available at: http://ipm.missouri.edu/ipcm/ and http://www.LU-IPM.net

Page 2: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

2

(1) Monitoring

How to make a trap to monitor for SWD

14 gauge solid core wire

Melt 3/16” diameter holes in side of cup using a soldering iron

DON’T USE STICKY CARD!

1 quart deli-type container

Yeast bait recipe: ½ tablespoon active

dry yeast, 2 tablespoons sugar, 6

oz. water

Yeast / sugar bait: effective at trapping SWD

Traps indicate presence of SWD; but they do not indicate level of infestation (egg-laying in fruit)

Number of flies captures are not predicting potential for infestation

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Seasonal SWD captures in 2014St. Peters, MO

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Seasonal SWD captures in 2014Columbia, MO

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Carver

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Seasonal SWD captures in 2014Four locations (Carver = LU farm in JC) Monitoring Spotted

Wing Drosophila with Traps and Plant Volatiles

Grant BoltonDoctoral student

Advisors: Bruce Barrett and Jaime PiñeroUniversity of Missouri - Columbia

Page 3: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

3

How many are using traps to monitor for SWD?

How many use a commercial lure?

How many use a homemade lure?

WHY?

Characteristics of a good trap

Easy to use

Cheap/affordable

Catches flies at least one week before infestation

Only catches SWD

Red and

black are

better

attractive

trap colors

An

alternative

‘Zorro’ trap

is red with

black stripe

Common bait is Apple Cider Vinegar or Yeast and Sugar mixture

A good commercial alternative for SWD monitoring is the SWD Pherocon lure (available at Great Lakes IPM)

Other commercial lures are available (e.g., Scentry, AlphaScents)

Page 4: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

4

Fruit Based Lure

Developing an attractive lure based on fruit and leaf odors

Key component is a leaf odor from strawberries

Not only is it attractive to SWD, but it smells better than the commercial lure!

Tested 12

chemicals

individually

and then in

combination

β-cyclocitral (BC)Methyl Isovalerate (MI)Methyl Butyrate (MB)Butyl Acetate (BA)Isopentyl Acetate (IA)Ethyl Hexanoate (EH)Methyl Hexanoate (MH)Ethyl Acetate (EA)Hexyl Acetate (HA)Methyl Butyrate (MB)2-Heptanone (2HN)2-phenylethanol (2PE)

We were getting higher selectivity with fruit

based traps

Field trials coming soon!

Testing all 8 compounds along with commercial lure comparison

Alan T Busby Organic Farm–Jeff City, MO

Update on trapping… Attracticidal

Spheres

Use attractive red sphere with insecticide coating

Coupled with spraying could be effective IPM tool

Removing over-ripe fruit from production areas can minimize SWD egg laying and larval development

Growers in other regions of the country send pickers through fields with one container to collect good fruit and another container to collect over-ripe fruit

Sanitation

http://ucanr.edu

(2) Cultural practices

Page 5: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

5

For brambles, thin the plant row to 3-4 strong canes per square foot. This eliminates weaker shoots and opens the canopy

Consider a trellising system that similarly opens the canopy

The above may make plantings less attractive to SWD and will improve insecticide spray coverage

Canopy management

Photo credit: http://www.eandborchards.com

(3) Insecticides

MOST EFFECTIVE INSECTICIDES AGAINST SWD INCLUDE

ORGANOPHOSPHATES (2 OPTIONS LISTED)

CARBAMATES (2 OPTIONS LISTED)

PYREHTROIDS (3 OPTIONS LISTED)

SPINOSYNS (3 OPTIONS LISTED)

ANTHRANILIC DIAMIDE (1 OPTION LISTED)

Choose / use insecticides wisely

Effective and safest options

to minimize impact to non-

targets

F = fairG = goodE = excellent

The alternate row middle method involves skipping an alley so that only one side of each plant row is treated.

During the next application, the spray equipment travels down these skipped alleys and treats the previously non-sprayed side of the rows so that, after two temporally separated applications, both sides of each planting row are treated.

Alternate row middle and border sprays provide control of SWD similar to complete spray applications, thereby showing that reduced spray application strategies are important management tools for this pest.

For use with spray equipment

Reduced spray treatments against SWD resulted in higher numbers of natural enemies and lowered input costs.

Reduced spray strategies may be implemented in low-risk situations and perhaps integrated with other non-insecticide pest management tools

Microbial-based insecticide.

Spinosad is a fast-acting, somewhat broad-spectrum material that acts on the insect primarily through ingestion, or by direct contact with a spray droplet or a newly treated surface.

Cost: ca. $ 400 per quart.

Spinosad residues on the leaf surface are be broken down by sunlight. Half-lives for spinosyn A are 1.6 to 16 days depending

on the amount of sunlight receivedEntrust: One of the most effective OMRI-listed products against SWD

Organic (OMRI-listed) options

Pyrethrins are natural-botanical insecticides found in daisy-like Chrysanthemum flowers.

Pyrethrins are contact poisons which quickly penetrate the nerve system of the insect.

Cost: Ca. $510 for 1 gallon

Organic (OMRI-listed) options

Page 6: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

6

Spinetoram is a new chemical in the spinosyn class of insecticides

It is a semi-synthetic spinosyn (not for certified organic production)

Even more effective than Entrust

Delegate: Effective, but not OMRI-listed

How to make insecticide sprays against SWD more effective

All fruit flies have sponging-lapping mouthparts, so they must feed on liquids

Sugar is a phagostimulant (food component that induces sustained feeding )

Add 2 pounds of sugar / 100 gallons water

(5 table spoons / gallon)

Brown MarmoratedStink Bug (BMSB)

Injury Diagnostics in Blueberry

BMSB will feed on blueberries at all stages of fruit development

Feeding on green fruit can result in discoloration at the feeding site (see picture)

Sunken purple/red areas may form around the feeding site

Feeding on mature fruits can cause softening of fruit and necrosis of tissues under the berry skin. In this case, the discoloration at the feeding site is minimal.

Did you get a hard copy of this document?

Available at: http://www.stopbmsb.org

Enhanced pheromone lure: Stink Bug Xtra Combo

Pheromone lure inside

the trap top

Monitoring

Page 7: Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bugextension.missouri.edu/blueberry/documents...Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture

IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

05/15/2013

7

Monitoring

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

Live BMSB found in

Springfield

Aug. 24th:

1 BMSB nymph

collected near St.

Louis (Ferguson

area) using sweep nets

Nov

Jul. 25th:

1 BMSB adult found inside

home in St. Louis

Oct. 22nd:

3 BMSB in 1 trap

(Ferguson) +

Live BMSB found in Hillsboro

(10.15) and Tuxton(10.22)

Dec. 15th:

1 BMSB adult found inside home

in Bloomsdale

Sep. 28th:

26 adult BMSB

captured in 2

pheromone-baited traps (Ferguson)

2016

Management

Effective management requires information about the behavior and biology of the pest

1) Proximity to woods is a risk factor for ag crops. Proximity to soybeans has been a risk factor for MD nurseries

2) Management mostly using insecticides, almost no other options (trap cropping / biological control very limited)

3) Like many tough-to-control pests, earlier life stages more susceptible to insecticides, especially true for organic options.

4) Overwintering adults more susceptible than first generation adults

Insecticides

FEWER OPTIONS THAN THOSE AVAILABLE

FOR SWD GIVEN THAT BMSB IS MORE

DIFFICULT TO KILL!

Neonicotinoid

Pyrethroid

Carbamate

Carbamate

AZERA® is expected to be one of the most effective OMRI-listed insecticides

Tank mixing with Surround® can provide better prospect of control

Pyrethrins and pyrethrins + kaolin clay (trade mark:

Surround) resulted in knockdown effects on BMSB yielding significantly higher lethality immediately after

4.5-h exposure to dried residues.

Extract of

Eucalyptus sp

Grandevo

Venerate

Organic (OMRI-listed) options

Preliminary findings from other researchers:

Combining pheromone lures, pollenless sunflowers(earlier in the season) and sorhgum (later in the season) can attract BMSB away from cash crops.

BMSB need to be killed using insecticides

Attract-and-Kill / Trap Cropping

Thank You!

Questions?