testing procedures for open circuit s. d. reimers

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AD/A-002 733 TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT AIR DIVING HELMETS AND SEMI-CLOSED CIRCUIT MIXED GAS DIVING HELMETS S. D. Reimers Navy Experimental Diving Unit Washington, D. C. 18 December 1973 F " DISTRIBUTED BY: N atioul Technical Infornatioui Sorvice U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE I _____________________ ______________

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Page 1: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

AD/A-002 733

TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUITAIR DIVING HELMETS AND SEMI-CLOSEDCIRCUIT MIXED GAS DIVING HELMETS

S. D. Reimers

Navy Experimental Diving UnitWashington, D. C.

18 December 1973

F "

DISTRIBUTED BY:

N atioul Technical Infornatioui SorviceU. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

I

_____________________ ______________

Page 2: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

If SE~~~CURirY CLSIICTO OFTI PAGE ("Oen Date Enterod__________________

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BFRED COMPLECTINFORM

I. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOTACCESSIONNO3.RIPE15CTLGUMR

4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED

Test Protocol open Circuit and DivingHelmets and Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas

*Diving Helmets 8. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMISER

7. AUTHOR(a) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) .

* S. D. Reimers

9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TAS14

Navy Experimental Diving Unit AE OKUI UBR

Washington Navy YardWashijigton, D. C. 20374 ___________

I I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATH

18 Dec 19737s. NUMBER OFPAGES

f4-. MONITORING AGENCY NAME &AODRESS(II diliforont from Controlling Office.) I5. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report)

UnclassifiedIISO, DECL ASSI F; CATI ON/ODOWN GRADING

SCHEDULE

IS. DISTRI9Ut~ STATEMENT (of thit Report) _

Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

17. OISTRI 0UTION MTTIEN T (of the abotract entered in Block 20, It different bons Repeat)

III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES .I9. KEY WORDS (Cootinu, on rover*@ side It nacessmy aid identify by block nhmber)

20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide It nocoommy and Identify by block numuber)

EDTION Or I NOV 05 12 OBSOLETE Ucasi e

DO I ~73 473 /N 012-01-660 d SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (W'mm Data Entered)

Page 3: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

NAVY EXPERIMENTAL DIVING UNIT

WASHINGTON NAVY YARD

WASHINGTON, D. C. 20374

NAVXDIVINGU REPORT 20-74

TESTING PROCEDURES FOROPEN CIRCUIT AIR DIVING HELMETS

ANDSEMI-CLOSED CIRCUIT MIXED GAS

DIVING HELMETS

S. D. REIMERS

18 December 1973

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

__ _ ii "Subbui ed: __Approvei.l .. •

S"SD..;. eimers ,T. L. Hawkins

SLT., USNR LCDR, USNOfficer in Charge

S~(Acting)

Page 4: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PageNO.

TABLE OF CONTENTS . .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES . .. .. .. .. .. .. . ii

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND TERMS . .. .. .. .. .. . .. iv

I•INTRO)DUCTION ... .. .. .... .. .. .

I.DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT TESTED .. .. .. . .. 3

A. Serial Numbers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 3

B. Photographs . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 3

C. Physical Description . . .. .. .. ..... 3

Ill. PERFORMANCE TESTS . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 5

A. Open Circuit Air Helmets . . . . . .. 5

I. Helmet Pressure-Volume Characteristic's (Compliance) 5

2. Air Supply System and Exhaust Valve Tests . . . 1.2

3. Sound Level Tests, Open Circuit Air . .. . .. 20

4. Venti~lation Tests, Open Circuit Air . .. . .. 31

5. Manned Dives, Subjective Evaluation .. . . 43

6. Manned Dives, Physiological Testing . .. . .. 50

B. Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas Helmets .. .. . .. 51

2i1. Helmet Pressure-Volume Characteristics (Compliance) 51

2. Venturi Efficiency and Exhaust Valve PerformanceTests . . . . . . . . .. 54

3. Sound Level Tests, Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas•iHelmet .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 61

4. Ventilation Tests, Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas 71

5. CO 2 Absorbent Canister Duration Tests . .. 83

Page 5: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

TABLE OF CONTENT~S

(Continued)

Page

6. Manned Dives, Subjective Evaluation, Semi-closed 88 iCircuit Mixed Gas Hel~met .. . . .

7. Manned Dives, Physiological Testing . .. 96

8. Emergency Air Mode Tests .. aa*. .a 97

IV. INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . a . 99

REFERENCES . a . . . . . a . . a . . . . . . . . . . . 100

APPENDIX A a a a . a a a a a a a a a a a . a a a a 101

21

Page 6: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

LIST OF FIGURES

PageNo.

1. Test Equipment Set-Up, Open Circuit Air HelmetCompliance Tests ................ ................. 7

2. Sample Helmet Compliance Test Results ........ 11

3. Test Equipment Set-up, Air Supply System and ExhaustValve Tests . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 14

4. Sample Graph, Helmet Flow Rate Versus Depth and AirControl Valve Position . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 18

5. Sample Graph, Helmet Pressure Versus Helmet FlowRate and Exhaust Valve Position at a Selected Depth 19

6. Test Set-Up, Open Circuit Pir Sound Level Tests . . 23

7. Equivalent A-Weighted Sound Level Contours . . ... 30

8. Currently Accepted Daily Noise Exposure Limits (2) (3) 309. Test Equipment Set-Up, Ventilation Tests, Open

Circuit Air Helmet .. .. .. . . . . . . 33

10. Manned Subjective Dives, Open Circuit Air Helmets . 45

lit Test Equipment Set-Up, Mixed Gas Helmet ComplianceT e s t s , H e l m e t w ý. t f f ft t f f f f ft t t . f . 5 3

12. Test Equipment Set-Up, Mixed Gas Helmet VenturiS Efficiency and Exhaust Valve Tests ...... .. 55

13. Sample Data Plots, Venturi Efficiency Tests *.... 60

14. Test Equipment Set-Up, Mixed Gas Helmet SoundLevel Tests . . . . .f . .f . .f. . 63

i5. Test Equipment Set-Up, Ventilation Tests, Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas Helmets . ........ 73

16. Test Equipment Set-Up, Manned Subjective Tests,Semi-Closed Circuit. Mixed Gas Helmets .f. .f.t.f.f . 91

LI3T OF TABLES

1. Sample Data Sheet, Open Circuit Air Sound Level Tests 29

iii

-. 4

Page 7: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

LIST Or SYMBOLS AND TERMS

at

acfm cubic feet per minute at ambient conditions of

•::! scfm cubic +'eet per minute at standard conditions of •°

14.7 psia and 70 0 F, I scfm=26.29 slpm

ata Atmospheres absolute

psia lbs per sq. in. absolute

psig lbs per sq. in. gauge

psid lbs per sq. in. differential

psiob lbs per sq. in. over bottom pressure

RMV Respiratory minute volume

Ipm liters per minute at ambient conditons

alpm liters per minute at ambient conditions, same as 1pm

slpm liters per minute at standard conditions of 14.7 psia _

and OC,26.29 slpm 1 scfm

cc cubic centimeter I

scc Cubic centimeters at standard co litions of 14.7 psiaand O0 C

cm H 0 centimeters of water pressure2

Ap Differential pressure

freevolume Free air space within a boundary

UpperVolumeLimit Th, volume of a helmet system above which small I -

increases in volume require large increases in helmetAp relative to outside ambient pressure.

LowerVolunLeI•i Limit The volume of a helmet system below which small I

decreases in volume require large negative increasesin helmet Ap relative to outside ambient pressure. 3r /AV Change in Volume

_ ~ivI

Page 8: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

I. INTRODUCTION

/ The purpose of this protocol is to outline the general

procedures and equipment to be used by, EOU personnel in the

evaluation of open circuit air and semi-closed circuit mixed

gas diving helmets.

This protocol has been written in terms as general as

possible consistent with clear understanding. It is not in-

tended to be a step-by-step procedure which can be applied

directly to the testing of a given piece of diving apparatus.

Such a procedure would very quickly become out of date. It

is rather intended as a detailed guide with which the Project

Engineer can plan the evaluation of the apparatus to be tested.

The quantities to be measured and controlled ar-e specified for

each type of test. The basic test equipment required is out-

lined along with the considerations governing its set-up,

calibratio and use. Typical test conditions and data handling

requirements are also outlined for each type of test. With

only a ba ic understanding of modern instrumentation and testing

technique a Project Engineer should be able to readily make

the detai;led decisions necessary to apply this protocol to a

specific piece of diving apparatus.

Th- procedures outlined herein are concerned principally

with evaluation of the functional performance of the diving

apparatus (helmet and supporting equipment) being tested. No

effort has been made to include specific material tests such

as abrasion resistance tests for suit materials, drop and

destruction tests for the helmets, etc. Those tests are very

-1-

Page 9: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

involved, very specific and vary greatly with the system to

be tested. Consequently they are considered outside the scope

of this protocol. For suggestions regarding these tests, the

reader is referred to references 1 and 2.

Also, no effort has been made to include specific relia-

[ bility and maintainability tests. These tests are normally

done during the traditional Techeval/Opeval cycles. Considerable

insight into the reliability and maintainability of the appar-

atus tested will however be gained as a result of the tests

described herein.

The tests outlined herein have been kept as simple as

possible. Experience has shown that it is usually faster and

more reliable to run a number of small tests where no more than

2 or 3 major variables are measured at one time than it is to

try to do everything all at once. However, with skilled test

operators some of the tests outlined in Section III can be

combined.

Although written for helmets, this protocol can be applied

with only minor modifications to mask type breathing systems

as well.

-2-

Page 10: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Ii. DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT TESTED

A. Serial Numbers

It is critically important that the piece of diving

apparatus be positively identified. Most helmets and backpack

scrubber units have serial numbers. Find the serial number

(a call to the manufacturer may be necessary to find where to

look), and record it. All data sheets used with the helmet

will need the helmet serial number. If the helmet (or backpack,

etc.) does not have a serial number, give it one.

B. Photographs

1. Equipment Tested

Photograph the apparatus to be tested from all

appropriate angles. Usually these will include at least both

sides, front and rear. Also take several photos of a diver

dressed in the apparatus. If appropriate, disassemble the

apparatus and take pictures of the individual components.

2. The Test Equipment

Photographs of the helmet as it is rigged for th--AR k %

q;ý Ivarious tests described herein are very helpful wheri report

writing time arrives. Representative pictures should be taken

of all test set-ups described, both with and without the helmet

in place.

77

C. Physical Description

1. Material Description

A written description of the apparatus tested is

-3-

Page 11: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

essential. It must include a description of the helmet

materials of construction, valve types and sizes, face plate

and port sizes, method of attachment to the diver (jocking

system), communications artangements, sealing arrangements,

sealing materials, aad any special features. Descriptions

of CO2 absorber assemblies must also include at least the

venturi size, overbottom pressure requirements, and weight

of the absorbant used. Usually the manufacturer's own

literature will be sufficient. However if it is not, a des-

cription must be cienerated which meets the above requirements.

If possible, obtain exploded drawings from the

manufacturer.

2. Size and Weight

If not provided by the manufacturer, measure the

weight of the apparatus both in air and in water.

Size measurements should be taken as directed by the

Project Engineer.

Measure accurately the free volume enclosed by the

helmet. This can most easily be done by measuring the amount

of water required to completely flood the helmet and associated

equipmentI

iI

Page 12: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

ITI. PERFORMANCE TESTS

A. Open Circuit Air Helmets

1. Helmet Pressure-Volumi Characteristics (Compliance)

a. Background

The purpose of this test is to determine how

much the pressure inside the helmet changes with respect to

external ambient pressure when gas is removed from or added to

the helmet. This <efincs the "comoliance" of the helmet system.

The helmet system's compliance, or the alisence of it, influences

very greatly the pressure variations induced in the helmet by

a diver's respiration, and, therefore, the breathing im.. dance

of the helmet. Compli&nce = Lp/Ap

Thi; test is applicable only to neckseal helmots

and other types of underwater breathing systems where the diver's

chest is not enclosed by a volume of gas in free communication

with the gas in the helmet interior. In cases where the chest

is enclosed by a volume of gas in free communication with the

helmet interior, as for instance in a helmet-dcy suit combin-

ation like the USN MK 5, this, test may be omitted. Tn those

cases gas volume removed from the helmet-suit interior is nor-

mally replaced by chest expansion, and the total system volume

is not influenced by the diver's respiration.

b. Quantities to be measured:

1) Helmet pressure re selected referencepres sir e

2) Helmet position on dummy (measure insufficient detail so that helmet could beremoved and replaced in the exact same position.)

%-5-.4

Page 13: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

c. Quantities to be controlled:

I) Amount of gas added to and withdrawn fromthe helmet

2) Neckseal Cuff Position: turned up or turned

down

3) Helmet position on the Manikin

4) Manikin orientation

5) Helmet tested wet or dry

6) Temperature

7) Depth

e. Equipment

1) Specialized equipment required

aa. Large graduated syringe, preferablyabout 2 liters

bb. 3-way valves and plumbing as shown in

Figure 1.

cc. Test Manikin and wet testing box

dd. Differential pressure transducer andtransducer indicator, 1 psid

2) Set up Lhe helmet and test equipment gener-ally as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 isintended only as a guideline, and minor modi-fications can be expected to accommodate theparticular apparatus being tested.

3) The helmet should be placed on the testManikin and jocked as nearly per manufactlrer'sinstructions as possible. Measure the helmetposition on the Manikin in sufficient detailso that it can be exactly reproduced.

4) The helmet supply and exhaust valves shouldbe closed, and if necessary sealed. AllManikin openings except the openings to thesyringe and pressure transducer must alsobe closed, and if necessary sealed. Leaks

-6-

Page 14: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

TFutle Iniatr

Validyt CD-eaor qua

I~~ Pad ransducerIdctrV alidyne CD-li or eua

equal

Water aide refereie. tulbe; uoat be fitlled

flok m& -with wat-r Note: trnnedoca? diaphraw,

note cuff a ee fdmrdtfrnepesr

up or down

inching syutemaslrem o ib02 iespreferred site

D U W t - s . w it hd r a w .ini

Teat ing d a

loop will function as a pumpadding or withdrawing air depending

an huW ]-way vave re at

AF 3-way Valve. comownicatingparts indicated oy arrowa

Figure ITeast Equipment Sst-Ur, Open circuit Air Hellet compliance jeata, Priclst wet.Yot Dry T-nata, Hlmalt & Mantkin need not be Inside the Wet Testing Box.

Page 15: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

may invalidate the test. If necessary,augment the seal between the helmet necksealand the Manikin's neck withT~ape (OrdnanceTape, Duct Tape or Band-Aid Skin Tape workwell), but be careful not to restrict themovement of the neckscal any mare thannecessary. Leaks can be checked for byadding 20 cm H 0 pressure to the helmet andobserving the ?ate of decay. A system witha pressure decay of less than 1 cm H2 0 per15 seconds at 20 cm H 0 pressure can be con-sidered leak-tight fo? this test.

5) The transducer line to the helmet and thesyringe line must not be the same port.

6) The reference pressure for the transducermay be any convenient pressure, as long asthe pressure used is recorded. Hydrostaticpressure at the level of the Manikin's 7thcervical vertebra, at the level of the cen-terline of the helmet exhaust valve, at thelevel of the centerline of the Manikin'smouth (as shown in Figure 1) or at any otherappropriate level may be used. The ProjectOfficer should determine ahead of time which

•"oi reference pressure is to be used. See EDUReport 19-73 for information on reference

pressures.e. Calibration

Calibrate the transducer and transducer indicator

against a water or mercury manometer prior to each major test.

Recheck calibration at the end of the test.

f. Test conditions and General Procedures

1) The helmet should be tested first dry, thenwet. When tested dry, the helmet will haveessentially the same compliance in allorientations. When tested wet, it willexhibit different compliance characteristicsin different orienLdLions with respect tothe pull of gravity. Normally it will besufficient to test the helmet only in thehead-up vertical position shown in Figure I.However, if ventilation tests (Section III.A. 4) are to be run in positions other thanthe head-up vertical, compliance tests shouldbe performed in those positions as well.

--8-

Page 16: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

2) Normally this test will be performedonly at 0 fsw and room temperature.However, the Project Engineer may Iorder additional test conditions.

3) Record the free volume in the helmet(from Section II.C.2. ) and associatedplumbing. This is needed to correctfor errors due to expansion or com-pression of the gas occupying thatfree volume. !

4) With the helmet dry and at zero Ap,add 100 cc air, record the helmetAp indicated and return to zero Ap.Now from the zero Ap volume again,add 200 cc air, record the helmetAp indicated and return to zero Ap.Continue this process until the uppervolume limit of the helmet systemis reached. The upper volume limitis that volume above which smallincreases in volume require verylarge Ap increases. Now proceed tothe lower volume limit in the exactsame fashion: withdrawing 100 cc airfrom the zero Ap volume, recordingthe helmet Ap, returning to zero Ap,withdrawing 200 cc air etc. Repeat2 more times. If you did not getreproducible results, you have amajor leak somewhere; fix it and tryagain.

5) Fill the test box with water to a

level at least 3 inches over the topof the helmet, and repeat 4. above.Take care during the filling processand the testing process not to drawwater inadvertently into the helmet.

9. Data Handling

1) All results are to be recorded on achart sixilar to Figure 2. Note itis the Project Engineer's responsi-

bility to correct for errors due tocompression or expansion of the gas inthe helmet and Manikin plumbing. At1 ata the error is 1 sCC volume/cm H20pressure/liter of free volume.

-9-

____ _ _ ____ ___ ____ ___ __t

Page 17: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

iIi2) For each test run calibration records for

each instrument calibrated must be made,V'.- clý arly ann~otated, and attached to tedata generated by each respective instrument

during the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate written recordssuch as the strip chart recorders and X-Yplotter. V

3) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significant

events.

I-

ii ft

i.i

S~-10-AI

Page 18: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

14 044 0

0 0n

- - 0 - -13 r- C4

4-4 E-

O 0

- ~ ~ ~ t 0 ~ ---i--004 4

Cz 4- 4U) C, 0

-------------- D 444---- 0 4 J(1

U~r4 4 L0 H (1

.5-I t-- 4-_0

Go C. U Nw

C)~C

o 004

o 0 0ý 0 0) 0 0 C 0 0 0IA qw~ r'n C4 H- p. H- C4 m %0 t+ + + + + I I I I

-U

cnUFL.

Im ad

Page 19: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

2. Air Supply System and Exhaust Valve Tests

a. Background

[: The purpose of these tests is to determine the

Vi performance characteristics of the helmet air supply system

and the helmet exhaust valve. The air supply system is con- ,

.idered to consist of the umbilical, non-return valve, air

F control valve, helmet interior plumbing and silencers.

b. Quantities to be Measured

1) Helmet flow rate

2) Helmet pressure re the selected referencepres sure

3) Helmet gas temperature

4) Over bottom pressure at the inlet to thehelmet non-return valve. (Gauge #1, Fig. 3)

c . Ouantities to be Controlled

1) Umbilical size and length

2) Supply overbottom pressure

F 3) Depth

4) Air Control Valve Position

5) Exhaust Valve Position

6) Gas mcdia

d. Eauipk.ient

1) Specialized equipmcent requiredi

aa. Blank plate for the bottom of thehelmet with provision for a pressuretap and thermistor.

-12--•,

- _. = -. = =

Page 20: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

bb. Porthole blanks with reach rods

or flexible shafts tailored to thehelmet to be tested, 2 required.

cc. Flowmeters (2), approximate sizes,3 and 12 scfm air at 70*F and 14.7 psiawith a 300 psig minimum workingpressure.

dd. Differential pressure transducer,+5 psid, and associated equipment.

ee. Thermistor and read-out unit.

ff. Wet testing box.

2) Set up the test equipment generally asshown in Figure 3. Figure 3 is intendedonly as a guide, and minor equipmentmodifications can be expected to accommo-date the particular apparatus under test.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appropriateto the depths to be tested and install itas shown in Figure 3.

4) The Ap transducer should be set up tomonitor the pressure differential betweenthe helmet interior and the hydrostaticpressure at the exhaust valve centerline(chamber ambient pressure when helmet istested dry).

5) No remote actuation of the "chin button",if the helmet has one, is normally con-sidered necessary. However, if desired,this can be accomplished with a thirdmechanical linkage such as a reach rodor a small pneumatic actuator.

6) Install markings around the reach rodhandles so that helmet air control andexhaust valve positions can be quicklyand accurately reproduced.

7) Test all equipment for free operation. Testfor leaks. Repair and/o- adjust as required.

Leaks in the air supply system downstreamFi from the flowmeters or in the helmet-to-test

plate seal can invalidate the test.

-13-

Page 21: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Depth cadge,

obs•erewr Halmat Ovea bottom

pres ure 1011f;

V, 0-200 pot

NII

"• :i B'GR T het ,

Metal PortholetJUL•~ ~ P? Transducer ••/

;•c on tro l Pl t al ew th Reach Rod - m

V a l v ( 2 r aq ' d . )

,"~~ 6P Transducer !

"Radout ,.Umbil ical AadlOrCoil lnamd o q e r i r•

Nyperbaric; •

Chambe

amttetot Plate Preesure Reducer #I

(;us 3,

rotsl Uses ahw ipontratiogi the aides & bottom of the W/et Toestlg fox0-0Pe

way etoo be rus over the top.Flaouster Poer

Flamat• rse mey als be arrant4d in seriee, Low Volume bhter upetrem. Law Voaýin Hh Val

dG,,

Pressure Reducer 01

-14- 1

Page 22: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

e. Calibration

1) Calibrate all instruments immediatelyprior to each major test. Re-checkcalibrations at the conclusion of the test.

2) The transducer should be calibratedagainsta water or mercury manometer; the thermistoragainst 32*F water and room temperature.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally do notneed daily calibration.

f. Test Conditions

The test conditions to be covered will vary with

the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of testing

required. The Project Engineer should determine the conditions

to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical conditions

for a complete test of an open circuit air helmet follow:

Supply Pressure 50 psiob, 0-120 fsw(Measured on Gauge #2 100 psiob, 121-250 fswin Figure 3)

Air Control Valve Position 1/8,1/4,3/8,1/2,3/4,1,1-1/2,2 turns open andfull open

Exhaust Valve Position Closed, 1/4,1/2,3/4 and-Full Open

Depth 0,50,100,150,200,250 fsw

Gas Media Air

Umbilical 400' to 600' of 1/2" I.D.standard deep sea divinghose.

-15-

Page 23: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

The large number of low air control valve set-

tings is due to the fact that most helmet air control valves

are passing their full flow capacity by the time they are 1

full turn open. Ig. General Procedures

1) Test all of the conditions of possibleinterest with the helmet dry and on thesurface. Get a feel for how the air con-trol and exhaust valves operate and theeffects of given valve openings. Leakcheck and de-bug the test equipment asrequired.

2) Repeat 1) with the helmet submerged. Main- Itain a minimum of 3" of water over the topof the helmet, more if the helmet has a Itop exhaust on the exhaust valve (ex. TUSNMK 5 HeO2 Helmet).,-_

3) Test the helmet under pressure, wet and/ordry on the test conditions designated bythe Project Engineer.

4) Repeat 25 to 50% of the test readings takenon descent. This checks forreproducibility of the data.

5) Repeat 3) and 4) as many times as requiredto obtain good confidence in the data.

h. Data Handling

1) Record at each test condition all measuredand control-ed auantities on a -re-made datasheet. Carefully annotate all strip chartrecordings or other permanent data recordsso that the data can be identified.

2) Plot the recorded data as directed by theProject Engineer.

3) Figures 4 and 5 show some sample graphs.

-16- U

Page 24: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

4) For each test run calibration records for Ieach7" trument calibrated Must"l e, declearly annotated, and attached to ttedata generated by each respective instrumentduring the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate writtenrecords such as the strip chart recordersand X-Y plotter.

-5) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents. T!

Ii.

_

IM

-17-

. .• SU

Page 25: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

____HELMET DATE RECORDER

Helmet Serial Number

SUPPLY PRESSURE[ 50 psiob<- 1->100 psiob

6 ,.

HELMET 5 \Full Open

FLOW 4

RATE 3 , __ ' ___'_____

[(acfm) 1/ pn

I I

"0 50 100 150 200 250

Depth (fsw)

Figure 4

Sample Graph, Helmet Flow Rate Versus Depth and Air Control Valve

Position

IIJ -. . - -. . - .-. - -_ _ _ - -•_ _

Page 26: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Helmet ______Date______

Recorder ______Depth _______fsw

Helmet, wet or dry - - Ser. No.

_180 I.M

*~FU LLY CLOS EDI'IHelmet Ap 150 -

relative to

hydrostatic

pressure at 120 H(m90 t .- '1/2 OPEN

2

60 . *'-7F-r aEXHAUST VALVE

30 FULLY OPEN

0 12 3 4

Helmet Flow Rate

(acfin)

Figure 5

Sample Graph, Helmet Pressure Versus Helmet Flow Rate

and Exhaust Valve Position at a Selected Depth.

__I -19-

Page 27: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

3. Sound Level Tests, Open Circuit Air iia. Background

The purpose of these tests is to measure the

sound levels produced in the helmet under the conditions (depth,

helmet flow rate, supply pressure, etc.) of normal diving

operations, and to determine the hazard that they represent

to the diver. The helmet flow rate data accumulated during

these tests can and should also be used as a check on the

flow rates measured under Section III. A. 2.

Experience so far has indicated that the

sound levels existing in an open circuit air helmet when Iit is tested dry are usually little different from those

when it is tested wet (EDU reports 4-73,7-73,11-73). How-l...:'i •ever, this is not always so. It is usually, however, A

acceptable to do most of the helmet sound level measurements

with it dry, and then do only spot checks with it submerged.

This is done because wet sound level testing poses sub-

stantial risks to the sound level equipment due to shorted

wires, flooded microphones, etc. Also it is advisable to

perfor m the wet sound level tests in as large a body of

water as possible to minimize possible reverberations, inter-

action of surface bubble noise, etc. and challenges bycritics citing all of the foregoing "contaminating influences".

This usually necessitates testing the helmet in one of EDU's

wetpots where reach rods and, therefore, external control

of the helmet valves, are not practical.

-20-.•, I

Page 28: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

b. Quantities to be Measured

1) Sound pressure levels at both diver earpositions, broadband and octave band levels. ",

2) Helmet pressure

3) Helmet gas temperature

4) Overbottom pressure at inlet to helmet non-return valve (Gauge #1, Figure 6)

c. Quantities to be Controlled

1) Depth

2) Supply overbottom pressure

: 3) Helmet flow rate A

4) Exhaust valve position

5) Position of helmet on test manikin. (Measure Iin sufficient detail so helmet could be removedand replaced in the exact same positions)

6) Manikin orientation

7) Helmet condition: wet or dry

8) Extranecus noise sources

9) Gas Media

10) Umbilical size and length

F d. Equipment

1) Specialized equipment required

_ .,_ _ -21-

Page 29: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

aa. Accoustical testing manikin;EDU manikin, CBS AccousticalManikin, or equal.

bb. Porthole blanks with reach rodsor flexible shafts tailored tothe helmet to be tested. Oneeach for the air control andexhaust valves.

cc. Flowmeters (2), approximatesizes, 3 and 12 scfm air at70*F and 14.7 psia with a 300psig minimum working pressure.

dd. Differential pressure transducer,approximate range + 5 psid, and

i• • associated signal conditionsi • and recorders.

ee. Thermistor and read-out unit

ff. Sound level equipment as perFigure 6 or equal.

2) Set up the test equipment as shown inFigure 6. If both ear positions are tobe tested at the same time, the soundlevel equipment shown will need to beduplicated.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appro-priate to the depths to be tested andinstall it as shown in Figure 6.

4) Install markings around the reach rodhandles so that helmet air control andexhaust valve positions can be quicklyand accurately reproduced.

5) If a neckseal helmet is to be testedas shown in Figure 6, augment the sealbetween the neckseal and ihe manikin'sneck with tape (Band-Aid Skin Tape,

-22-

_ I I iIi II ii

Page 30: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Air Suply

Gauge 040-3000 psi

Reducer #I

Votes Flounueeeq may alsobe arranged to series.

L" VCo igh Vl~e ume Gaugepe 13

0 ~ V TRaeducer

or Ricrmder IF 'ub 1/4 " a " Type 413

roetnsde Mo Type 220319~ Ch orFroomlifieValveContro

-re s s u rM Hiruphom, ransucermmrSuppy 26L 5 SID

Page 31: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Duct Tape, Ordnance Tape all will work).If the helmet is to be tested with afull suit (as for example a USN MK 5helmet), select a suit with cuffs, placethe manikin inside the suit and bringthe necessary wires, etc. out throughone of the sleeves. Securely restrainthe bottom of the suit so that it doesnot inflate. One of the best ways todo this is to simply roll it up andtie it off. Close the sleeves withflat clamps taking care not to damage

J ithe microphone and thermistor wires.

6) Test all equipment for free and normaloperation. Test for leaks. Repair and/or adjust as recuired. Leaks in theair supply system downstream from theflowmeters or in the neckseal-to-mani-kin seal can invalidate the flow ratedata. Leaks in the helmet, neckseal(or suit) and through the manikin willtend to falsely increase the measuredsound levels.

e. Calibration

1) Calibrate all adjustable instrumentsimmediately prior to each major test.Re-check calibrations at the conclusionof the test.

2) The transducer should be calibratedagainst a water or mercury manometer;the thermistor against 32 0 F water androom temperature.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally donot need daily calibration.

4) The microphone and sound level metershould be calibrated with a B&K Type4230 Sound Level Calibrator or equal.

f. Test Conditions

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Page 32: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

The test conditions to be covered will vary

with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

ditions to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical

conditions for a complete test of an open circuit aLi helmet )

follow:

10 Helmet Dry

Depth 0,50,100,150,200,250 fsw

Supply Pressure 50 psiob, 0-120fsw(Measured on 100 psiob, 121-250 fswGauge #2,Fig.6)

Helmet Flow Rate 3 acfm, 4.5 acfm,max. flow possible(air control valvefully open)

Exhaust Valve Position Fully Open, Fully Closed

Position of Helmet Normally Jocked Positionon manikin

Manikin Orientation Head-up Vertical

Gas Media Air

Umbilical 400' to 600' of1/2" I.D. standarddeep sea diving hose

2. Helmet Wet

All test conditions are the same as for thehelmet dry tests exceptz I

-25-

Page 33: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

-,.-.

Helmet Flow Rate Max. flow, otherflows as directedby Project Engineer

Helmet Exhaust Valve Fully Closed

Helmet exhaust valve settings of less thanfully closed should be used in wet testsonly with great care. Lower exhaust valve

J! settings decrease the helmet Ap relative tooutside water pressure and increase thechances of flooding the helmet and ruiningthe microphones.

g. General Procedures

1) Measure the chamber background noise.Background noise from all sources, roomnoise, electrical noise, etc. shouldread less than 70 dB in all octave bands.Slightly higher levels can, however, betolerated in the 31.5, 63 and 125 Hzcenter frequency octave bands.

2) Test all of the conditions of interestwith the helmet dry and on the surface,Get a feel for how the air control andexhaust valves operate and the effectsof given valve openings. Leak checkand de-bug the test equipment asrequired.

3) Test the helmet under pressure, dry asshown in Figure 6. Test under the testconditions designated by the ProjectEngineer. The best sequence to followis usually to do all of the test con-ditions at 0 fsw, then 50 fsw, etc. ondown to 250 fsw.

4) During ascent from 250 fsw (or max.depth) repeat 25 to 50% of the testreadings taken during descent. This

P" checks for reproducibility of the data.

-26-p .{. -- .

Page 34: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

5) Once the dry tests in 1) through 3)above are completed, run the wet tests.This will require either the wet test-ing box or the wetpot.

6) Repeat 2), 3) and 4) above as manytimes as required to obtain good con-fidence in the data obtained.

.7) Run a dry test, 0 fsw only should besufficient, with the helmet removed1/2" off its neckring or breastplate.This allows the air to escape withoutgoing out the exhaust valve, and itshould allow a determination of howmuch, if any, of the measured helmetsound levels are due to exhaust valvenoise vice air supply system noise.Normally the exhaust valve makes onlya minor contribution to the total helmetnoise levels

h. Data Handling

I) Record at each test condition all measuredand controlled quantities on a-Hemadedata sheet. Carefully annotate allstrip chart recordings or other per-manent data records so that the data canbe identified.

2) Correct the octave band sound pressurelevel readings from the sound levelmeter for the microphone sensitivityloss under increased pressure. See themicrophone manual or Reference A forthe octave band correction factors.

3) From the corrected octave band soundpressure levels, determine the equivalentA-weighted sound pressure level fromFigure 7. Determine the maximum dailyexposure from Figure 8. ConsultReferences 2 and 3 for further information.

4) NOTE: The dBA scale on the sound levelmeter cannot normally be used except at 0 fsw

-27-

i = - i i I

Page 35: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

due to the uneven effect increasingambient pressure has on the frequencyresponse characteristics of the micro-phone. See Reference A and NAVXDIVINGUReports 10-73 and 3.2-73 for more infor-mation on this effect.

5) Table 1 represents a typical data sheet.

.6) For each test run calibration records foreach-i'nstrument calibrated must be-Made.learly annotated, and attached to thedata generated by each repctive instrument"during the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate writtenrecords such as the strip chart recordersand X-Y plotter.

7) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents.

_ .

. -28

-28-

Page 36: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

00

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Page 37: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

UjU

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co AWEiGHTED f

BOUN CYCLES PERSEP'

A-Weighte S non Lee IywPottn Thm on Ths Gahn

Noing. thEquvln A-Weighted Sound Level Corsondigtous Othevoie

of Highest Penetration into the Sound Level Contours (2).

ALLOWABLE NOISE EXPOSURE120 PE RDAYTIME JNRS) SOUND LEVEL dBA;A

B 90115- 6 92

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-30 J,--------------Jff~-<V

Page 38: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

_• 4. Ventilation Tests, Open Circuit Air

a. Background

The purpose of these tests is to determine

the ventilation characteristics of the helmet when used on

opan circuit air. The variables of primary interest are the

helmet flow rate, the pCO2 levels in the helmet and in the

manikin's inspired air and the pressure variations induced

in the helmet by the manikin's respiration.

The performance of the helmet air control and

__ exhaust valves during these tests can and should be used as

a check on the results obtained in Sections III. A. 2 and

III. A. 3. Also when the helmet is tested with a neckseal,

the pressure variations induced in the helmet by the manikin's

respiration should be predictable from the helmet compliance

results of Section III. A. 1 and the exhaust valve performance

results of Section III. A. 2.

b. Quantities to be Measured

1) PCO2 levels at the following locations.

aa. Inhalation mixing box (inhaledpCO2 level, CO2 #1, Figure 9)

bb. Exhalation mixing box (exhaledpCO2 level, Co2 #2, Figure 9)

cc. Inlet to helmet exhaust valve i_ :: (CO 2 #2, Figure 9)

dd. Any other location(s) selected by__ the Project Engineer.

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Page 39: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

2) Helmet pressure relative to hydrostaticpressure at the selected level.

3) Helmet gas temperature.

4) Air control valve position.

5) Overbottom pressure at the inlet to thehelmet non-return valve. (Gauge #1, Figure 9)

6) Relative humidity of inspired air.

c. Quantities to be Controlled

1) Depth

2) Supply overbottom pressure (Gauge #2,Figure 9)

3) Helmet flow rate

4) Exhaust valve position

5) Position of helmet on test manikin. Measurein sufficient detail so that helmet could beremoved and replaced in exactly the sameposition

6) Manikin orientation

7) Helmet condition: wet

8) Gas media

9) Umbilical size and length

10) Manikin respiratory parameters

aa. CO2 addition rate

bb. Breathing rate

- 2

[4' -32-

Page 40: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Cna~ # 0-3000 ps

ftss URdaw#oundary

i~e. eiiaa tqj ~NEU3 Met Testing Son

Cawg #3 0.400 Pat\ Supply Overbecttof Thera~store ulcre

\ \eee-we C ause 02

Pruea. Meducer #2ZC

VA441 1P4418tati iMM &190 bt V .alve ,

Sntagged to series, low VoluaoA. eore

Noter upsteamee. f~lolot OvaitkottewPressure ;Bause L Trn.T lte

Air control aid L

Exhaust ValueCUMaingoach Rods are ~. ~ .. ~ . _______________________Realtive Humidity

Poe tr r-Temp. Recordertt

Prow Atyu 3,- He

C02tI~ Anlyi 4sape oit

Test E~quipment Set-up, 'entiletio%Rest. Open CiLrcuit Air IHelaucte

-FRI,. -U-- ______ 3 S_ _ _ _

Page 41: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

cc. Tidal volume

dd. Volume-time waveformee. Exhaled relative humidityff. Exhaled gas temperature

d. Equipment Set-up

1) Specialized equipment required

aa. EDU manikin with double treacheas,one for inhalation, one for exhala-tion. Manikin should also haveprovisions for monitoring the press-ure and temperature inside the helmetand for obtaining up to 4 gas samplesfrom selected locations within thehelmet and neckseal or suit.

bb. Porthole blanks with reach rodsor flexible shafts tailored tothe helmet to be tested. Oneeach for the air control andexhaust valves.

cc. Flowmeters (2), approximate

sizes, 3 and 12 scfm air at70*F and 14.7 psia with a 300psig minimum working pressure.

dd. Differential pressure transducer,approximate range + 5 psid, andassociated signal conditionsand recorders.

ee. Thermistor and read-out unit

ff. Breathing machine with inhalation U

and exhalation mixing chambers.

"99.gg At least 2 CO 2 analysers, one with a_ range of 0 to 0.5% by volume or

SAl 2as0 to 1.0% by volume, one with a

•:• range of 0 to 6% by volume. CO2

-34-

F- - - - - -. ..... I'

Page 42: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

level #2 (Figure 9, exhalation mix-ing box) can be expected to run be-tween 4 to 6% S.E. All other COlevels can be expected to run beiween1 to 3% S.E.

2) Set up the equipment generally as shownin Figure 9. Figure 9 is intended only asa guide, and minor equipment modificationscan be expected to accommodate the particularapparatus under test.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appropriateto the depths to be tested and install itas shown in Figure 9.

4) The Ap transducer should be set up tomonitor the pressure differential betweenthe helmet interior and the hydrostaticpressure at the exhaust valve centerline(chamber ambient pressure if helmet istested dry), or the level of the manikin's7th cervical vertebra. Use a differentreference pressure if so directed by EDUreport 19-73.

5) Install markings around the reach rodhandles so that helmet air control andexhaust valve positions can be quicklyand accurately reproduced.

6) The internal free volume of all inhalationplumbing components must not be greaterthan 10 liters. The internal free volumeof all exhalation plumbing components mustlikewise be less than 10 liters. Theinternal free volume of components usedfor both inhalation and exhalation is tobe charged against both 10 liter limits.10 liters free volume is the most freevolume that can be tolerated without intro-ducing excessive errors due to pneumaticcompliance (gas compressability). SeeEDU Report 20-73, Section III for more details.

7) Total mechanical compliance (hose stretch,V etc.) of the breathing loop plumbing mubt be

kept below .05 liter per 20 cm H2 0 pressure'-hange.

•- ~--35-

Page 43: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

8) Water depth over the top of the helmetshould be at least 6 inches.

9) If the helmet is to be tested with a drysuit, cut a suit at approximately thewaist level and fasten to the manikinwith a band clamp and tape at a level 18"below the exhaust valve centerline asshown in Figure 9. The simulation willnot be complete with this equipment set-up because a diver when he inhales normallymakes up the air volume he inhaled fromthe helmet-suit combination by chestexpansion. Thus in reality the totalsuit volume remains essentially uninfluencedby the diver's respiration whereas withthe set-up shown in Figure 9 it will beinfluenced slightly. The errors intro-duced by this deviation from actual con-ditions are normally negligible. If abetter simulation is desired, a counter-lung may be placed around the manikin'schest and plumbed to the reference side ofthe breathing machine piston. This, how-ever, must be done with great care so asnot to inadvertently cause a loss of freecommunication between chamber ambientpressure and the pressure on the referenceside of the breathing machine piston. Thisprocedure is, therefore, not recommendedunless absolutely essential to the validityof the test to be run.

10) If the helmet is to be tested with a neck-seal, be certain that the neckseal fitsvpysnulg to the manikin's neck. Ifhelmet flooding or neckseal leakage isstill a problem, augment the neckseal o-manikin neck seal. with tape (Band-AidSkin Tape, Duct Tape, Ordnance Tape workI well), but be careful not to restrict the

movement of the neckseal any more thannecessary.I 11) Set up the X-Y plotter so that it makesplots of helmet pressure versus inspired-expired volume. Plots of helmet pressureversus inspiratory-expiratory flow ratesmay also be useful.

-36-

Page 44: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

_ IW12) All CO sampling lines should have small

water ?raps.

13) All breathing loop components should havean I.D. of not less than 3/4". Thelengths of the hoses between the SCUBAmouthpiece and the manikin are not criticaland may be as long as required so long asthe 10 liter free volume limit of 6) aboveis observed. The lengths of the hoses andpipes between the SCUBA mouthbit and thebreathing machine are important and shouldbe kept as short as possible with reason-able effort.

14) The output of the Ap transducer must becontinuously recorded. Continuous record-ing of the outputs of the CO2 analysers ishighly recommended. The output of the Aptransducer varies so rapidly with time thatit cannot be read from a panel meter. Theoutputs of the CO analysers will varyenough with time ?o make accurate readingsfrom a panel meter difficult.

15) Test all equipment for free operation. Testfor leaks. Repair and/or adjust as required.Leaks in the air supply system downstreamcan invalidate the flow rate data. Leaksin the breathing loop plumbing can invali-date the CO data. The breathing loopplumbing caA be considered leak tight if,with the manikin's mouth sealed or corkedshut, the system will hold both a 20 amH O pressure and a 20 cm H 0 vacuum with apiessure (vaciim) decay raGe of less than1 cm H O per 10 seconds at 20 cm H2 0pressuie (vacuum).

e.. Calibration

•1 ) Calibrate all adjustable instrumentsimmediately prior to each major test.

___ Re-check calibrations at the conclusionof the test.

S~-37-- o ?

_, .

Page 45: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

-Ii2) The transducer should be calibrated

against a water or mercury manometer;the thermistor against 32*F water androom temperature.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally donot need daily calibration.

4) The CO analysers should be calibratedagainsi at least 3 knoungases each: fullscale, z mid-range CO2 concentrations.If the CO analyser calibrations are non-linear several more calibration pointsand a graphical calibration record willbe required.

5) Calibrate the X-Y plotter axes prior toeach test. Re-check at the conclusion ofeach test. Y axis should read helmetpressure; the X axis, inspired-expiredvolume.

f. Test Conditions

The test conditions to be covered will vary

with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

ditions to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical

conditions for a complete test of an open circuit air helmet

follow:

Depth 0,50,100,150r200,

Supply Pressure 50 psiob, 0-120 fsw(Measured on 100 psiob, 121-250 fswGauge #2, Pig. 9.

-38-

Page 46: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Helmet Flow Rate 3 acfm, 4.5 acfm,max. fliw possible(air control valvefully open)

Exhaust Valve Position Fully Closed, 1/4,1/2,3/4 Fully Open

Position of Helmet Normally Jocked Positionon manikin

Manikin Orientation Head-up Vertical, otherorientations may alsowarrant testing,especially the face-down horizontal position.

Gas Media Air

Umbilical 400' to 600' of 1/2"I.D. standard deepsea diving hose

Helmet Condition Wet

Manikin Respiratory Parameters*

CO2 Addition Rate .04 X RMV slpm(ex. 1.6 slpm at 40ipm RMV)

Breathing Rate 15,20 and 25 breathsper minute q

Tidal Volume 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 litersper breath respectively I

at breathing rates of15,20 and 25 bpm.

-39-

Page 47: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Volume-Time Waveform Flattened Sinusoidwith an exhalation toinhalation time ratioof 1.1 to 1.0 and aratio of peak flowto minute volume of2.7.

Exhaled Gas Temperature** 97t 20F

Exhaled Relative Humidity** Saturated at 970F

* Parameters recommended by EDU Report 19-73

S* Relatively unimportant parameters. These canbe ignored without jeopardizing the validity ofmost tests.

g. General Procedures

1) These tests are normally done only withthe helmet wet.

2) Test all of the conditions of interestwith the helmet on the surface. Get afeel for how the air control and exhaustvalves operate and the effects of givenvalve openings. Leak check and de-bugthe test equipment as required.

3) Test the helmet under pressure. Testunder the test conditions designated bythe Project Engineer. The best sequenceto follow is usually to do all of thetest conditions at 0 fsw, then 50 fsw,etc. on down to 250 fsw.

4) During ascent from 250 fsw (or max.

depth) repeat 25 to 50% of the testr" readings taken during descent. Thischecks for reproducibility of the data.

• -40-

Page 48: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

_ I5) Maintain each test condition until all

values stabilize. This may take as long Ias 15 minutes.

6) Repeat 3) and 4) above as many times asrequired to obtain good confidence in thedata.

h. Data Handling

1) On-line cross-checking of data values isessential for this test. The best cross-check to use is simple CO conservation.There are 2 checks that cAn be used.

aa. PCO2 *2 - PCO #1 should equal 4.0%S.E. + .3% S.i.

bb. Exhaust PCO 2 (% S.E.) X Helmet FlowRate (alpm) should approximate theCO. add rate. This check is reliable -

only in helmets tested with suits.It is not particularily good in helmetstested with neckseals. The analysisof the exhausted gas represents atime average CO level and not a volumeaverage level which is what is necessary 'for this cross check to be reliable.When the helmet is used with a suit,the volume and time averages can beexpected to be negligibly different.When the helmet is used with a neck-seal, the 2 averages can be quitedifferent (See EDU Report 7-73,

2Appendix A for more details).

Record at each test condition all measured_ _and contro_- quantities on a_ _ae

d ata sheet. Carefully annotate all stripchart recordings or other permanent datarecords so that the data can be identified.

3) Plot the recorded data as directed by theK Project Engineer. EDU Report 7-73, Figures!0 and 11 show possible ways of presentingthe data. Tables 5 and 6 of that reportlikewise show possible ways of organizing _

-41-

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A

Page 49: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

it in tabular form. If the work of breath-ing standards proposed by EDU Report 19-73are adopted, a plot of the external workof breathing will also be required.

4) From the plots of helmet pressure versusinspired-expired volume made on the X-Yplotter, calculate the external work ofbreathing expended by the manikin. Com-pare against the .17 Kg-m/liter ventilationlimit proposed by EDU Report 19-73.

5) For each test run calibration records foreach =nstrument calibrated must be made,.carly annotated, and attached to the :data generated by each respective instrument Iduring the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate writtenrecords such as the strip chart recordersand X-Y plotter.

6) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents.

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__. Ii ' 1 i iI

Page 50: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

5. Manned Dives, Subjective Evaluation

a. Background

Definitive manned testing of the helmet for

ventilation adequacy will be accomplished under Section III. IA. 6, Physiological Testing.

This section is concerned with essentially

subjective tests to obtain a rough measure of the comfort,

human engineering and mobility of the helmet. To determine

those qualities accurately requires a rather large program

of manned tests considered to be outside the scope of this

evaluation. The tests outlined below can be accomplished

quickly and relatively easily. They will provide an indication

of the helmet mobility, human engineering and comfort sufficient

to point out any really serious troubles that must be addressed

before larger scale manned tests such as Techeval/Opeval are

undertaken.

The instrumentation recommended below is relatively

sparse. This is so not because of design, but rather due to

the extreme difficulty of making measurements underwater on a adiver who is free to move about as he choses in a relatively

large body of water; 8000 gallons in the case of an EDU wetpot.

b. Ouantities to be measured

1) Helmet flow rate

-43- __

Page 51: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

21 Helmet PCO2 level at:

aa. Inlet to exhaust valve

bb. One other location chosen to match

location #4 in the tests conductedunder Section III. A. 4.

3) Helmet oxygen concentration

4) Helmet Ap relative to hydrostatic pressureat the exhaust valve centerline. If adifferent reference pressure was used inSection III. A. 4, then use that referencepressure instead.

5) Helmet temperature

9 6) Helmet air control and exhaust valvepositions selected by the divers.

c. Quantities to be Controlled

1) Depth

2) Diver work tasks

3) Wetpot temperature

4) Supply overbottcm pressure

5) Gas Media Fd. Eguipment

1) Specialized equipment required

FBI'.-44- '

Page 52: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

M

W44lblm Dopip olot Sup~yPres Gop #

piano asuio,Prom

He9met Spply "t, ea a E

Vlnuetolta may also be attampd is parallel.

VRtpotp~ Jones Plus Panel___Analyzers ie 1 ie

a vas 2 Cbannaol lRecrder02 for AP Tranadueer.

maal sitballs attacked to divotsat point of defined proosart vterarns&

02

002 ThetmieLor

lead-Out

Test te-up Vur '(*gpbvt Xwnnad Itubjct ive Divag. Op.. Circuit Air lialmega

____ -45-

Page 53: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

W. .

aa. Flowaeters, approximate sizes, 3and 12 scfm air at 70OF and 14.7psia with a 300 psig minimum work-ing pressure.

bb. Differential pressure transducers,approximate range + 8 psid, andassociated signal conditionsand recorders.

cc. Thermistors and read-out unit

dd. CO analysers, 0 to 1.0% by volumerange with recorders.

ee. Oxygen analysers, 0 to 25% by volumerange, with recorders

2) Set up the test equipment generally asshown in Figure 10. Figure 10 is intendedonly as a guide, and minor equipmentmodifications can be expected to accommo-date the particular apparatus under test.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appropriateto the depths to be tested and rig it in-side the chamber, coiling the excess in anout-of-the-way place. If very accurate flowrates are not required, using the full 400'to 600' of umbilical may be omitted in favorof simple short leader hoses.

4) All gas sampling lines should have watertraps.

5) The outputs of the 0 and CO analysersshould be continuously recorAed. The out-put of the Ap transducer must be continuouslyrecorded. Hand recordings-o the Ap, 0and CO9 values every 5 minutes, as is c~monlydone, are of little value due to often rapidlychanging values. The helmet flow rates areusually sufficiently steady to permit handrecording of the flowmeter readings.

-46-

N..

Page 54: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

e. Calibration

1) Calibrate all adjustable instrumentsimmediately prior to each major test.Re-check calibrations at the conclusionof the test.

2) The Ap transducers should be calibratedagainst a water or mercury manometerl thethermistors against 326F water and roomtempera ture.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally do notneed daily calibration.

4) All gas analysis instruments should becalibrated against at least 3 known gaseseach: full scale, zero and mid-rangeconcentrations. If the analysers,especially the CO analysers, are non-linear, several mare calibration pointsand a graphical calibration record isrequired.

f. Test Conditions .ý

The test conditions to be covered will vary

with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

ditions to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical

conditions for a ccmplete test of an open circuit air helmet

follow:I U7

Depth 0,50,100,150,200250 fsw

I Supply Pressure 50 psiob, 0-120 fsw(Measured on 100 psiob, 121-250 fsw

_ Gauge #2, Fig. 10)

ji-47-

Page 55: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Wetpot Temperature 70°F or above (dueI' to wetpot steel NDT• considerations)

Gas Media Air

Diver Work Tasks See procedures sub-section

g. General Procedures

1) For a reasonably thorough subjectiveevaluation at least 5 dives should be madeto each depth. Always use divers who havehad sufficient exposure on the helmet sothat they feel familiar with its controls.

2) Normal U.S. Navy diving procedures are tobe followed. While on the bottom the diversshould alternate between 10 minute periodsof "moderate" work and 5 minute rest periods.Normally the work tasks alternate betweenlifting a 70-pound weight (78 lbs dry) 5distance of 2-1/2 feet 10 times per minuteand swimming against a trapeze designed toexert a steady backward force of 6.0 lbs.For an average diver, exerting a stationaryswimming force of 6.0 lbs. produces anoxygen demand of approximately 1.26 standardliters per minute (6). This is equivalentto a respiratory minute volume of approxi-mately 30 liters per minute () or to swim-ming in SCUBA at a steady speed of approxi-mately 0.8 knots (6)(7). An oxygen demandof 1.26 slpm results in a CO production of

K about 1.13 slpm (8). WorkinJ against anunderwater bicycle or pedal ergometer isalso a suitable task.

3) At the conclusion of each dive, the divershould fill out the applicable portions ofthe Diver Equipment Subjective AnalysisQuestionnaire reproduced in Appendix A.

4) Have several divers dis-assemble and re-assemble the helmet air control and exhaustvalves. Note any difficulties encountered.

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Page 56: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

h. Data Handling

1) Record at each test condition all measuredand contrgo~d quantities on a pre-made datasheet-Caro-fully annotate all strip-chartrecordings or other permanenEdata recordsso that the data can be identified.

2) Compare the CO levels and helmet flow ratesmeasured to tha results of Section III. A.4.Compare the measured helmet PCO and POlevels with those predicted on •he basii ofthe measured helmet flow rates and thediver CO2 production and oxygen consumptionrates expected as a result of the work tasksselected.

3) Tabulate and/or plot the data obtained asdirected by the Project Engineer. Thereis usually sufficient variability in thedata from these dives to make conciseplotting difficult.

4) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents.

5) For each day's test dives, calibrationrecords must be made, clearly annotated andattached to the data generated by eachrespective instrument during the runs towhich the calibration record applies. I;

-4'

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Page 57: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

6. Manned Dives, Physiological Testing

The purpose of these tests is to determine quanti-

tatively the ability of the apparatus under test to support

the physiologic and respiratory requirements of a diver at

hard work. The tests are normally conducted by the EDU

Medical Department.

The procedures and equipment used for these tests

are still being refined. A detailed protocol covering these

tests is expected to be published by the EDU Medical Department

sometime in second quarter of CY 1974.

I50-

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Page 58: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

-/i

___ B. Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas Helmets

1. Helmet Pressure-Volume Characteristics (Compliance)

a. Background

The purpose of this test is to determine how

much the pressure inside the helmet changes with respect to

external ambient pressure when gas is removed from or added to

the helmet. This defines the "compliance" of the helmet system.

The helmet system's compliance, or the absence of it, influences

very greatly the pressure variations induced in the helmet by

a diver's respiration, and, therefore, the breathing impedance

of the helmet.

This test is applicable only to neckseal helmets

and other types of underwater breathing systems where the diver's

chest is not enclosed by a volume of gas in free communication

with the gas in the helmet interior. In cases where the chest

is enclosed by a volume of gas in free communication with the

helmet interior, as for instance in a helmet-dry suit combin-

ation like the USN MK 5 HeO2 rig, this test way be omitted. In jthose cases gas volume removed from the helmet-suit interior is

normally replaced by chest expansion, and the tocal system volume

is not influenced by the diver's respiration.

b. Quantities tc be measured:

__ 1) Helmet pressure re selected referencepressure

__ 2) Helmet position on dummy (measure in sufficient

detail so that helmet could be removed andreplaced in the exact same position )

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Page 59: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

c. Quantities to be Controlled:

The quantities to be controlled are the same ...

as those listed in Section Ill. A. 1. c.

d. Equipmnent

The equipment to be used is the same as that

listed in Section III. A. 1. d. with the following additions:

1) The CO removal unit (if separate from thehelmetj is to be set up with the helmet and Ijocked as nearly per manufacturer's instruc-tions as possible.

2) Be certain that the venturi control valveis secured. If the helmet has no venturi .control valve, cap the gas inlet connection. -

3) Figure 11 shows a typical test set-up.

e• Calibration

The calibration procedures are the same as those Ilisted in Section III. A. 1. e.

f. Test Conditions and Procedures

The test conditions and procedures are the same

as those listed in Section III. A. 1. f.

g. Data Handling

The data handling requirements are the same as

those listed in Section Ill. A. 1. g.

S~-52-

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Page 60: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Velidyna CD-12 or equal

Umek~~~ SelVot &pid Trmanducer,Week Sm*I aoevalidyne DF-15 or equal

Water side rvfveree.. t*he; weut to filled.ilth water. Mots, trafneducat ~iaphragmat level Of desired reference ptiosmrse

Jostls Synem- radu~tce byriii.,

e5 ms"Oee 2 liters preferred Disc

VO waet -a m d a

140P will function as a pump.adding or wi'thdrawksts sit dpesadi.kan bow 3-way Valves aer oat

1-WY Valve, flow. direction -0.

J(& 341ev Valve. comoksieettt rated LAditeated by arrowe

Toot 9quipmant Set-up. Minaed Gae, vate~zt Compliance Tests,

Uelost Uar. for OCY Tests, ala.,a I :4anik~m mod wet beL t~inimde the Wet Tooting Boxn:1

-53- I

Page 61: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

2. Venturi Efficiency and Exhaust Valve Performance Tests

a. Background

The purpose of these tests is to determine the

performance characteristics of the gas supply system, the

venturi and the exhaust valve when operating in the semi-closed

circuit mode. The maximum open circuit mixed gas flow rates

available for emergency maneuvers are also to be determined.

b. Quantities to be measured

1) -Helmet gas consumption rate

2) Recirculation rate

3) Helmet pressure re the selected referencepressure

4) Helmet gas temperature

5) Over bottom pressure at the inlet to thehelmet non-return valve

6) Pressure drop across the recirculation rateflowmeter (Figure 12, manometer 01)

7) Pressure drop across all components addedfor the purpose of measuring the backpackflow rate (Figure 12, manometer #2)

8) Pressure rise across the venturi (Figure 12,manometer #3)

c. Quantities to be Controlled

1) Umbilical size and length

2) Supply over bottom pressure

3) Depth

4) Air Control Valve Position

5) Exhaust Valve Position

. 6) Venturi Control Valve Position

7) Gas media

-54-

-- - - , , . -.. .. . . . ... .. ..

Page 62: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Sr Gaut* #4Wet TstinsBox -JOC Psi

Hoetel rbrtholos TgeaePlate

View moIto Flow motor

varyl loweew At lertmse &24 rtae aeei. o

0-200 psiI 0-0 psi pgt

Manomeae Rodu..rt~ S.2 leeetrlb

nnisere1

Teat~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~Iy tqoipqante metyp alsoee1.wtVawt fiiambehee Vrrange i araslo

El0 olVlmaMtrusra

Maoeepo ifnwWg.31snae bp1uv1

-55- 4

U-AI

Page 63: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

_ Cd. Equipment

1) Specialized equipment required

_ aa. Blank plate for the bottom of thehelmet with provision for a pressuretap and thermistor.

bb. Porthole blanks with reach rods orflexible shafts tailored to the helmetto be tested, 2 required.

cC. Flowmeters (2) for gas supply line,approximate sizes, 1 and 8 scfm air at70OF and 14.7 psia with a 600 psig

__ minimum working pressure.

dd. Very low pressure drop flow meter forthe backpack suction hose. Capacityapproximately 10 scfm air at 70°F and14.7 psia with a rated pressure dropat the above conditions of less than2 inches water.

ee. Differential pressure transducer, ±5 psid,and associated equipment.

ff. Thermistor and read-out unit.

-- gg Wet testing box.

hh. Water manometers (3), approximate Aprange, ±20 inches H2 0.

2) Set up the test equipment generally as shownin Figure 12. Figure 12 is intended only asa guide, and minor equipment modificationscan be expected to accommodate the particularapparatus under test. Only the helmet needbe in the wet testing box (the exhaust valveneeds to be submerged). The CO2 absorbantunit, if desired, can be outside of the wettesting box as shown.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appropriateto the depths to be tested and install it

__i as shown in Figure 12.

) The Ap transducer should be set up to monitorthe pressure differential between the helmetinterior and the hydrostatic pressure at theexhaust valve centerline (chamber ambientpressure when helmet is tested dry), or at thelevel of the manikin's 7th cervical vertebra.See EDU report 19-73 for more information onthe selection of the referenced pressure.

S-56-

Page 64: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

5) No remote actuation of the "chin button",if the helmet has one, is normally con-sidered necessary. However, if desired,this can be accomplished with a thirdmechanical linkage such as a reach rod ora small pneumatic actuator.

6) Install markings around the reach rod handlesso that helmet air control and exhaust valvepositions can be quickly and accurately re-produced.

7) Use a fresh charge of baralyme in thecanister.

8) Test all equipment for free operation. Testfor leaks. Repair and/or adjust as required.Leaks in the gas supply system downstreamfrom the flowrneters or in the helmet-to-testplate seal can invalidate the test. Leaks inthe helmet and backpack will invalidate thehelmet pressure data which is needed to define ', AWexhaust valve performance.

e. Calibration U1) Calibrate all instruments immediately prior I

to each major test. Re-check calibrationsat the conclusion of the test.

2) The transducer should be calibrated againsta water or mercury manometer; the thermistoragainst 32°F water and room temperature.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally do not needdaily calibration.

f. Test conditions

K The test conditions to be covered will vary with

the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of testing re-

quired. The Project Engineer should determine the conditions

to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical conditions

for a complete test of the venturi efficiency and open circuitHeO 2 performance follow.

,7

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Page 65: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

1) Umbilical 600' of standard deepsea diving hose (½" I.D.)

2) Supply Pressure 50 psiob on oxygen*100 psiob on HeO2other pressures as directed

by Project Engineer

3) Test Depths and Supply Gas Mixtures

0,50 fsw 100% oxygen*0,100,200,300 fsw 16% HeO 2300,400,450 fsw 10% HeO2450,500,600 700 5% HeO 2700,800,900,1000 3% HeO2

*air is an acceptable and much safer sub-stitute for this test.

4) Valve Positions

air control valve closed, fully openventuri control valve fully openexhaust valve closed, ¼, ½, 3/4 and

fully open

g. General procedures

1) Test all of the conditions of interest withthe helmet on the surface. Get a feel forhow the air control and exhaust valves oper-ate and the effects of given valve openings.Leak check and de-bug the test equipment asrequired.

2) The basic procedure should be at each depthto test the helmet in the recirculating mode,then briefly open the air cont..ol valve fullyopen to measure the maximum open circuitflow rate possible and resulting helmetpressure. The open circuit test is importantfor predictions of how the helmet will per-form in emergency situations. The air controlvalve should be opened only as long as isrequired to read the supply flowmeter and thehelmet Ap transducer at the exhaust valvesettings of interest since this procedure usesup mixed gas at a rapid rate.

3) Once the tests at one depth are complete,proceed to the next deeper depth and repeat.Watch for trends as the depth increases.

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Page 66: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

4) Repeat 25 to 50% of the test readings takenon descent again on aecent.This checks forreproducibility of the data.

5) Repeat 2), 3), and 4) as many times as re-quired to obtain good confidence in the data.

h. Data handling

1) Record at each test condition all measuredand controlled quantities on a premade datasheet. Carefully annotate all strip chartrecordings or other permanent data recordsso that the data can be identified.

2) Plot the recorded data as directed by theProject Engineer. s e.

3) Figure 13 shows some sample graphs. '.[

4) For each test run calibration records foreach instrument calibrated mustEe -made,c-early annotated, and attached to the datagenerated by each respectiveinstrumentduring the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate written recordssuch as the strip chart recorders.

5) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents.

.59-

:.• -59-

•-• ...... Ii

Page 67: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

T. Ti~~ j _ F '~

0'~ Tcl Ina r

r1 I - -- ~ Tri~ ~l-in

I. ~~ ~Q ccr- In PU

-... Iig JL

LI~i814 - VP ~ ~~LI+

-Co.

I :LIIi ~

~sz ... .A4~ I'N I 'AN DuAl ~4 ~lNA

W 0, -60

Page 68: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

3. Sound Level Tests, Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas Helmet

a. Background IThe purpose of these tests is to measure the

sound levels produced in the helmet under the conditions (depth,

supply pressure, etc.) of normal HeO2 diving operations, and

to determine the hazard that they represent to the diver. The

helmet gas consumption data accumulated during these tests

can and should also be used as a check on the gas consumption

rates measured under Section IlI. B. 2.

There is no sound level data available at this

time in HeO 2 helmets tested submerged. However, it is reason-

able to assume that the sound levels in a submerged HeO 2 helmet

are comparable to those in the same helmet tested dry. This

is usually the case with open circuit air helmets (See Section

III. A. 3.a.). Since HeO helmets produce fewer bubbles, and2

therefore have even less interaction with the water, it is

quite acceptable to assume that submergence does not signifi-

cantly affect their noise levels. Nonetheless, the helmet Ii

should be tested wet if possible. Ihemt.hn Wet sound level testing is easier with HeO 2

•.-.-/helmets than with air helmets since the necessity of in-test

valve manipulation can be avoided. However, since there is a

lower rate of gas input into the helmet, there is also a greater

danger of a helmet flood-out, especially if chamber descent is

too rapid.

-61-

S _ • • . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . • -

Page 69: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

The recommended sequence is to test the helmet

__ first dry, and then repeat limited portions of the dry tests Iwith the helmet submerged. For the submerged tests as large

a body of water as possible is preferred for the reasons cited

in Section III. A. 3. a. Usually the water body of choice willja

be a wetpot, although the wet testing box can be used if

necessary. A

This test can be combined with Section III. B.

2. However, it is recommended that the two tests be performed

separately. This allows for simpler tests, and it also pro- i

duces some data redundency which increases the confidence

levels in the data. . 4b. Quantities to be Measured

1) Sound pressure levels at both diverear positions, broadband and octaveband levels.

2) Helmet pressure to the selected reference"U ' pressure,usually hydrostatic pressure at

the exhaust valve centerline.

K 3) Helmet gas temperature

4) Overbottom pressure at the inlet to theventuri.

5) Pressure rise across the venturi IC. Quantities to be Controlled

S1) Depth

-62-_ •- -•-- '- . . . r•4

Page 70: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

W.02 supply

Gouge #4. 0.300O. Pat

Mesrs agoRdacer f7;* 1 t@: P1.tmstere may also b. arranged is beries.

Lov Votqes lisetr upetromm.Wlowmater flomaterlow High

- ~ Volume vlm et

0-600~ pat mirophon

Preent BUciio Type 4131

Typer 2ye 23L9h ~ThrPda Reode cav an iiy e

Vaealve Controler *2Controlraedce d

600' 4ilen !up ie a Hle 01UmvelicaitHlme hw iy~t ekB

0-0 ps p0

-63-o 1AOy~e61Pressre T ucU

Page 71: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

2) Supply overbottoin pressure

3) Air control valve position

4) Exhaust valve position

5) Position of helmet on test manikin

6) Manikin orientation

7) Helmet condition: wet or dry

8) Extraneous noise sources

9) Gas media

10) Umbilical size and length

d. Equipment

1) Specialized equipment required

aa. Accoustical testing manikin;EDU manikin, CBS AccousticalManikin, or equal.

bb. Porthole blanks with repch rodsoz fie;iblJ. shafts tailored to

T.' the helmet to be tested. Onreeach for the air control and exhaustvalves. It is possible to do with-out these, but it is much more von-venient to have them installed.

cc. Plowmeters (2), approximatesizes, 1 and 8 scfm air at?0 0 F and 14.7 psia with a 600psig minimum working pressure.

-64-

_____________________________ i-- ~ -

____ ________ ______

Page 72: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

dd. Differential pressure transducer,approximate range + 5 psid, andassociated signal conditionsand recorders.

ee, Thermistor and read-out unit

ff. Sound level equipment as perFigure 14 or equal.

2) Set up the test equipment as shown inFigure 14. If both ear positions are tobe tested at the same time, the soundlevel equipment shown will need to beduplicated.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appro-priate to the depths to be tested andinstall it as shown in Figure 14.

4) Install markings around the reach rodhandles so that helmet air control andexhaust valve positions can be quicklyand accurately reproduced.

5) If a neckseal helmet is to be testedas shown in Figure 14, augment the sealbetween the neckseal andT he manikin'sneck with tape (Band-Air Skin Tape,Duct Tape, Ordnance Tape all will work).If the helmet is to be tested with afull suit (as for example a USN MK 5HeO2 helmet), select a suit with cuffs,place che manikin inside the suit andbring the necessary wires, etc. out throughone of the sleeves. Securely restrainthe bottom of the suit so that it doesnot inflate. One of the best ways todo this is to simply roll it up and

tie it off. Close the sleeves withflat clamps taking care not to damagethe microphone and thermistor wires.

6) Use a fresh charge of CO2 absorbent

in the canister.

-65-

_ __ .~*-- ~- - - _ ý; - -

Page 73: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

7) Test all equipment for free and normal"operation. Test for leaks. Repair and/or adjust as required. Leaks in thegas supply system downstream from theflowmeters or in the neckseal-to-mani-kin seal can invalidate the flow ratedata. Leaks in the helmet, neckseal(or suit) and through the manikin willtend to falsely increase the meararedsound levels.

e. Calibration

I) Calibrate all adjustable instrumentsimmediately prior to each major test.Re-check calibrations at the conclusionof the test.

2) The transducer should be calibratedagainst a water or mercury manometer;the thermistor against 320F water androom temperature.

3) The flowweter and gauges normally donot need daily calibration.

4) The microphone and sound level metershould be calibrated with a B&K Type4230 Sound Level Calibrator or equal.

f. Test Conditions

The test conditions to be covered will vary

with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required.. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

ditions to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical

conditions for a complete test of the sound levels occurring

in the helmet under normal semi-closed operation follow:

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Page 74: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

1 le. Dry

Umbilical 600' of standarddeep seal diving hose(1/2" I.D.)

Supply Pressure 50 psiob on oxygen or air*100 psiob on HeO2 ,other pressuresas directed by theProject Engineer

Test Depths and Supply Gas Mixtures

0, 50 fsw Air*0,100,200,300 fsw 16% He(),300,400,450 fsw 10% HeO-450,500,600,700 fsw 5% HeO2700,800,900,1000 few 3% HeO

2Air has accoustical properties similarto oxygen and is much safer to use.

IValve Positions

Air control valve Closed

Venturi control valve Fully open

Exhaust valve Closed, 1/2 openfully open*

If exhaust valve position does not affectsound levels, use only the fully closedposition.

2. Helmet Wet

Use as many of the above dry mode test11 conditions as Project Engineer deems

necessary. Exhaust valve settings of0other than fully closed are not recommendeddue to the increased possibility of a helmetflood-out at lower helmet pressures.

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Page 75: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

3. Open Circuit Vtou.L-d Levels

At selected test conditions at each depththe air control valve should be openedfully. Maintain this condition just longenough to record the helmet sound levels,

N helmet Lp and helmet gas consumption rate.This allows a determination of the helmetsound levels during vents and during

'*"emergency mixed gas open circuit operationshould it ever be required. These opencircuit tests may be run during eitheror both of dry and wet tests outlined above.

.g. General Procedures

1) Measure the chamber background noise.Background noise from all sources, roomnoise, electraal noise, etc. shouldread less than 70 dB in all octave bands.Slightly higher levels can, however, betolerated in the 31.5, 63 and 125 Hzcenter frequency octave bands.

2) Test all of the conditions of interestwith the helmet dry and on the surface.Get a feel for how the air control andexhaust valves operate and the effectsof given valve openings. Leak checkand de-bug the test equipment asrequired.

3) Test the helmet under pressure, dry asshown in Figure 14. Test under the testconditions designated by the ProjectEngineer. The best sequence to followis usually to do all of the test con-ditions at 0 fsw, then 50 fsw, etc. ondown to the maximum test depth.

4) During ascent from the maximum test depthrepeat 25 to 50% of the test readings takendur ng` descent. This checks for repro-ducibi.lity of the data.

d5) Watch the helmet p transducer reading dur-lung descent. Be careful not to descend so

-- 68

Page 76: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

-- :.~~~... ..... . . ..f. - -

rapidly that helmet pressure becames less

than chamber pressure. During the wet__. •tests this could produce an immediate

flood-out,

6) Once the dry tests in 1) through 4)above are completed, run the wet tests.This will require either the wet test-ing box or the wetpot. 14

7) Repeat 3), 4) and 6) above as many Itimes as required to obtain good con-fidence in the data obtained.

h) Data Handling

1) Record at each test condition all measuredand controTI' quantities on a p---madestrip chart recordings or other per-manent data records so that the data can

be identified.

2) Correct the octave band sound pressurelevel readings from the sound levelmeter for the nmicroohone sensitivityloss under increased pressure. See themicrophone manual or Refe.:ence 3 forthe octave band correction factors.

3) From the corrected octave band soundpressuire levels, datermine the equivalerntA-weighted sound presaure level fromFigure /. Determine the maximum dailyexposure from Figure 8. CorsultReferences 4 and 5 fcr furthez information.

__ 4) NOTE: TVie dBA scale on the sound levelmeter cannot nornal]v be used except at Ofsw

__ due to the uneven effect increasingambient preasure has on tha frequency• ~response zl.aracteristics of the micro-•!• phone. See• Reference A and IýAVXDIVINGU

Reports 10-73 and 12-73 for more infor-mation on thip effect.

-69-• -69-

Page 77: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

5) Table 1 represents a typical data sheet.

6) For each test run calibration rwcords foreawchinstrument calibrated Muwst be1 made,

eaily antot'a-ted, and atta~ced to thedata generated-by each rve instrumentduring the runs to which the calibrationrecord applies. This applies in particularto instruments that generate writtenrecords such as the strip chart recorders.

7) The Project Engineer or his representativeIti should keep a daily log of all significant

events.

Q'Ii

'112 • / r

Page 78: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

4. Ventilation Tests, Semi-Closed Circuit Mixed Gas

a. Background

The purpose of these tests is to determine the

ventilation characteristics of the helmet when used in the

saui-closed circuit mixed gas mode. The variables of primary

interest are helmet Ap, helmet gas consumption, canister flow

rate and PCO2 levels in the helmet and in the manikin's

inspired gas.

The performance of the venturi and helmet exhaust

valve during these tests can and should be used as a check on

the results obtained in Sections III. B. 2 and III. B. 3. Also

when the helmet is tested with a neckseal, the pressure vari-

ations induced in the helmet by the manikin's respiration should

be predictable from the helmet compliance results of Section

III. B. 1 and the exhaust valve performance results of Sections 1"M

III. B. 2 and III. B. 3.

Measuring the duration of the CO absorbant

2canister is not a goal of these tests. Canister duration tests

should be run separately as in Section III. B. 5. The tests

outlined in this section are designed solely to determine the

ventilation characteristics of the helmet given a properly

operating CO2 absorbant canister.I2b. Quantities to be Measured

1) PCO2 levels at the following locations

aa. Inhalation mixing box (inhaled PCO2level, CO2 #1, Figure 15)

-71- 2

z ~ l~i'

Page 79: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

bb. Exhalation mixing box (exhaled PCO2level, CO2 #2, Figure 15)

cc. Inlet to helmet exhaust valve (CO2 #3,Figure 15)

. dd. Canister suction hose (or pipe)(CO #4, Figure 15)

ee. Canister return hose (or pipe)(CO2 #5, Figure 15)

ff. Any other location(s) selected by theProject Engineer

'2) Helmet pressure relative to hydrostaticpressure at the selected level.

3) Helmet gas temperature.

4) Canister flow rate and pressure drop acrossflowmeter.

5) Venturi pressure rise.

6) Overbottom pressure at the inlet to thehelmet non-return valve (Gauge #1, Figurel5).

7) Relative humidity of inspired air.

c. Quantities to be controlled

1) Depth

2) Supply overbottom pressure (Gauge #2,Figurels)

3) Air control valve position 'U4) Exhaust valve position

5) Position of helmet on test manikin

6) Manikin orientation

7) Helmet condition: wet

8) Water bath temperature

9) Gas media

10) Umbilical size and length *111) Manikin respiratory parameters }

-72-

Page 80: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Notes 71~~tors mw7 also

be aygmased in fack~.q.

law Volume moetor uapstream Pwooout

H002 iiaPPlp 511 Vat TestLog Dun

cause 04,J

0.3000 Pailatm~o

F T ransducer- c

rasSuagg #IC0

0-2000 pspa'lro@

I~~~~T X-4 Plotter'~ Meda-~

press. Mpoem eh e

Lua #2a

Aas Reducerarn #2tup 14- iato teetiv Sai-'lod hiut imd o Dy

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Page 81: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

aa. CO2 addition rate

bb. Breathing rate

cc. Tidal volume

dd. Volume-time waveform

ee. Exhaled gas temperature and relativehumidity

d. Equipment set-up

1) Specialized equipment required

aa. EDU manikin with double treacheas,one for inhalation, one for exhalation.Manikin should also have provisionsfor monitoring the pressure and temper-ature inside the helmet and for obtainingiUp to 4 gas samples from selectedlocations within the helmet and necksoalor suit.

g bb. Porthole blanks with reach rods orflexible shafts tailored to the helmet

ji, to be tested. One each for the aircontrol and exhaust valves.

cc. Flowmeters (2) for gas supply line,approximate sizes, 1 and 8 scfm air at70uF and 14.7 psia with a 600 psigminimum working pressure.

dd. Very low pressure drop flow meter forthe backpack (canister) suction hose(or pipe). Capacity approximately 10scfm air at 70OF and 14.7 psia with arated pressure drop at the aforementionedconditions of less than 2 inches H20.

ee. Differential pressure transducers (2),approximate range t5 psid, and associatedsignal conditions and recorders.

ff. Thermistor and read-out unit.I . Breathing machine with inhalation andexhalation mixing chambers.

hh. At least 2 CO2 analysers, one with arange of 0 to 0.5% by volume or 3 to1.0% by volume, one with a range of0 to 6% by volume. CO2 level 02,

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(Figure 15, exhalation mixing box) canbe expected to run between 4 to 6% S.E.CO 2 level #5, canister retutn hose canbe expected to run 0 to 2.0% S.E.

2) Set up the equipment generally as shown inFigure 15, Figure 15 is intended only asa guide, and minor equipment modificationscan be expected to accommodate the particularapparatus under test. The equipment set-up _

for these tests is essentially that used forthe open circuit air tests plus a canisterflowmeter, venturi Ap transducer, and anadditional CO2 sampling point.

3) Determine how much umbilical is appropriateto the depths to be tested and install itas shown in Figure 15.

4) One tlp transducer should be set up to monitorthe pressure differential between the helmetinterior and the hydrostatic presaure atthe exhaust valve centerline (chamber ambientpressure if helmet is tested dry)# or at thelevel of the manikin's 7th cervical vertebra. 'AUse a different re~erence pressure if sodirected by EDU report 19-73. The othershould be set up to monitor the pressure riseacross the venturi. Water manometeý:s can beused if additional Ap indications are desiredas in Section III. B. 2.

5) install markings around the reach rod handlesso that helmet air control and exhaust valvepositions can be quickly and accurately re,-produced.

6) The internal free volume of all inhalationplumbing components must not be greater than10 liters. The internal free volume of allexhalation plumbing components must likewisebe less than 10 liters. The internal freevolume of components used for both inhalationand exhalation is to be charged against both10 liter limits. 10 liters free volume isthe most free volume that can be toleratedwithout introducing excessive errors due topneumatic compliance (gas compiessability).See EDU Report 20-73, Section III for moredetails.

7) Total mechanical compliance (hose stretch,etc.) of the breathing loop plumbing must

-.75- U

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Page 83: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

be kept below .05 liter per 20 cm H2 0"pressure change.

. Water depth over the top of the helmetshould be at least 6 inches. Water temper-ature should be 70 to 80 0 F.

9) If the helmet is to be tested with a dry suit,cut a suit at approximately the waist leveland fasten to the manikin with a band clampand tap.. at a level 18" below the exhaustvalve centerline as shown in Figure 15. Thesimulation will not be complete with thisequipment set-up because a diver when he in-hales normally makes up the air volume heinhaled from the helmet-suit combination bychest expansion. Thus in -reality the totalsuit volume remains essentially uninfluenced Iby the diver's respiration whereas with the

I A...set-up shown in Figure 15 it will be influ-3Y,, 4.enced slightly. The errors introduced by

this deviation from actual conditions arenormally negligible. If a better simulation~~is desired, a counter-lung may be placed around .the manikin's chest and plumbed to the refer-ence side of the breathing machine piston. £This, however, must be done with great care soas not to inadvertently cause a loss of freecommunication between chamber ambient pressure.and the pressure on the reference side of thebreathinq machine piston. This procedureis, therefore, not recommended unless abso-lately essential hev5al1Tty of the test

to be run.

10) I1) the helmet is to be tested with a neck-se'al, be certain that the neckseal fits verysnugly to the manikin's neck. If helmet

l6ooding or neckseal leakage is still aproblem, augment the neckseal- o-manikinneck seal with tape (Band-AidT Skin Tape,Duct, Tape, Ordnance Tape work well), but becz-eful not to rest-,.' the movement of theneckseal any more t" .; ecessary.

11) Set up the X-Y plotter so that it makesplots of helmet Ci-essure versus inspired-expired volume. Plots of helmet pressureversus inspiratory-expiratory flow rates mayai-so be useful.

12) The CO2 sampling,- system should be sized so

_ -76-

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that the time required for a gas sample to

travel from the helmet to its appropriateanalyser is less than 30 seconds at themaximum test depth.

13) All CO2 sampling lines should have smallwater traps.

14) All breathing loop components should have anI.D. of not less than 3/4". The lengths ofthe hoses betweezA the SCUBA mouthpiece andthe manikin are not critical and may be aslong as required so long as the 10 literfree volume limit of 6) above is observed.The lengths of the hoses and pipes betweenthe SCUBA mouthbit and the breathing machineare important and should be kept as shortas possible with reasonable effort.

15) The output of the Ap transducers must becontinuously recorded. Continuous recordingof the outputs of the C02 analyzers is highlyrecommended. The output of the Ap transducervaries so rapidly with time that it cannotbe read from a panel meter. The outputs ofthe C02 analysers will vary enough with timeto make accurate readings from a panel meterextremely difficult.

16) Test all equipment for free operation. Testfor leaks. Repair and/or adjust as required.Leaks in the gas supply systemcan invalidate the flow rate data. Leaksin the2 breathing loop plumbing can invalidateithe C2 data. The breathing loop plumbingcan be considered leak tight if, with themanikin's mouth sealed or corked shut, thesystem will hold both a 20 cm H20 pressureand a 20 cm H2 0 vacuum with a pressure(vacuum) decay rate of less than 1 cm H2 0 per10 seconds at 20 cm H2 0 pressure (vacuum).

e. Calibration

1) Calibrate all adjustable instruments immedi-ately prior to each major test. Re-checkcalibrations at the conclusion of the test.

2) The transducers should be calibrated againsta water or mercury manometer; the thermistorsagainst 32 0 F water and room temperature.

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"3) The flowmeter and gauges normally do notneed daily calibration.

4) The CO2 analysers should be calibratedagainst at least 3 known gases each: filiscale, zero andmid-range CO, concentrations.If the CO2 analyser calibrations are non-linear several more calibration points anda graphical calibration record will be re-quired.

.5) Calibrate the X-Y plotter axes prior to eachtest. Re-check at the conclusion of eachtest. Y axis should read helmet pressure;the X axis, inspired-expired volume.

f. Test conditions

The test conditions to be covered will vary with

the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of testing re-

quired. The Project Engineer should determine the conditions4to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical conditione

for a complete test of semi-closed mixed gas helmet follow:

1) Umbilical 50' standar'i ý' I.D.-•;:'deep sea hose. No•-• open circuit tests

•/ are to be done so

umbilical length isnot a factor.

2) Supply Pressures 50 psiob on oxygen*100 psiob on He02Other pressures asdirected by ProjectEngineer

3) Test Depths and Supply Gas Mixtures0,50 fsw 100% oxygen*0,100,200,300 16% IHeO 2300,400,450 10% HeO2450,500,600,700 5% HeO2K 700,800,900,1000 3% HeO2

*Air is an acceptable substitute.

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4) Valve Positions

air control valve fully closedventuri control valve fully openexhaust valve fully closed, i, ½,

3/4 and fully open

5) Position of Helmet Normally jocked position.on Manikin Be sure this position is

known in sufficient de-tail that it can beexactly reproduced.

6) Manikin Orientation Head-up Vertical, otherorientations may alsowarrant testing, es-pecially the face-downhorizontal position.

7) Helmet Condition Wet

8) Water Bath Temperature 700 to 80OF

9) Manikin Respiratory Parameters*

CO2 Addition Rate .04 X RMV slpm (ex. 1.6___ ==-slpm at 40 1pm RMV)

Breathing Rate 15,20 and 25 breathsper minute

Tidal Volume 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 litersper breath respectivelyat breathing rates of15, 20 and 25 bpm

Volume-Time Waveform Flattened Sinusoid withan exhalation to in-halation time ratio of1.1 to 1.0 and a ratioof peak flow to minutevolume of 2.7

Exhaled Gas Temper- 97 ± 20Fature

Exhaled Relative Saturated at 970FHumidity

*Parameters recommended by EDU Report 19-73

g. General procedures

1) These tests are normally done only with thehelmet wet.

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2) Test all of the conditions of interest withthe helmet on the surface. Get a feel forhow the exhaust valve operates and the effectsof given valve openings. Leak check and de-bug the test equipment as required.

3) Test the helmet under pressure. Test underthe test conditions designated by the ProjectEngineer. The best sequence to follow isusually to do all of the test conditions at.0 fsw, then 50 fsw, etc. on down to maximumtest depth.

4) During descent be very careful not to traveltoo fast and pro uce a negative pressure inthe helmet relative to chamber pressure. Thiswould quickly result in a flooded helmet.

5) It is usually best to let the breathing machinerun continuously unless 4) above requires thatit be secured during descent,

6) During all times when the respiratory load

on the l-hmet is being increased (increasingminute volume or increasing depth) watch thehelmet Ap transducer output very careJTfly.If excessively negative Ap's are observed,stop or slow down.

7) During ascent from the maximum test depth re-peat 25 to 50% of the test readings takenduring descent. This checks for reproducibilityof the data.

8) Maintain each test condition until all values

stabilize. This may take as long as 15 minutes.

9) If canister break-through occurs (CO level#5, canister return, exceeds 0.5% S.i.), returnto the surface obeying 7) above, replace theCo2 absorbant, return to the depth of break-through and complete the tests desired.

10) Repeat 3) and 7) above as many times as requiredto obtain good confidence in the data.

11.) Take care that the amount of gas being drawn

out the gas sample lines does not disturbconditions in the helmet. It is usually wiseto make the helmet Ap measurement and X-Y plotswith all the sample lines secured.

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hi. Data handling

1) On-line cross checking of data values isessential for this test. The best crosscheck to use is simple CO2 conservation.There &re 2 checks that can be used.

aa. PCO2 #2 - PCO #1 should equal 4.0%S~~S.E. 1 .3% Sl.E.:

bb. The CO2 addition rate should equal theCO2 disappearance rate.

CO2 in = CO2 out = (PCO, #4 - PCO2 #5) x(canister flow rate) +(PCO2 #3) x (helmet gasconsumption rate)

The first term on the right hand side ofthe equation is the rate of CO2 removalby the CO2 absorbant canister; the secondis the ra e at which CO2 is exhausted outthe helmet exhaust valve. The CO2 dis-appearance rate calculated as above shouldequal the CO2 add rate ± 10%.

See Appendix A in EDU Reports 10-73 and12-73 tor more details.

2) Record at each test condition all measured andcontrolled quantities on a pre-made data sheet.Carefully annotate all strip chart recordingsor other permanent data records so that thedata can be identified.

3) For each test run calibration records for eachinstrument calibrated must be made ,-clearlyannotated, and attached to the data generatedby each respective instrument during the runsto which the calibration record applies. Thisapplies in particular to instruments that gener-

ate written records such as the strip chartrecorders and X-Y plotter.

4) Plot the recorded data as directed by theProject Engineer. EDU Report 12-73, Figures.3, 14 and 15 show possible ways of presentingP

some of the data. Tables 4 and 5 of that re-port likewise show possible ways of organizingit in tabular form.

5) From the plots of helmet pressure versus in- -

spired-expired volume made on the X-Y plotter,calculate the external work of breathing ex-

pended by the manikin. Compare against the.17 Kg-m/liter ventilation limit proposed by

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Page 89: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

7,."..... ....... l. • ,. .,,',, .,• ,, • ... ,.,• .. •.i. ' '

EDU Report 19-73. If the work of breathingstandards proposed by EDU Report 19-73 areadopted, a plot of the external work ofbreathing will 0119 be required.

6) The Project Engineer or his r.eaýp?:entm'iveshould keep a daily log of &11i significrntevents.

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Page 90: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

__ 5. CO 2 Absorbent Canister Duration Tests

a. Background

teepc Thu purpose of these tests is to determine

.the expecta lifetime of the CO abosrbent canister under

all of the conditions in which the helmet will be expected

to operate.

These tests are very similar to those of

Section III. B. 4. The experimental set-up is identical.

The principal differences are in the test conditions selected.

In these tests the ventilation conditions in the helmet are

held constant (manikin RM',, exhaust valve position, etc.) and

the temperature of the water bath is varied. In Section III.

B, 4 the reverse was true.

Canister lifetime tests are extremely time

consuming. Round-the-clock operation should be considered,

b. Quantities to be measured

The quantities to be measured are the same

as those in Section III. B. 4. b. Inspired gas temperature

and relative humidity are however of critical importance

whereas in Section III. B. 4 they were of secondary interest.

c. Quantities to be Controlled

The quantities to be controlled are the same

as those in Section III. B. 4. c. Water bath temperatures,

_ I-83-

Page 91: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

-ll .,manikin exhaled gas tamperature and relative humidity are,

however, of critical importance here whereas in Section III%

... B. 4. they were of secondary interest.

d. Equipment Set-up%'4

I) The recommended equipment set-up isW, lidentical

to that outlined in Section III.3. 4. do

•':=2) Precise (+2*F) control of the waterbath temperature is essential.

e. Calibration

The calibration procedures are the same as

__ -those outlined in Section III. B. 4. e.

f. Test Conditions

The test conditions to be covered will vary

with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

ditions to be tested prior to conmmencing the test. Typical

• I' test conditions for a complete canister lifetime test follow:

1. Umbilical 50' standard 1/2"I.D. deep sea hose orequ ivalent,

2. Supply pressures 50 psiob on oxygen100 psiob on HeO,,other pressures asdirected by ProjectEngineer

U-034-

Page 92: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

3. Test Depths and Supply Gas Mixtures

00,50 fsw 100% oxygen*0,1001200t300 16% R KII300,4001450 10% HeO2450,500,600,700 5% He--2700,800,900,1000 3% UeO2

Air is an acceptable substitute

4. Valve Positions

Air control valve Fully Closed

Venturi control valve Fully open

Exhaust valve Fully closed

S. Position of helmet Normally jockedon manikin position. Be sure

this position isknown in sufficientdexactly theproduced.bdexatily thatritucand.

63 Manikin Orientation Head-up Vertical

7. Helmet Condition wet

8. Water Bath Temperatures 700F, 509F, 320F

9. manikin Respiratory Parameters*

CO2 Addition Rate 2.5 slmu n-U

Breathing Rate 25 breaths per minute

Tidal Volume 2.5 litersB~* Severe Work Rate Parameters Recammendedby JEDU Report 19-73.

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Page 93: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Volume-Time Waveform Flattened Sinusoidwith an exhalation toinhalation time ratioof 1.1 to 1.0 and aratio of peak flow tominute volume of 2,7

Exhaled Gas Temperature 97± 20 F

Exhaled Relative Humidity Saturated at 970F

g. General Procedures

1) The only test conditions which are notconstant throughout are depth and waterbath temperature. Tbe best procedure isusually to test all of the desired waterbath temperatures at 0 fsw, then go to100 fsw, etc. on down to the maximum depthto be tested.

2) Each individual test will consist of run--ning the canister until breakthrough atone depth and one water bath temperature.The- test is considered to start when thebreathing machine is turned on. Once 'Iturned on, the breathing machine and CO2add system should not be secured untilthe test is completed.

3) Run the test until the CO level in thecanister return line reacaes 1.0% S.E.

4) During these tests, once started, breathing

machine must run continuously. Duringdescent evolutions, use the air controlvalve to admit extra gas if required tomaintain a positive helmet Ap duringdescent. Watch the helmet Ak indication•=• .very careful-lydur ingdebscent.

5) Due to the length of time required for each

test, individual test runs are normallynot repeated as long as everything worked

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prop-srly and the test results are ,uonsistentwith other test runs.

6) Take care that the muount of gas beingdrawn out the gas sampling lines does notexcessively disturb conditions in the"helmet.

h. Data Handling

1) The data handling procedures are essentiallythe same as those of Section III. B. 4. h.

2) The CO cross checking procedures areidentigal with those of Section I11. B. 4.h. 1. As beforu, they should be doneon- line.

3) The principal purpose of these tests is todeternine the expected canister lifetime asa function of depth and water temperature.Consequently only the CO level versus timedata need be plotted separately. Whetheror not other data obtained (helmet gasconsumption, canister flow rate, helmet Ap,venturi Ap, etc.) is to be plotted is to bedetermined by the Project Engineer. Thebest way to handle this data will probablybe to plot it as additional data pointson the graphs and plots made as a resultof the tests outlined in Sections II1. B.2. and III. B. 4.

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6. Manned Dives, Subjective Evaluation, Semi-Closed"Circuit Mixed Gas Helmet

a, Background

Definitive manned testing of the helmet for

ventilation adequacy will be accomplished under Section III.

B. 7, Physiological Testing.

This section is concerned with essentially'

subjective tests to obtain a rough measure of the comfort,

human engineering and mobility of the helmet. To determine

those qualities accurately requires a rather large program

of manned tests considered to be outside the scope of this

evaluation. The tests outlined below can be accomplished

quickly and relatively easily. They will provide an indication

of the helmet mobility, human engineering and comfort which

should be sufficient to point out any really serious troubles

that must be addressed before larger scale manned tests such

as Techeval/Opeval are undertaken.

The instrumentation recommended below is rel-

atively sparse. This is so not because of design, but rather

due to the extreme difficulty of making measurements underwater

on a diver who is free to move about as he choses in a relatively

large body of water; 8000 gallons in the case of an EDU Wetpot.

! These tests are similar to the tests conducted U

under Section III. A. 5. on open circuit air helmets. The only

major difference is the addition of gas analysers to monitor theperformance of the CO2 absorbent canisters.

-,88-

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Page 96: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

S,-K•

b. Quantities to be Measured

1) Helmiet gas consumption rate

2) Helmet PCO2 level at:.2I

aa,1 Inlet to exhaust valve

bb. Canister suction hose (or pipe)

cc. Canister return hose (or pipe)

3) Helmet oxygen level measured in the canistersuction hose (or pipe)

__ 4) HeLhet Ap relative to hydrostatic pressureat the exhaust valve centerline. If adifferent rnfewencs pressure was used inSection 1II. B. 4, then use that referencepressure instead.

5) Helmet temperatureI

6) Helmat exhaust valve positions selected bythe divers.

__ c. Quantities to be Controlled

:•:1 ) Depth

2) Diver work tasks

3) Wetpot temperature

4) Supply overbottom pressure

5) Gas Media

id. Equipment

-89"-

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Page 97: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

1) Specialized equipment required

aa. Flowmeters, approximate sizes, 1and 8 scfm air at 70*F and 14,7psia with a 600 psig minimum work-ing pressure.

bb. Differential pressure transducers,approximate range + 5 psid, andassociated signal conditionsand recorders.

cc. Thermistors and read-out unit

dd. CO. analysers, 0 to 1.0% by volumerange with recorders.

ee. Oxygen analysers, 0 to 25% by volumerange, with recorders

2) Set up the test equipment generally asshown in Figure 16. Figure 16 is intendedonly as a guide, and minor equipmentmodifications can be expected to acccmmo- Udate the particular apparatus under test.

3) Regular umbilicals are not necessary forthese tests. Any suitable leader hoseswill do.

4) All gas sampling lines should have watertraps.

5) The outputs of the 0 and CO analysersshould be continuousiy recorged. The out-put of the Ap transducer must be continuouslyrecorded. Hand recordings o- the Ap, 0 _

and CO, values every 5 minutes, as is cAnmonlydone, are of little value due to often rapidlychanging values. The helmet flow rates areusually sufficiently steady to permit hand

recording of the flowmeter readings.

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Page 98: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

8 Paid Pressure Li

Transducert Ketie

- 1 C

Supply Pressure Gauge 02 Vto

lHe02 Board

_2W Flommeers m ua lso be arranged in parallel.

aUb lcleotJn.Pu rea

AI

Jriae Divder

Film I~PtJM A ae

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Page 99: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

e. Calibration I1) Calibrate all adjustable instruments

immediately prior to each major test.Re-check calibrations at the conclusionof the test.

2) The Ap transducers should be calibratedagainst a water or mercury manometer; thethermistors against 32 0 F water and roomtemperature.

3) The flowmeter and gauges normally do notneed daily calibration.

4) All gas analysis instruments should becalibratedaainst at least 3 known gaseseach: full scale, zero and mid-rangeconcentrations. If the analysers,especially the CO2 analysers, are non-linear, several more calibration pointsand a graphical calibration record isrequired.

f. Test Conditions

The test conditions to be covered will varyi.!•with the apparatus to be tested and with the degree of test-

ing required. The Project Engineer should determine the con-

•. ditions to be tested prior to commencing the test. Typical a

conditions for a reasonably complete test of a surface supplied

semi-closed circuit mixed gas helmet follows: IDepth 0,100,200,250,300,400 fsw

Supply Pressure 50 psiob, when 0 used(Measured on 100 psiob, when LeO2 usedGauge #2, Fig. 10) 2

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Page 100: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

Wetpot Temperature 70*F or above (dueto wetpot steel NDTconsiderations)

Supply Gas 16% HeO.2 at 0,100,200,250,300 fsw

10% HeO2 at 400 fsw

Diver Work Tasks See procedures sub-section

Deeper dives would be required to evaluate some semi-

closed systems which are designed to operate at very deep depths

out of PTC's etc. Such dives are considered out of the scope

of this section. They normally require saturation operations,

and they can be accomplished neither easily nor quickly.

Experience, however, has shown that the performance of venturi-

powered recirculating systems varies only slightly with depths

below 3U0 fsw (see EDU Reports 10-73, 12-73 and Reference 2).

Consequently the test condi.tions outlined above are considered

sufficient to obtain a good indication of the comfort, mobility

and human engineering qualities of venturi-powered recirculat-

ing systems, regardless of their maximum operating depth.

g. General Procedures

1) For a reasonably thorough subjectiveevaluation at least 5 dives should be madeto each depth. Always use divers who havehad sufficient exposure on the helmet sothat they feel familiar with its controls.

2) Normal U.S. Navy diving procedures are tobe followed. While on the bottom the diversshould alternate between 10 minute periods

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of"moderate" work and 5 minute rest periods,Normally the work tasks alternate betweenlifting a 70-pound weight (78 lbs dry) adistance of 2-1/2 feet 10 times per minuteand swiminng against a trapeze designed toexert a steady backward force of 6.0 lbs.For an average diver, exerting a stationaryswimming force of 6.0 lbs. produces anoxygen demand of approximately 1.26 standardliters per minute (6). This is equivalentto a respiratory minute volume of approxi-mately 30 liters per minute (7) or to swim-ming in SCUBA at a steady speed of approxi-mately 0.8 knots (6) (7). An oxygen demandof 1.26 slpn results in a CO 2 production ofabout 1.13 slpm (8). Working against anunderwater bicycle or pedal ergometer isalso a suitable tastk.

3) At the conclusion of each dive, the divershould fill out the applicable portions ofthe Diver Equipment Subjective AnalysisQuestionnaire reproduced in Appendix A.

4) Have several divers dis-assemble and re-asseablethe helmet and CO absorber assembly. Noteany difficulties 9ncountered.

h. Data Handling

1) Record at each test condition all measuredand controlled quantities on a p datasheet. Carefully annotate all strip chartrecordings or other permanent data recordsso that the data can be identified.

2) Compare the CO levels and helmet pressuresand gas consumption rates measured to the

results of Section III* B. 4. Compare themeasured helmet PCO and PO2 levels withthose predicted on ihe basis of themeasured helmet flow rates and the diverCO2 production and oxygen consumption ratesexpected as a result of the work tasks selected.

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3) Tabulate and/or plot the data obtained asdirected by the Project Engineer. Thereis usually suffi'cient variability in thedata from these dives to make conciseplotting difficult.

4) The Project Engineer or his representativeshould keep a daily log of all significantevents.

5) For each day's test dives, calibrationrecords must be made, clearly annotated anda'ttahed to the -lata generated by eachrespective instrument during the runs towhich the calibration record applies.

i•-'I

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95-1

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_- . •_ •' - i •t. 1-

Page 103: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

7. Manned Dives, Physiological Testing

a. Background

The purpose of these tests is to determine

quantitatively the ability of the apparatus under test to

support the physiologic and respiratory requirements of a

diver at hard work. The tests are normally conducted by the

-; EDU Medical Department.

The procedures and equipment used for these

tests is still being refined. A detailed protocol covering

these tests is expected to be published by the EDU Medical

"I" Department sometime in the second quarter of CY 1974.

PSr

7.-, -96-

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Page 104: TESTING PROCEDURES FOR OPEN CIRCUIT S. D. Reimers

8. Emergency Air Mode Tests

a. Background

When diving in a semi-closed circuit mixed gas

helmet, it can become necessary to switch to open circuit air

if something happens to the CO2 absorbent canister or the

mixed gas supply. The tests outlined in this section are

those tusts appropriate to a mixed gas helmet being operated

on emergency open circuit air.

A mixed gas helmet being operated on emergency

open circuit air is for all intents and purposes an open

circuit air helmet, and it can be tested as such. The only

diffei.ence between testing a straight open circuit air helmet

and testing a mixed gas helmet operating on emergency open

circuit air is that the latter helmet has a CO2 absorbent

canister in place, but not operating (if the venturi does not

have a shut-off valve, the CO 2 abosrbent canister will be

operating but on air). Since the CO2 absorbent canister is

not operating, it need not be instrumented.

b. Recommended Tests -W

1) The mixed gas helmet compliance testresults of Section III. B. 1 are directlyaoplicable and no special helmet comr-pliance test is necessary.

2) The air cupply system and exhaust valvetests of Section III. A. 2. should beperformed. Some mixed gas helmets usethe same exhaust valve as does a matching

97

A

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air helmet. However, the air supplysystem its almost always different.With a mixed gas helmet the air usuallymust go through some additional plumbingbefore reaching the helmet air controlvalve.

3) The open circuit air sound levels ofSection III. A. 3. should be performed.This test may be omitted if the mixedgas helmet under test has a matching opencircuit air helmet for which the soundlevels are known.

4) The ventilation tests of Section III. A. 3.must be performed. The ventilationcharacteristics of a mixed gas helmetused on emergency open circuit air arealmost always different from the ventilationcharacteristics of the matching opencircuit air helmet, if indeed there is one.

5) The manned subjective dives of Section III.A. 5. need be performed on only a limitedscale.

6) Physiologic test dives as in Section III.A. 6. need not be performed.

7) The Project Engineer must decide whichof the above tests are to be done on theparticular helmet being evaluated, andwhich test conditions are to be used.

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IV. INSTRUMENT SPECIFICATIONS

Minimum

NýType FrequencyInstrument Normally Used Acrc y Repose

Flowmeters Variable Area ±2% of full scale 0.5 Hz A

A~P Tranisducers Variable Reluctance ±%of full scale 200 Hz

ATransducer Meters ±1% of full scale 1 HzA ~Indicators

Oxygen Analysers Paramnagnetic ±0.5% by volume 0.1 Hz

O2Analysers Non-dispersive ±1% of full scale 1 HzInfrared

Thermistors Thermocouple ±10 F 0.1 Hz

Relative Humidity -- ±3% 0.1 HzInstruments

Pressure Gauges Bourdoni Tube ±4% of full scale 0.5 Hz

Strip Chart Electric, ±1% of full scale, 40 HzRecorders oscillographic 50 mm chart width at full

chartwidth

slewing

speed=40 in/sec

maximumacc,,ilorationI14C0 in/seP Iin X direction.2C00 in/sec2A.A Y direction.

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REFERENCES

1. Material Test Procedure 10-2-192, Diving Equipment (Helmets,Belts, Divers Dress, Etc.), U.S. Army Test and EvaluationCommand, Commodity Engineering Test Procedure, 23 March 1970

2. TECHEVAL Report, USN MK 12 Diving Outfit, in preparation

3. Thomas, W. G., Preslar, M. J. and Farmer, J.C., "Calibrationof Condenser Microphones under Increased Atmospheric Pressures"Joucnal of the Acoustical Soci.P-y of America, Vol. 51 Numaber 1(Part 1) , 1972 pp 6-14

4. Navy Department: Hearing Conservation Program. Bureau ofMedicine and Surgery Instruction 6260.6B, 5 March 1970

5. "Criteria for a Recommended Standard, Occupational Exposureto Noise", U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,1972

6. Lanphier, E. H., Dwyer, J. V. and Walkowski, A. J., "A TrapezeErgometer", Navy Experimental Diving Unit Formal Report 1-55,18 March 1955

7. U.S. Navy Diving Gas Manual, Research Report Number 3-69, U.S.Navy Supervisor of Diving, Naval Ship Systems Command,October 1, 1969

8. Henkener, J. A., "Low-Pressure Compressed Air Breathing SystemsStudy. Part II. Mark V Helmet Ventilation Studies". BattelleMemorial Institute, September 22, 1970, p 16

1-00-

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.i..

ma

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DIVER EQUIPMENTSUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS

DIVERS NAME DATE

__ LOCATION DEPTH TIME

EQUIPMENT SET-Up

MANUFACTURER MODEL

TYPE RIG GAS USED %02. %N2 % He

SUPPLY-PRESSURB BEFORE AFTER

REGULATOR PRESSURE BEFORE. AFTER

ORIFICE SIZE LITER FLOW BEFORE AFTER

2I'

I.. WHAT INLET AND EXHAUST SETTINGS DID YOU FIND COVMFORTABLEWHILE WORKING AND WHTLE STAND!NG AT REST? EXPRESSVALVE SETTINGS AS THIE NUMBER OF TURNS OPEN OR CLOSED.

(emiample: inlet 2 1/4 turns upen).

INLET E&XHAUST

WORK

REST

TYPE OF WCRK __

1-102-

I

. -C45_ _ _- -

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2. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE INHALATION RESISTANCE OF THE HELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

3.. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE EXHALATION RESISTANCE OF THE HELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

4. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE EASE OF DONNING THE HELMET/MASK AND ITSACCESSORIES.

dang erou s acceptable exc el lent no t.

to life for fleet feature observeduse impossible

to improveon

5. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE HELMET/MASK WEIGHT OUT OF THE WATER.

dangerous acceptable excellent not -

to life fo.r fleet feature observeduse impossible

to improve

L 6. PATE AND r2OMMTNT ON THE HELMET/,:ASK BUOYANCY IN THE WATER.

dangerous acceptable excel-lent notto .Lilco for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

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M- i . on

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III7. ±AATE AND COMMENT ON THE FIT AND COMFORT OF THE HELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excillent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

".8. RAT1i AND COMMENT ON THE NOISE LEVEL IN THE HELMET.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

9. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE ADEQUACY OF THE COMMUNICATIONS IN THEHELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on o1

10. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE ACCESSIBILITY AND OPERATION OF CONTROL VALVES.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

11. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE VISIBILITY FROM THE HELMET/MASK.F- Idangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

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II

12. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE EASE OF CLEARING WATER FROM THE HELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

13. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE HELMET/MASK TORQUE.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

14. WHAT IS YOUR OVER ALL EVALUATION OF THE HELMET/MASK.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

rBREATHIN APPARATU

15. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE WEIGHT OF THE APPARATUS OUT OF THE WATER.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

"-10 5-

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16. .ATE AND COMMENT ON THE BUOYANCY OF THE APPARATUS IN THE WATLAR.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

17. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE ACCESSIBILITY AND OPERATION OF CONTROL VALVES.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

18. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE SWIMMABILITY OF THE APPARATUS.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

19. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE APPARATUS TORQUE.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on_

20. RATE AND COMMENT ON THE INHALATION BREATHING RESISTANCE.

dangerous acceptable excellent notto life for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve•, on

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21, RATE AND COMMENT ON THS EXHALATION BREATHING RESISTANCE.

dangerous acceptable excellent rnotto life

for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

22.. WHAT IS YOUR OVERALL EVALUATIGN OF THE APPAPATUS.

daiiaerous acceptable excellent notto li'ýe for fleet feature observed

use impossibleto improve

on

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