taboo rap gen lec

14
Prepared By: Montalbo, Daniel Justin B. De Castro, Ralph Louis R.

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Page 1: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

Prepared By:Montalbo, Daniel Justin B.De Castro, Ralph Louis R.

Page 2: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that there are two alleles for every gene determining a specific characteristic, and these alleles are segregated into separate gametes during reproduction.

When the 2 different alleles occur together in one individual (heterozygote), the dominant allele will be the one that is expressed in the phenotype of the individual.

The Law of Addition is used to combine probabilities, when there are 2 or more ways to arrive at a given outcome.

The Law of Multiplication is used to combine probabilities of 2 or more different events that need to occur in combination.

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment says that 2 or more different genes, if found on separate chromosomes, are determined independently of each other.

Many characteristics have been found to follow patterns of inheritance that are modifications of Mendel’s rules.

Page 3: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

• genegene• alleleallele• dominantdominant• recessiverecessive• charactercharacter• traittrait• phenotypphenotyp

ee• genotypegenotype

• pure pure breedingbreeding

• hybridhybrid• homozygouhomozygou

ss• heterozygoheterozygo

usus• P (parental P (parental

generation)generation)

• FF11 (first (first filial filial generation)generation)

• FF22 (second (second filial filial generation)generation)

• Punnett Punnett SquareSquare

• forked forked lineline

• polygenespolygenes• contributcontribut

ory alleleory allele• non-non-

contributcontributory alleleory allele

• continuoucontinuous s variationvariation

• discontindiscontinuous uous variationvariation

Page 4: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

• Pre-Mendel beliefs in genetics: blending theory

• Augustinian monk and science teacher

• Why Pisum sativum?– Pea plants available in

many varieties• character (heritable feature)

• trait (character variant)

– Perfect flowers• cross-pollination and

self-pollination

– Short generation time– Many offspring

CHARACTERS TRAITS

Page 5: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

P Generation(true-breeding parents)

Purpleflowers

Whiteflowers

x

F1 Generation (hybrids)

All plants hadpurple flowers

F2 Generation

705 plants 224 plants

self-pollination

MONOHYBRID CROSS inheritance of a single trait

Page 6: Taboo Rap Gen Lec
Page 7: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

Allele for purple flowers

Locus for flower-color gene

Homologouspair ofchromosomes

Allele for white flowers

Alternative versions of genes exist (alleles)› Dominant› Recessive

Organism inherites 2 alleles› Dominant is fully

expressed› Recessive has no

visible effect Law of

segregation› 2 alleles for one

character separate and go to different gametes

Page 8: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

P Generation

F1 Generation

F2 Generation

P p

P p

Pp

P

p

PpPP

ppPp

Appearance:Genetic makeup:

Purple flowersPP

White flowerspp

Purple flowersPp

Appearance:Genetic makeup:

Gametes:

Gametes:

F1 sperm

F1 eggs

1/21/2

xTrue-breeding plants have identicalalleles.

Gametes each contain only one allele for the flower-color gene. Every gamete produced by one parent has the same allele.

F1 hybrids have a Pp combination. Purple-flower allele is dominant, all hybrids have purple flowers.

Hybrid plants produce gametes, two alleles segregate: half the gametes receiving the P allele and the other half the p allele.

3 : 1

Punnett square: shows all possible combinations of alleles in offspring from an F1 x F1 (Pp x Pp) cross.

Each square represents an equally probable product of fertilization.

Random combination of the gametesresults in the 3:1 ratio that Mendelobserved in the F2 generation.

Page 9: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

• Homozygous – identical alleles, true-breeding

• Heterozygous – different alleles

• Phenotype – physical appearance

• Genotype – genetic make-up

Page 10: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

X

Dominant phenotype,unknown genotype:

PP or Pp?

Recessive phenotype,known genotype:

pp

If PP,then all offspring

purple:

If Pp,then 1⁄2 offspring purpleand 1⁄2 offspring white:

p p

P

P

Pp Pp

PpPp

pp pp

PpPpP

p

p p

APPLICATION

An organism displaying the dominant phenotype can eitherbe homozygous or heterozygous for the trait. A test-cross willhelp determine which.

TECHNIQUE

The individual with the unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous individual expressing the recessive trait (white flowers in this example). By observing the phenotypes of the offspring resulting from this cross, we can deduce the genotype of the purple-flowered parent.

RESULTS

Page 11: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

Illustrates the inheritance of two characters

Produces four phenotypes in the F2 generation

Law of Addition - combines probabilities for mutually exclusive events

The Law of Multiplication - combines probabilities of 2 or more independent events that need to occur together

Page 12: Taboo Rap Gen Lec
Page 13: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

Forked Line Method

AaBbCc x AaBbCc

Page 14: Taboo Rap Gen Lec

1. Codominance – two dominant alleles affect

phenotype in separate ways

– both alleles manifest– e.g. roan coloring in

horses – both red and white

2. Incomplete dominance – phenotype of offspring is

between phenotypes of two parents

– e.g. red and white parents give rise to pink offspring

3. Multiple alleles– genes with more than two

alleles that control the phenotype

– e.g. ABO blood type system has 3 alleles--A,B,i. A and B are codominant, i is recessive to both