t7 basic photography-final-
Embed Size (px)
- EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 1 TOPIC 7 BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY SYNOPSIS This topic introduces the basic photography where students will be able to find some shooting techniques that have diversified. By learning the basics of photography students were also able to identify parts of a camera. With the latest digital era students will fill more challenging for the use of photography in education. TITLE FRAME 7.1 The history of photography 7.2 Basic parts and functions of the camera 7.3 Types and camera accessories 7.4 Types of films 7.5 Techniques of shooting 7.6 Composition 7.7 Digital photography 7.1 Development History of Photography History has shown the existence of photography since the late 19th century where the first photo was made in 1826 for 8 hours. The term Photography derived from the word photography that was originated from the greek word meaning light (phos) and write (graphien). Louis Jacques Mande Daquerre was the first to introduce photography and he is also known as the father of the world of photography (1837). Obscura camera is the first camera that used to draw then photographing. Kodak cameras (Kodak Eastmant) was first found by Snapshooter 1888 in America. Edward Muybridge was the the person who contribute photography into the world of film. Flash or the flash was first discovered by Harold E.Edgerton in 1938. Photographing dead things called still life. The discovery of negative film by John Hendri Fox Talbot made for 40 seconds under the scorching sun.
EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 2 Basic Photography Try to think. How important is photography in the process of producing materials for teaching and learning? Basically all cameras are the same. It is a box with a hole that controls light on one end and a space to put the film on the other end. These openings allow light into the box and shone to the film that was already inserted to form an image. The more complex the building / structure of a camera, the more complete the mechanism. The completeness and efficiency of this mechanism will also affect the results. To produce a decent result, a camera must have: i. A tool that allows users to view the camera direct to the target. This section is called the view finfer. It allows users to view the target. ii. An opening called the aperture that allows light into the camera. iii. A lens which collect light and project the image onto the film. iv. A closing and opening device of the lens that can be controlled is known as shutter. v. A button called shutter release which when pressed will open the shutter curtain briefly enough to let light into the camera and create an image on the film. vi.Film with light sensitive surface facing the lens.. vii. Tools to roll film. viii. A focusing mechanism to change the position of the lens backwards and forwards so that it can produce sharp image. EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 3 7.2 Parts of Camera A camera consists of several parts and components Diagram 1: Basic Parts of Camera Source (Book): Teknologi dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran 7.2.1 Lens The lens is used to form a clear image on the surface of the film in the camera. The main feature of a camera is the focus distance. Lens with different focal length can form different image on different film size. The distance of a focal length is measured in mm unit. Normal focal distance will form an image of a normal saiz no matter what types of camera used. Normal focal distance is different depending on the film saiz used as follow: EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 4 Film size Normal focal length 110 25 mm 126/127 45 mm 35 50 mm 120 75 mm Types of Lens i. Wide Angle Lens Size 6 mm - 45 mm. Used for shooting scenery or narrow space. Distant view of the area. ii. Standard or Normal Lens Size 43 mm 50 mm. Most used. View size is almost the same as seen by normal human eye. iii. Telefoto Lens 85 mm 120 mm Used for shooting portrait picture 135 mm 200 mm Suitable for shooting sports event 300 mm 600 mm suitable for moving target, nature, wild life iv. Zoom Lens Zoom lens is a lens that contains a combination of lenses in one unit of either normal angle to wide or wide angle to normal. Zoom lens is normally used in situation where subjects or targets always changes its position. In this situation a photographer have no time to change to different lens. 28 mm - 50 mm wide to normal angle 50 mm 100 mm normal to moderate angle 70 mm 200 mm normal to distant angle 135 mm 300 mm moderate to distant angle EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 5 Diagram 2 : Zoom Lens Sumber : Canon Marketing Malaysia 7.2.2 Shutter The shutter is a curtain that covers the surface of the film from light. The Shutter curtain will only be open for a certain period of time so that the film is exposed to light sufficiently to get a good photograph. Shutter curtain will only be open for a certain period of time just enough to get a good photograph. The index speed of a shutter are shown with these numbers: B, 1, 2, 4, 6, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000. These numbers indicate a fraction of a second. Thus 1 means one of a second, 2 means half of a second, 4 means quarter of a second and so on. These fractions show that the bigger the number the faster the speed of the shutter curtain opens and closes. They also mean that the shotter time the shutter curtain opens the shotter time the film exposed to the light and vice versa. Thus a shutter is a mechanism that controls the time where light enters the lens. Diagram 3 : Shutter Release /Shutter Speed EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 6 7.2.3 Aperture Aperture is an opening in the lens. The size of the opening can be adjusted through the aperture ring. Through this adjustment the aperture size can be modify (big or small). The size of the aperture will determain the amount of light passes through the lens. Thus the function of the aperture is to control the amount of light entering the lens . Too little light will under exposed the film and too much will over exposed it. In this case a photographer should know how to control the amount of light. He has to regulate the aperture ring and choose an appropriate aperture scale. The size of an aperture is measured with f/stop number. Thus you can see the number such as 2.8/3.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32 on the aperture ring. These numbers indicate that the smaller the number the bigger the size of the aperture and the bigger the number the smaller the aperture (see the diagram below). Nevertheless these number scales depend on the types of lenses used. Expansive lens usually has wide range of aperture scale of f/ number. F2.8/3.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f22 Diagram 4 : Aperture Diagram 5 : Apertur ring and scale EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 7 7.2.4 Focus Focusing is a process to change the lens distance from the film surface so that a clear image is formed on the film surface. This process is done by rotating the lens focusing ring while the photographer view the subject in the viewfinder. Doubled or blured image shows that the object is out of focus. Clear image shows that the object is in focus. Diagram 6 : Focusing ring and distance scale 7.3 Types of cameras There are several types of cameras available in the market. Among them is a disk camera, instant camera, cartridge camera, reflects camera and large format cameras. 7.3.1 Fixed Focus Camera This type of camera has no focusing mechanism. There was only a view finder a little further from the lens position. Most of these cameras have a fixed aperture and cannot be modified. But there's also a type with simple aperture adjustment marked with the symbols as follows: EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 8 Diagram 7 : Fixed Focus Camera Exercise 7.1 You are required to find information about the types of cameras and the basic parts of the camera. Then discuss with your partner the types of cameras available in the market today. 7.3.2 Range finder camera This camera has a focusing mechanism on the lens and its shape is similar to a fixed focal camera. The mechanism allows the photographer to adjust the lens (to focus) in order to get clear and sharp images. To take pictures in bright sunlight and significant shadows. To take pictures in bright light but with vague shadows. To take pictures in cloudy day with little shadows . EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 9 7.3.3 Single Lens Reflects (SLR) SLR cameras do not have a view finder in the front. It only has a view finder at the rear. The image seen in the view finder is actually the image that reflected (with the help of pentarisme) to the film through the lens. This camera is equipped with an interchangeable lens. Lens can be changed even if the camera is loaded with film without exposing it. It can also use a telephoto lens, wide angle lens, micro lens and other attachments. Diagram 8: Types of Single Lens Reflects cameras Source : Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff (1992) 7.3.4 Medium format camera This type of camera uses 120 or 220 film size with field size 60 mm x 60 mm. This camera is quite large and heavy. It is found in SLR type and TLR (Twin Lens Reflex). TLR type has two identical lenses mounted on top of each other. The top lens is used as the viewfinder while the objective lens attached underneath. Diagram 9 : Medium format camera (SLR type) Source : Razali Nor (1996 ) EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 10 Diagram 10: Medium format camera (TLR type) Source : Razali Nor (1996) 7.3.5 Large Format Camera Large format camera is a camera that uses film larger than the size of 120/220. Due to the large camera design, the camera of this type are often used by professional photographers in the studio to get the maximum quality pictures. Rajah 11 : Large format camera 7.3.6 Instant camera This type of camera can produce photos and slides in a short time span, between one to two minutes. The film surface is coated with a special chemical that can process the image into positive within a few seconds. EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 11 Diagram 12 : Instant Camera ( Polaroid) Source : Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff (1992) Exercise 7.2 Discuss with your partner the advantages available to each type of camera. Based on your reading, identify the extent of the difference between the functions of the medium format camera with a large format camera? 7.4 Types of films Film is a special plastic sheets that have a surface of light-sensitive chemicals. These chemicals will form images when exposed to light. The sensitivity of the film is measured by several scales such as ASA (American Standard Association), JIS (Japan Industrial Standards), DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norme) and ISO (International Standards Organizations). Diagram 13 : A type of film EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 12 22.214.171.124 Types of films Black and white film Black and white negative that produce black and white photo. Colour film Colour negatif that produce colour or black and white photo. Slide film Also known as positive film. It can produce colour slide or transparency and can be printed. 126.96.36.199 Film Speed A film is very sensitive to light. The sensitivity rate of a film is not the same. The higher the number, the more sensitive the film to light and vice versa. If you take pictures in the blazing light condition, the use of low-rate sensitivity is sufficient. For example, ASA/DIN 100 or 125. If you take pictures in dim light or dark places, the use of high sensitivity film is more suitable. For example, taking a picture of a candle light, lamps, lamp shade or a situation in stage drama (where light is not sufficient). In this situation the use of film ASA/DIN 400 to 1000 is appropriate. 1000 500 250 125 64 32 16 8 4 ASA ISO 31 28 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 DIN High speed Low speed Diagram 14 : Filem Speed EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 13 7.2.6 Exposure Meter An accurate way to determine exposure is by using exposure light meter. Light exposure meter is a small device that consists of a photoelectric cell, light scale and camera adjustment scale. Diagram 15 : Exposure meter Source : Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff 7.5 Shooting techniques There are various types of photographic shooting technique. Here are examples of shooting techniques: Diagram 16.1 : Close-up shot technique EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 14 Diagram 16.2 : Medium shot technique Diagram 16.3 : Long shot technique Diagram 16.4 : Action shot technique EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 15 Diagram 16.5 : Macro shot technique Diagram 16.6 : Portrait shot technique Diagram 16.7 : Perspective shot technique EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 16 Diagram 16.8 : Freeze shot technic Diagram 16.9 : Landscape shot technique Rajah 16.10 Symmetrical shot technical EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 17 Diagram 16.11 Silhouette shot technique Practical You are to take pictures using B-Stop technique, over laping image, medium shot, long shot and close-up shot. Discuss with your friends to facilitate you learn the techniques of shooting. 7.6 Composition There are many things to consider in the art of photography, including composition. Composition is related with; Emphasize more impact on visual communication. Determine the subject matter to be highlighted and its relation to the background. Determine the mood and the message to be delivered. The composition of digital images / photos can be repaired or changed using cropping technique in graphics software applications, photo retouching or scanning. EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 18 There are many techniques of composition, but what needs to be addressed is the practice of 'The Rule Of Thirds' in photography. What is The Rule Of Thirds? According to Bryan F. Paterson; The rule states that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. This is shown in the diagram below. Diagram 17 : 'The Rule Of Thirds' 7.7 Digital Photography Introduction of digital photography Digital photography do not use film. Instead this technology transfers electronic image to the light sensitive microchips known as CCD (Charged coupled Device). Allows photos to be taken and reviews directly on the camera. Can transfer images to a computer, can be edited, make colour and light adjustment and print the desired image and size. EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 19 Photo or image can be sent to web site through e-mail and can be shared through handheld organizer. Fast and versatile. Available in different size of mega pixels (the larger the mega pixels the better quality of the picture can be printed). Each image/picture can be stored as small as postage stamps. Can record as much as possible depends on the capacity of the memory card. Storing image/memory Using a memory like a computer stail instead of film The larger the memory the more image can be stored. Image can be stored in 3 forms of memory card. i. Smart Media card with different memory size such as 8 ,16 , 32 , 64,128 MB or even Gigabite (GB). This card can be inserted into the camera or computer through an adapter or attaching the camera to the computer with a cable to transfer the image/picture. ii. Compact Flash A card which can stored memory with different memory size such as 8 ,16 , 32 , 64,128 MB or even gigabite (GB). . ii. PCMCIA Card - This type of memory card is for specific camera only.` There are types of digital camera that can store images in the harddisk that is built in the camera. These type of cameras can be connected directly to a computer via a cable. Types of memory card : CompactFlash, PCMCIA, and SmartMedia EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 20 Image resolution for digital camera Image resolution is measured based on the amount of pixels. The amount of pixels determain the quality of the picture printed. The higher the pixels the less image can be stored in a memory card. 320 x 240 pixels (considered as low resolution) 640 x 480 pixels (considered as medium resolution) 1080 x 720 pixels (considered as high resolution. Suitable for high quality production). CONCLUSION Learning photography is particularly important among teachers because they can document the historical results or our daily activities so as to benefit all later. To what extent the types of camera used is not important. The most important is the quality of the picture. This module helps you learn a basic introduction of photography and some basic photographic techniques. BIBLIOGRAPHY Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D., & Smaldino, S.E. (edisi ke 5). (1996). Instructional media and technologies for learning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Poh Swee Hiang, Mokhtar Affandi Amran & Tajuddin Hassan. (1996). Pengurusan sumber pengajaran pembelajaran 2. Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd. Razali Nor (1995). Teknologi pendidikan: media unjuran dan media elektronik. Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd. Safian bin Abd. Rashid (2002). Pengurusan sumber: komponen teknologi pendidikan. Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff (1987). Teknologi pengajaran. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. EDU3105 T7-BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY 21 Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum (2008). Modul Pembelajaran Grafik Berkomputer (MPV) Teknik Pemerolehan Grafik. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. FotografiI N8 / 808 Pureview: Teknik Komposisi Aturan Sepertiga. Capaian 11 Oktober 2012. dari http://www.symbianku.my/fotografi-n8-808-pureview-teknik- komposisi-aturan-sepertiga/