the cattle kingdom west texas ranching was the main source of income in west texas. how do you...

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The Cattle Kingdom

Author: barbara-cannon

Post on 17-Dec-2015




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  • The Cattle Kingdom
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  • West Texas Ranching was the main source of income in West Texas. How do you explain this? Why do you think it wasnt farming? Regions is too dry to support farming so ranching became more prominent Primarily influenced by water resources
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  • Spanish Origins The Spanish brought cattle and horses to Texas Large Spanish/Mexican ranches existed in Northern Mexico & TX Spanish vaqueros, or cowboys developed skills in riding, roping, herding, and branding
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  • Some cattle strayed from the missions or ranches. Over time, a new breed evolved known as the Texas longhorn.
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  • The longhorn was able to adapt to almost any environment. able to survive on little water or food able to survive extreme hot or cold temperatures Able to use their horns for protection
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  • Influence of Civil War Civil War ending marked the beginning of the cattle boom The demand for beef outpaced supply in the Northeast New markets in the East increased the growth of the industry as population grew Longhorns worth $3-$6 in Texas but $30-$80 in the Eastern United States Large supply and high demand for beef created great profits for Texas ranchers Cattle boom helped Texas recover from the war
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  • Cattle Trails The Northern demand for beef led to the rise of the cattle trails Cattle Trails added to support the growing cattle industry in Texas Cattle trails were used to get cattle to the railroads, which took them to markets in Northern Texas Cattle drives began with a roundup Drove the herds to towns with rail stations Sent by rail to Northern states where they would be slaughtered for meat Ranchers made LARGE profits moving a herd to market
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  • Cattle Trails
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  • Problems with Cattle Trails Bandits stole cattle Farmers complained Cattle trampled their crops Longhorns spread Texas Fever to their cows Some states passed quarantine laws to keep Texas cattle away Quarantine isolate or separate to prevent the spread of disease
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  • Shawnee Trail First Cattle Trail used after the Civil War Trail led from S. Texas thru Indian Territory to Sedalia, Missouri
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  • Famous Trails Chisholm Trail The route went from Texas thru Indian Territory and to Abilene, Kansas Jesse Chisholm used this route to ship goods north from Texas to Kansas 1871 600,000 cattle moved north on the trail 1884 5 million cattle traveled on the trail
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  • Famous Trails Great Western Trail Opened in 1874 by drover John T. Lytle Drover person who moves livestock to market Developed to the west of the Chisholm Trail Ran from Indian Territory to Dodge City, Kansas and then north to a rail station in Nebraska
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  • Famous Trails Goodnight Love Trail Trail blazed by Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving Chose this route to avoid the hostile Plains Indians Ran from West Texas through New Mexico, into Colorado and finally Wyoming Towns grew up along the trails and were known for violence and lawlessness
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  • Famous Trails
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  • Major Cattle Trails Austin Abilene Baxter Springs Dodge City Ogallala Cheyenne Pueblo Denver Kerrville Fort Concho Sedalia KEY Goodnight-Loving Trail Great Western Trail Chisholm Trail Sedalia (Shawnee) Trail Towns Forts Railroads Rivers Ellsworth
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  • Life on the Trail Cowboys rounded up cattle into a central camp in early spring They branded the animals and divided them into herds A typical herd numbered about 3,000 head of cattle A trail boss (manager) planned the cattle drive They brought 50-60 good horses the spare horses were called the remuda
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  • Life on the Trail Cowboys spent 2 hours on guard duty A herd moved about 10-15 miles a day Cowboys often faced the possibility of stampedes
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  • Trail Boss Wrangler Swing Flank Point Remuda Chuck wagon Drag TYPICAL CATTLE DRIVE FORMATION This diagram shows a typical cattle drive formation. The Pointers guided the cattle in the desired direction; the Swing Riders, behind the Pointers, assisted in guiding the cattle, and in keeping the herd in formation. The Flank Riders worked at keeping the formation intact. The Drag Riders, the most undesirable position because of the dust, depending upon the wind, kept the weaker, lagging cattle from slowing the formation down.
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  • WAYS TEXANS HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THE ENVIRONMENT AND POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFICATIONS Cattle trails Adapted/Modified cattle trails were developed to transport cattle to the railroads. Consequences led to the development of railroads and towns in less-developed areas
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  • Jobs Along the Trail Trail Boss Qualifications Leadership, Competence, Cooperative, Cool- headed, Resolute, Quick thinker, Previous experience with cattle drives Duties Responsible for entire operation (cows, cowboys, cattle) while on trail Involved in finding water, grass, and good trail for cattle Can track different animals across the range; knows the range well Keeps peace between cowboys Keeps horses and cowboys fed Handles money involved with placing orders for supplies and paying appropriate tolls Pay (1890s) - $ 90/month Pay (2008) - $2052/month Zack T. Burkett, LS Foreman, Overlooking the Canadian River, 1907
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  • Legendary ranchman and trail driver Charles Goodnight invented the chuck wagon in 1866 for use by his crews. The chuck wagon, sometimes drawn by oxen, but usually by mules, carried not only food, utensils and a water barrel, but also tools and the crew's bed rolls. A fold-out counter, supported by one or two hinged legs, was used for food preparation. The wagon contained several drawers and shelves, with a "boot" or storage compartment underneath, all covered by a canvas top. The cook served beef and bison steaks, SOB stew (made from calf parts), "chuck wagon chicken" (bacon), "Pecos strawberries" (beans), "sourdough bullets" (biscuits) and cowboy coffee. Chuck Wagon Cook A JA Cook Inspecting His Stew, JA Ranch, Texas, 1908 The Matador outfit having dinner at the chuck wagon. The noon meal is known as "dinner" in the ranch country. Matador Ranch, Texas., 1908-1909 The Matador wagon cook [Harry Stewart] making a cobbler. Matador Ranch, Texas, 1908Qualifications Must know how to drive a wagon, be able to prepare meals with limited resources and serve them on time, some experience and knowledge of medical techniques also necessary Level of Experience HIGH; former cowboy who is either too old for the more difficult work or has been hurtDuties Prepares 3 meals a day out of the back of a wagon Not expected to assist with any cattle or other trail jobs Cooks for the men on the trail Moves wagon about two times a day, 10-15 miles each time Awakens at 3am and has breakfast ready when the others are awakened Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $60/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $1368/month
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  • Point Qualifications Qualifications Reliable, ability to work in a group with others toward a common goal Level of Experience Level of Experience High; most honored post on the drive. These cowboys would determine the direction of the drive. Duties Duties Works in groups of two and points the lead steers in the right direction Sets the pace for the drive Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $30-40/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $684-912/month Swing Qualifications Qualifications Must know how to ride a horse, previous experience with trail drives Level of Experience Level of Experience Some experience required Duties Duties Rides a third of the way back from the front of the herd as it is moving down the trail Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $30-40/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $684-912/month
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  • Flank Qualifications Qualifications Must know how to ride a horse, previous experience with trail drives Level of Experience Level of Experience Some experience required Duties Duties Cuts in cattle that have gotten out of the herd Rides about 2/3 of the way back from the front of the trail Makes sure that cattle do not wander too far away from the main herd Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $30-40/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $684-912/monthDrag Qualifications Qualifications Willing to work hard and endure dust and dirt kicked up by the herd and riders ahead of them Level of Experience Level of Experience Usually an entry-level position Duties Duties Rides at the back of the herd on the trail to make sure that beeves, cows, etc. stay with the herd Must be able to push these slower cattle forward Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $30-40/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $684-912/month Two OR cowboys roping an outlaw steer, 1909 Jack Woffard of the Shoe Bar outfit flanking the trail herd. Shoe Bar Ranch, Texas, 1912
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  • Often horses in the remuda would dodge cowhands attempts to rope them, making rope-handling skills all the more important. In this image, the cowhand is roping his mount for the day, using a smear or houlihan catch. A roper had different throws for different purposes; the smear or houlihan catch is a fast overhand throw with an open loop, rather than a side or spinning throw, which required more room to execute. The houlihan catch is performed quickly and in a tight area. Erwin E. Smith (18861947) Smearing His Loop on a Wild One [A JA Cowpuncher Making a Houlihan Catch in the Remuda as the Horses Attempt to Dodge His Lariat], JA Ranch, Texas, 1908 Wrangler The wrangler was usually a young boy who worked as an apprentice to learn the ways of a cowhand. His primary responsibility was to care for the remuda (herd of horses). In the morning he rose before the men to round up all the horses that might have wandered away in the night. He had to keep them together until they could be roped for the men to ride. One of the most popular cowboy songs of all time, Little Joe, the Wrangler, written by Jack Thorp in 1898, told the story of a youngster who worked hard at a mans job and died tragically when the herd stampeded during a storm. The boy wrangler for the Shoe Bar brings in a load of wood, the cowboy's favorite method of "totin' things", 1912Qualifications Willing to learn and work hard Level of Experience ENTRY-LEVEL POSITION, generally a young boy who wants to be a cowboyDuties Drives the remuda before the wagon and ahead of the cattle Rounds the extra horses up and gets them into a rope corral several times during the day Keeps the horses together and eating grass until it is time for cowboys to change mounts Makes sure that those ridden hard are given proper food (corn and grass) Helps cook gahter wood and harness the teams of horses Pay (1890s) - Pay (1890s) - $25/month Pay (2008) - Pay (2008) - $570/month
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  • The MYTH of the Cowboy The MYTH of the Cowboy started in books and movies. They portrayed cowhands as white men who experienced exciting adventures along the cattle trails and defended themselves against Indian tribes.
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  • Cowboys Cowboys were in their teens to mid-20s Small build large men were too big for the horses 2/3 were African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and women Daily life was boring, dirty work Some rode up to 36 hours in saddle Storms, dust, heat, rattlesnakes and river crossings made life unpleasant
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  • Female Cowboys Lizzie E. Johnson Margaret H. Borland
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  • Big Ranches By the late 1870s, land and cattle companies owned more than HALF the land in West Texas Ranchers soon enclosed nearly all the rangeland in South Texas This brought an end to the big cattle drives Huge ranches spread out across Texas
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  • Major Cattle Ranches South TX Ranches KING RANCH Richard King, Henrietta King, Robert Kleberg Panhandle Ranches JA RANCH John Adair, Charles Goodnight XIT RANCH After the capitol building in Austin burned down in 1881 the Farwell brothers of Chicago agreed to build a $3 million capitol in exchange for 3 million acres of land in the Panhandle they started the XIT with the land SHOE BAR RANCH Thomas Bugbee MATADOR RANCH H.H. Campbell and others CAMP RANCH Wilson County Shoe Bar Ranch JA Ranch XIT Ranch Matador Ranch King Ranch
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  • Richard King started with 15,000 acres in Nueces County in 1852 When King died in 1885, he owned more than 600,000 acres His widow Henrietta and his son-in-law, Robert Kleberg doubled the size of the ranch The King ranch grew to more than ONE MILLION ACRES, about as large as the state of Rhode Island
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  • King Ranch Headquarters Kingsville, TX RichardKing
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  • JA Ranch Charles Goodnights JA Ranch was located in the Panhandle It covered more than one million acres by the late 1880s The ranch supported 100,000 cattle Goodnight improved his cattle through careful breeding His ranch produced some of the nations finest beef
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  • JA RanchCharles Goodnigh t
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  • XIT Ranch XIT was another large Panhandle ranch It enclosed more than 3 million acres, surrounded by 6,000 miles of barbed wire fence XIT was almost as large as the state of Connecticut Group of investors from Chicago, John and Charles Farwell, owned the XIT Received land after building a new capitol in Austin in 1888
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  • XIT Ranch Charles and John Farwell
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  • Other Texas Ranches Sheep industry thrived in Central and South Texas By 1886, Texans owned nearly 5 million sheep Goat ranching also expanded in Texas in the late 1800s Some Texans owned mustang ranches Mustangs are wild horses and thousands lived on the plains