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© 2007 Thomson South-Western, all rights reserved N. G R E G O R Y M A N K I W PowerPoint ® Slides by Ron Cronovich 2 3 ECONOM ICS P R I N C I P L E S O F F O U R T H E D I T I O N Measuring a Nation’s Measuring a Nation’s Income Income

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Slide 1

2007 Thomson South-Western, all rights reserved

N. G R E G O R Y M A N K I W

PowerPoint Slidesby Ron Cronovich

23Measuring a Nations Income

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In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? How is GDP related to a nations total income and spending? What are the components of GDP? How is GDP corrected for inflation?Does GDP measure societys well-being?

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Micro vs. MacroMicroeconomics: The study of how individual households and firms make decisions, interact with one another in markets.Macroeconomics: The study of the economy as a whole.We begin our study of macroeconomics with the countrys total income and expenditure.

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Income and ExpenditureGross Domestic Product (GDP) measures total income of everyone in the economy. GDP also measures total expenditure on the economys output of g&s. For the economy as a whole, income equals expenditure, because every dollar of expenditure by a buyer is a dollar of income for the seller.

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The Circular-Flow Diagramis a simple depiction of the macroeconomy.illustrates GDP as spending, revenue, factor payments, and income. First, some preliminaries:Factors of production are inputs like labor, land, capital, and natural resources. Factor payments are payments to the factors of production. (e.g., wages, rent)

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FIGURE 1: The Circular-Flow DiagramHouseholds:own the factors of production, sell/rent them to firms for incomebuy and consume g&s

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FIGURE 1: The Circular-Flow DiagramHouseholdsFirms:buy/hire factors of production, use them to produce g&ssell g&s

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FIGURE 1: The Circular-Flow Diagram

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What This Diagram OmitsThe governmentcollects taxespurchases g&sThe financial systemmatches savers supply of funds with borrowers demand for loansThe foreign sectortrades g&s, financial assets, and currencies with the countrys residents

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Goods are valued at their market prices, so:GDP measures all goods using the same units (e.g., dollars in the U.S.), rather than adding apples to oranges. Things that dont have a market value are excluded, e.g., housework you do for yourself.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Final goods are intended for the end user. Intermediate goods are used as components or ingredients in the production of other goods. GDP only includes final goods, as they already embody the value of the intermediate goods used in their production.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.GDP includes tangible goods (like DVDs, mountain bikes, beer)and intangible services (dry cleaning, concerts, cell phone service).

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.GDP includes currently produced goods, not goods produced in the past.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.GDP measures the value of production that occurs within a countrys borders, whether done by its own citizens or by foreigners located there.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Isthe market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.usually a year or a quarter (3 months).

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The Components of GDPRecall: GDP is total spending. Four components:Consumption (C)Investment (I)Government Purchases (G)Net Exports (NX)These components add up to GDP (denoted Y):Y = C + I + G + NX

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Consumption (C)is total spending by households on g&s. Note on housing costs: For renters, consumption includes rent payments. For homeowners, consumption includes the imputed rental value of the house, but not the purchase price or mortgage payments.

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Investment (I)is total spending on goods that will be used in the future to produce more goods. includes spending oncapital equipment (e.g., machines, tools)structures (factories, office buildings, houses)inventories (goods produced but not yet sold)Note: Investment does not mean the purchase of financial assets like stocks and bonds.

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Government Purchases (G)is all spending on the g&s purchased by govt at the federal, state, and local levels.G excludes transfer payments, such as Social Security or unemployment insurance benefits. These payments represent transfers of income, not purchases of g&s.

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Net Exports (NX)NX = exports importsExports represent foreign spending on the economys g&s. Imports are the portions of C, I, and G that are spent on g&s produced abroad. Adding up all the components of GDP gives:Y = C + I + G + NX

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U.S. GDP and Its Components, 2005

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1: GDP and its componentsIn each of the following cases, determine how much GDP and each of its components is affected (if at all).A.Debbie spends $200 to buy her husband dinner at the finest restaurant in Boston.B.Sarah spends $1800 on a new laptop to use in her publishing business. The laptop was built in China. C.Jane spends $1200 on a computer to use in her editing business. She got last years model on sale for a great price from a local manufacturer. D.General Motors builds $500 million worth of cars, but consumers only buy $470 million worth of them.*

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1: AnswersA.Debbie spends $200 to buy her husband dinner at the finest restaurant in Boston.Consumption and GDP rise by $200. B.Sarah spends $1800 on a new laptop to use in her publishing business. The laptop was built in China. Investment rises by $1800, net exports fall by $1800, GDP is unchanged.*

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1: AnswersC.Jane spends $1200 on a computer to use in her editing business. She got last years model on sale for a great price from a local manufacturer. Current GDP and investment do not change, because the computer was built last year.D.General Motors builds $500 million worth of cars, but consumers only buy $470 million of them.Consumption rises by $470 million, inventory investment rises by $30 million, and GDP rises by $500 million. *

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Real versus Nominal GDPInflation can distort economic variables like GDP, so we have two versions of GDP: One is corrected for inflation, the other is not. Nominal GDP values output using current prices. It is not corrected for inflation. Real GDP values output using the prices of a base year. Real GDP is corrected for inflation.

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EXAMPLE:Compute nominal GDP in each year:2002:$10 x 400 + $2 x 1000 = $6,0002003:$11 x 500 + $2.50 x 1100 = $8,2502004:$12 x 600 + $3 x 1200 = $10,800Increase:

PizzaLatteyearPQPQ2002$10400$2.0010002003$11500$2.5011002004$12600$3.001200

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EXAMPLE:Compute real GDP in each year, using 2002 as the base year:Increase:2002:$10 x 400 + $2 x 1000 = $6,0002003:$10 x 500 + $2 x 1100 = $7,2002004:$10 x 600 + $2 x 1200 = $8,400

PizzaLatteyearPQPQ2002$10400$2.0010002003$11500$2.5011002004$12600$3.001200

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EXAMPLE:In each year,nominal GDP is measured using the (then) current prices. real GDP is measured using constant prices from the base year (2002 in this example).

yearNominal GDPReal GDP2002$6000$60002003$8250$72002004$10,800$8400

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EXAMPLE:The change in nominal GDP reflects both prices and quantities. The change in real GDP is the amount that GDP would change if prices were constant (i.e., if zero inflation). Hence, real GDP is corrected for inflation.

yearNominal GDPReal GDP2002$6000$60002003$8250$72002004$10,800$8400

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Nominal and Real GDP in the U.S., 1965-2005Real GDP (base year 2000)Nominal GDP

graph--nom & real GDP

237.21570.5

240.51568.7

244.61568

254.41590.9

260.41616.1

267.31644.6

273.91654.1

275.21658

2701633.2

266.21628.4

267.71646.7

265.21629.9

275.21696.8

284.61747.3

3021815.8

313.41848.9

3291871.3

336.71903.1

343.61941.1

3481944.4

351.31964.7

352.21966

358.51978.8

371.42043.8

378.42082.3

3822098.1

381.12085.4

375.92052.5

375.32042.4

3762044.3

380.82066.9

389.52107.8

402.62168.5

410.92204

419.52233.4

4262245.3

428.32234.8

434.22252.5

439.32249.8

448.12286.5

457.22300.3

459.22294.6

466.42317

461.52292.5

4542230.2

458.12243.4

471.72295.2

4852348

495.42392.9

508.42455.8

509.32453.9

513.22462.6

526.92517.4

526.12504.8

528.92508.7

523.62476.2

527.92491.2

5392538

549.42579.1

562.52631.8

5762679.1

583.22708.4

5902733.3

593.32740

602.42775.9

611.22810.6

623.92863.5

633.52885.8

649.62950.5

658.82984.8

670.53025.5

675.63033.6

695.73108.2

708.13150.2

725.23214.1

747.53291.8

770.83372.3

779.93384

793.43406.3

807.13433.7

817.93464.1

822.53464.3

837.13491.8

852.83518.2

879.93590.7

904.23651.6

919.43676.5

936.33692

9613750.2

976.33760.9

996.53784.2

1004.63766.3

1017.33760

1033.23767.1

1050.73800.5

1052.93759.8

1098.33864.1

1119.13885.9

1139.33916.7

1151.73927.9

1190.63997.7

1225.94092.1

1249.74131.1

12874198.7

1335.54305.3

1371.94355.1

1391.24331.9

1432.34373.3

14474335.4

1485.34347.9

1514.24305.8

1553.44288.9

15704237.6

1605.64268.6

1663.14340.9

1714.64397.8

1772.64496.8

1804.94530.3

1838.34552

1885.34584.6

1939.34640

20064731.1

2066.84815.8

2111.64815.3

21504830.8

2275.65021.2

2336.25070.7

24175137.4

2464.45147.4

2527.65152.3

2600.75189.4

2660.55204.7

2725.35221.3

2729.35115.9

2786.65107.4

2916.95202.1

3052.75307.5

3085.95266.1

3178.75329.8

3196.45263.4

3186.85177.1

3242.75204.9

3276.25185.2

3314.45189.8

3382.95253.8

3484.15372.3

3589.35478.4

3690.45590.5

3809.65699.8

3908.65797.9

3978.25854.3

4036.35902.4

4119.55956.9

4178.46007.8

4261.36101.7

4321.86148.6

4385.66207.4

4425.76232

4493.96291.7

4546.16323.4

4613.86365

46906435

4767.86493.4

4886.36606.8

4951.96639.1

5062.86723.5

5146.66759.4

5253.76848.6

5367.16918.1

5454.16963.5

5531.97013.1

5584.37030.9

5716.47112.1

5797.77130.3

5849.47130.8

5848.87076.9

58887040.8

5964.37086.5

6035.67120.7

6095.87154.1

6196.17228.2

6290.17297.9

6380.57369.5

6484.37450.7

6542.77459.7

6612.17497.5

6674.67536

6800.27637.4

69117715.1

7030.67815.7

7115.17859.5

7232.27951.6

7298.37973.7

7337.77988

7432.18053.1

7522.58112

7624.18169.2

7776.68303.1

7866.28372.7

8000.48470.6

8113.88536.1

8250.48665.8

8381.98773.7

8471.28838.4

8586.78936.2

8657.98995.3

8789.59098.9

8953.89237.1

9066.69315.5

9174.19392.6

9313.59502.2

9519.59671.1

9629.49695.6

9822.89847.9

9862.19836.6

9953.69887.7

10021.59875.6

10128.99905.9

10135.19871.1

10226.39910

10338.29993.5

10445.710052.6

10546.510117.3

10617.510135.9

10744.610184.4

1088410287.4

11116.710472.8

11270.910580.7

11472.610697.5

11657.510784.7

11814.910891

11994.810994.3

12191.711096.2

Nominal GDP

Real GDP (base year = 2000)

Billions

GDP data

GDP = nominal GDP, billions of current dollars, seasonally adjusted annual rate.

RGDP = real GDP, billions of chained 2000 dollars, seasonally adjusted annual rate.

notes:A Guide to the National Income and Product Accounts of the United

States (NIPA) - (http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/an/nipaguid.pdf)

the source I used:http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/

original source:U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis

datex-axisNominal GDPReal GDP (base year = 2000)

1947-01-011947237.21570.5

1947-04-011947.25240.51568.7

1947-07-011947.5244.61568.0

1947-10-011947.75254.41590.9

1948-01-011948260.41616.1

1948-04-011948.25267.31644.6

1948-07-011948.5273.91654.1

1948-10-011948.75275.21658.0

1949-01-011949270.01633.2

1949-04-011949.25266.21628.4

1949-07-011949.5267.71646.7

1949-10-011949.75265.21629.9

1950-01-011950275.21696.8

1950-04-011950.25284.61747.3

1950-07-011950.5302.01815.8

1950-10-011950.75313.41848.9

1951-01-011951329.01871.3

1951-04-011951.25336.71903.1

1951-07-011951.5343.61941.1

1951-10-011951.75348.01944.4

1952-01-011952351.31964.7

1952-04-011952.25352.21966.0

1952-07-011952.5358.51978.8

1952-10-011952.75371.42043.8

1953-01-011953378.42082.3

1953-04-011953.25382.02098.1

1953-07-011953.5381.12085.4

1953-10-011953.75375.92052.5

1954-01-011954375.32042.4

1954-04-011954.25376.02044.3

1954-07-011954.5380.82066.9

1954-10-011954.75389.52107.8

1955-01-011955402.62168.5

1955-04-011955.25410.92204.0

1955-07-011955.5419.52233.4

1955-10-011955.75426.02245.3

1956-01-011956428.32234.8

1956-04-011956.25434.22252.5

1956-07-011956.5439.32249.8

1956-10-011956.75448.12286.5

1957-01-011957457.22300.3

1957-04-011957.25459.22294.6

1957-07-011957.5466.42317.0

1957-10-011957.75461.52292.5

1958-01-011958454.02230.2

1958-04-011958.25458.12243.4

1958-07-011958.5471.72295.2

1958-10-011958.75485.02348.0

1959-01-011959495.42392.9

1959-04-011959.25508.42455.8

1959-07-011959.5509.32453.9

1959-10-011959.75513.22462.6

1960-01-011960526.92517.4

1960-04-011960.25526.12504.8

1960-07-011960.5528.92508.7

1960-10-011960.75523.62476.2

1961-01-011961527.92491.2

1961-04-011961.25539.02538.0

1961-07-011961.5549.42579.1

1961-10-011961.75562.52631.8

1962-01-011962576.02679.1

1962-04-011962.25583.22708.4

1962-07-011962.5590.02733.3

1962-10-011962.75593.32740.0

1963-01-011963602.42775.9

1963-04-011963.25611.22810.6

1963-07-011963.5623.92863.5

1963-10-011963.75633.52885.8

1964-01-011964649.62950.5

1964-04-011964.25658.82984.8

1964-07-011964.5670.53025.5

1964-10-011964.75675.63033.6

1965-01-011965695.73108.2

1965-04-011965.25708.13150.2

1965-07-011965.5725.23214.1

1965-10-011965.75747.53291.8

1966-01-011966770.83372.3

1966-04-011966.25779.93384.0

1966-07-011966.5793.43406.3

1966-10-011966.75807.13433.7

1967-01-011967817.93464.1

1967-04-011967.25822.53464.3

1967-07-011967.5837.13491.8

1967-10-011967.75852.83518.2

1968-01-011968879.93590.7

1968-04-011968.25904.23651.6

1968-07-011968.5919.43676.5

1968-10-011968.75936.33692.0

1969-01-011969961.03750.2

1969-04-011969.25976.33760.9

1969-07-011969.5996.53784.2

1969-10-011969.751004.63766.3

1970-01-0119701017.33760.0

1970-04-011970.251033.23767.1

1970-07-011970.51050.73800.5

1970-10-011970.751052.93759.8

1971-01-0119711098.33864.1

1971-04-011971.251119.13885.9

1971-07-011971.51139.33916.7

1971-10-011971.751151.73927.9

1972-01-0119721190.63997.7

1972-04-011972.251225.94092.1

1972-07-011972.51249.74131.1

1972-10-011972.751287.04198.7

1973-01-0119731335.54305.3

1973-04-011973.251371.94355.1

1973-07-011973.51391.24331.9

1973-10-011973.751432.34373.3

1974-01-0119741447.04335.4

1974-04-011974.251485.34347.9

1974-07-011974.51514.24305.8

1974-10-011974.751553.44288.9

1975-01-0119751570.04237.6

1975-04-011975.251605.64268.6

1975-07-011975.51663.14340.9

1975-10-011975.751714.64397.8

1976-01-0119761772.64496.8

1976-04-011976.251804.94530.3

1976-07-011976.51838.34552.0

1976-10-011976.751885.34584.6

1977-01-0119771939.34640.0

1977-04-011977.252006.04731.1

1977-07-011977.52066.84815.8

1977-10-011977.752111.64815.3

1978-01-0119782150.04830.8

1978-04-011978.252275.65021.2

1978-07-011978.52336.25070.7

1978-10-011978.752417.05137.4

1979-01-0119792464.45147.4

1979-04-011979.252527.65152.3

1979-07-011979.52600.75189.4

1979-10-011979.752660.55204.7

1980-01-0119802725.35221.3

1980-04-011980.252729.35115.9

1980-07-011980.52786.65107.4

1980-10-011980.752916.95202.1

1981-01-0119813052.75307.5

1981-04-011981.253085.95266.1

1981-07-011981.53178.75329.8

1981-10-011981.753196.45263.4

1982-01-0119823186.85177.1

1982-04-011982.253242.75204.9

1982-07-011982.53276.25185.2

1982-10-011982.753314.45189.8

1983-01-0119833382.95253.8

1983-04-011983.253484.15372.3

1983-07-011983.53589.35478.4

1983-10-011983.753690.45590.5

1984-01-0119843809.65699.8

1984-04-011984.253908.65797.9

1984-07-011984.53978.25854.3

1984-10-011984.754036.35902.4

1985-01-0119854119.55956.9

1985-04-011985.254178.46007.8

1985-07-011985.54261.36101.7

1985-10-011985.754321.86148.6

1986-01-0119864385.66207.4

1986-04-011986.254425.76232.0

1986-07-011986.54493.96291.7

1986-10-011986.754546.16323.4

1987-01-0119874613.86365.0

1987-04-011987.254690.06435.0

1987-07-011987.54767.86493.4

1987-10-011987.754886.36606.8

1988-01-0119884951.96639.1

1988-04-011988.255062.86723.5

1988-07-011988.55146.66759.4

1988-10-011988.755253.76848.6

1989-01-0119895367.16918.1

1989-04-011989.255454.16963.5

1989-07-011989.55531.97013.1

1989-10-011989.755584.37030.9

1990-01-0119905716.47112.1

1990-04-011990.255797.77130.3

1990-07-011990.55849.47130.8

1990-10-011990.755848.87076.9

1991-01-0119915888.07040.8

1991-04-011991.255964.37086.5

1991-07-011991.56035.67120.7

1991-10-011991.756095.87154.1

1992-01-0119926196.17228.2

1992-04-011992.256290.17297.9

1992-07-011992.56380.57369.5

1992-10-011992.756484.37450.7

1993-01-0119936542.77459.7

1993-04-011993.256612.17497.5

1993-07-011993.56674.67536.0

1993-10-011993.756800.27637.4

1994-01-0119946911.07715.1

1994-04-011994.257030.67815.7

1994-07-011994.57115.17859.5

1994-10-011994.757232.27951.6

1995-01-0119957298.37973.7

1995-04-011995.257337.77988.0

1995-07-011995.57432.18053.1

1995-10-011995.757522.58112.0

1996-01-0119967624.18169.2

1996-04-011996.257776.68303.1

1996-07-011996.57866.28372.7

1996-10-011996.758000.48470.6

1997-01-0119978113.88536.1

1997-04-011997.258250.48665.8

1997-07-011997.58381.98773.7

1997-10-011997.758471.28838.4

1998-01-0119988586.78936.2

1998-04-011998.258657.98995.3

1998-07-011998.58789.59098.9

1998-10-011998.758953.89237.1

1999-01-0119999066.69315.5

1999-04-011999.259174.19392.6

1999-07-011999.59313.59502.2

1999-10-011999.759519.59671.1

2000-01-0120009629.49695.6

2000-04-012000.259822.89847.9

2000-07-012000.59862.19836.6

2000-10-012000.759953.69887.7

2001-01-01200110021.59875.6

2001-04-012001.2510128.99905.9

2001-07-012001.510135.19871.1

2001-10-012001.7510226.39910.0

2002-01-01200210338.29993.5

2002-04-012002.2510445.710052.6

2002-07-012002.510546.510117.3

2002-10-012002.7510617.510135.9

2003-01-01200310744.610184.4

2003-04-012003.2510884.010287.4

2003-07-012003.511116.710472.8

2003-10-012003.7511270.910580.7

2004-01-01200411472.610697.5

2004-04-012004.2511657.510784.7

2004-07-012004.511814.910891.0

2004-10-012004.7511994.810994.3

2005-01-01200512191.711096.2

*

The GDP DeflatorThe GDP deflator is a measure of the overall level of prices. Definition:One way to measure the economys inflation rate is to compute the percentage increase in the GDP deflator from one year to the next.

*

EXAMPLE:Compute the GDP deflator in each year:

yearNominal GDPReal GDPGDP Deflator2002$6000$60002003$8250$72002004$10,800$8400

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: Computing GDPUse the above data to solve these problems:A. Compute nominal GDP in 2004.B. Compute real GDP in 2005. C. Compute the GDP deflator in 2006. *

2004 (base yr)20052006PQPQPQgood A$30900$311,000$361050good B$100192$102200$100205

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: AnswersA.Compute nominal GDP in 2004.$30 x 900 + $100 x 192 = $46,200B.Compute real GDP in 2005. $30 x 1000 + $100 x 200 = $50,000*

2004 (base yr)20052006PQPQPQgood A$30900$311,000$361050good B$100192$102200$100205

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A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: AnswersC.Compute the GDP deflator in 2006. Nom GDP = $36 x 1050 + $100 x 205 = $58,300 Real GDP = $30 x 1050 + $100 x 205 = $52,000 GDP deflator = 100 x (Nom GDP)/(Real GDP) = 100 x ($58,300)/($52,000) = 112.1*

2004 (base yr)20052006PQPQPQgood A$30900$311,000$361050good B$100192$102200$100205

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GDP and Economic Well-BeingReal GDP per capita is the main indicator of the average persons standard of living.But GDP is not a perfect measure of well-being. Robert Kennedy issued a very eloquent yet harsh criticism of GDP:

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Gross Domestic Product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education, or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our courage, nor our wisdom, nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile, and it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud that we are Americans.- Senator Robert Kennedy, 1968

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GDP Does Not Value:the quality of the environmentleisure timenon-market activity, such as the child care a parent provides his or her child at homean equitable distribution of income

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Then Why Do We Care About GDP?Having a large GDP enables a country to afford better schools, a cleaner environment, health care, etc. Many indicators of the quality of life are positively correlated with GDP. For example

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GDP and Life Expectancy in 12 CountriesLife expectancy (in years)Real GDP per capita, 2002U.S.GermanyJapanNigeriaMexicoRussiaBrazilChinaPakistanBangladeshIndiaIndonesia

data

DATA FOR TABLE 23-3: GDP AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE TABLE, CHAPTER 23

CountryReal GDP per person (2002)Life ExpectancyAdult LiteracyInternet Usage

United States35750779955

Germany27100789941

Japan26940819945

Mexico8970739110

Russia823067994

Brazil777068868

China458071915

Indonesia323067884

India267064612

Pakistan194061421

Bangladesh170061410.5

Nigeria86052670.5

A - GDP and Life Expectancy

77

78

81

73

67

68

71

67

64

61

61

52

Life Expectancy

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GDP and Adult Literacy in 12 CountriesAdult Literacy (% of population)Real GDP per capita, 2002U.S.GermanyJapanRussiaNigeriaMexicoBrazilChinaPakistanBangladeshIndiaIndonesia

data

DATA FOR TABLE 23-3: GDP AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE TABLE, CHAPTER 23

CountryReal GDP per person (2002)Life ExpectancyAdult LiteracyInternet Usage

United States35750779955

Germany27100789941

Japan26940819945

Mexico8970739110

Russia823067994

Brazil777068868

China458071915

Indonesia323067884

India267064612

Pakistan194061421

Bangladesh170061410.5

Nigeria86052670.5

A - GDP and Life Expectancy

99

99

99

91

99

86

91

88

61

42

41

67

Life Expectancy

*

GDP and Internet Usage in 12 CountriesInternet Usage (% of population)Real GDP per capita, 2002U.S.GermanyJapanMexicoRussiaBrazilChina

data

DATA FOR TABLE 23-3: GDP AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE TABLE, CHAPTER 23

CountryReal GDP per person (2002)Life ExpectancyAdult LiteracyInternet Usage

United States35750779955

Germany27100789941

Japan26940819945

Mexico8970739110

Russia823067994

Brazil777068868

China458071915

Indonesia323067884

India267064612

Pakistan194061421

Bangladesh170061410.5

Nigeria86052670.5

A - GDP and Life Expectancy

55

41

45

10

4

8

5

4

2

1

0.5

0.5

Life Expectancy

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CHAPTER SUMMARYGross Domestic Product (GDP) measures a countrys total income and expenditure.The four spending components of GDP include: Consumption, Investment, Government Purchases, and Net Exports.Nominal GDP is measured using current prices. Real GDP is measured using the prices of a constant base year, and is corrected for inflation. GDP is the main indicator of a countrys economic well-being, even though it is not perfect.

It would be helpful to have your students bring their calculators to class for this chapter, so they can practice calculating real and nominal GDP and so forth.

This is the first purely macro chapter in the textbook. It covers the definition of GDP, the spending components of GDP, real vs. nominal GDP, the GDP deflator, and why GDP is a useful but not perfect measure of a nations well-being.

This is the first strictly macro chapter of the textbook, so its worth spending a moment emphasizing the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

Examples of questions that microeconomics seeks to answer:how do consumers decide how much of each good to buy?how do firms decide how much output to produce, and what price to charge? what determines the price and quantity of individual goods and services? how do taxes on specific goods and services affect the allocation of resources?

Examples of questions that macroeconomics seeks to answer:how do consumers decide how to divide their income between spending and saving? what determines the total amount of employment and unemployment? what determines the overall level of prices, and the rate of inflation? why is does the economy go through cycles, where things are great for a few years (like the late 90s), and then lousy for a year or two (like 2001-2002)?when unemployment is high, what can the government do to help?

Notes:

1. The text in the first bullet point is NOT the formal textbook definition of GDP. The formal definition is given and discussed in detail immediately after the Circular-Flow Diagram.

2. g&s = goods and services

A good way to judge how well someone is doing economically is to look at his or her income. We can judge how well a country is doing economically by looking at the total income that everyone in the economy is earning. GDP is our measure of the economys total income, often called national income.

GDP also measures total expenditure on the goods and services produced in the economy, and the value of the economys output (production) of goods and services. Thus, GDP is also referred to as output.

The equality of income and expenditure is an accounting identity (not, for example, an equilibrium condition): It must be true that income equals expenditure.

If your students already know the terms factors of production and factor payments, you may wish to delete the preliminaries from this slide. This and the following two slides build the Circular-Flow Diagram, piece by piece.

In this diagram, the green arrows represent flows of income/payments. The red arrows represent flows of goods & services (including services of the factors of production in the lower half of the diagram).

To keep the graph simple, we have omitted the government, financial system, and foreign sector, as discussed on the next slide.

Changing the animation on this slide:If you wish, you can easily change the order in which the markets and arrows appear. From the Slide Show drop-down menu, choose Custom Animation Then, a box will appear (maybe along the right-hand-side of your PowerPoint window) that allows you to modify the order in which things appear (as well as other aspects of the animation). For further information, open PowerPoint help and search on change the sequence of animations. In future chapters, we will study the role of each of these in greater detail.

We could draw a more complicated circular flow diagram that includes the government, financial system, and foreign sector. Including them, however, would not change the basic conclusion that GDP simultaneously measures the countrys total income, expenditure, revenue, and factor payments.

This slide and the five that follow focus on the meaning of each part of this critically important definition.

Note that transactions occurring in the so-called underground economy are also omitted from the official measure of GDP. For the fourth edition of the textbook, this chapter includes a new In the News box with an excellent recent article on the underground economy from the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. The article appears near the end of the chapter. Each of the four components of GDP is defined and discussed in detail on the following slides.

Mostly, the term consumption refers to what students probably already think of as total consumer spending. The note about the treatment of owner-occupied housing is a not-so-obvious exception, and some of the test bank questions are designed to see if students remember this exception.

(For more on this issue, see the notes accompanying the following slide.) More on the treatment of owner-occupied housing:

In the national income and product accounts, a house is considered a piece of capital that is used to produce a flow of services housing services.

When a consumer (as a tenant) rents a house or apartment, the consumer is buying housing services. These services are considered consumption, so the price paid for these services the rent is counted in the consumption component of GDP .

When someone buys a new house to live in, she is both a producer and a consumer. As a producer, she has made an investment (the purchase of the house) that will produce a service. She is also the consumer of this service, which is valued at the market rental rate for that type of house. So, the accounting conventions treat this situation as if the person is her own landlord and rents the house to/from herself.

When students begin to understand this, they may wonder why certain other goods (like cars) that produce a flow of consumer services are not also treated this way. There really is no good answer. Its just a convention of the national income and product accounts.

You might tell your students that transfer payments, like Social Security checks, are excluded from G to avoid double-counting: Retired persons spend part or all of their Social Security benefits on food, rent, prescriptions, and so forth, all of which count in consumption. If we also counted the Social Security check as part of G, then the same money would be counted twice, which would make GDP look bigger than it really is.

The net in net exports refers to the fact that we are subtracting imports from exports. This subtraction is important, because imports are also counted in the other components of GDP; failing to subtract them would cause GDP to measure not just the value of goods produced domestically, but also goods produced abroad and imported.

For example, if a consumer spends $100 on a DVD player imported from Japan, that $100 counts in consumption, even though the player was not produced domestically. We subtract off that $100 import so that GDP ends up including the value of only domestically-produced goods and services.

Source for data on GDP & components: http://www.bea.doc.gov

Source for population data (used to calculate the per capita figures): http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/(original source: U.S. Department of Commerce: Census Bureau) The population figure I used is 293,832,000, which is the average of monthly figures for 2004 for the total U.S. population (all ages including armed forces overseas).

Suggestion: Show these questions, and give your students 1-3 minutes to formulate their answers. When you are ready to discuss the answers, go to the next slide.

Suggestion (continued from previous slide): Show part A (but not the answer) and ask for someone to volunteer his or her response. Then show the answer to part A. Repeat for parts B, C, and D. (The answers to parts C and D appear on the following slide.)

After showing the answer to part A, ask your students whether the answer would be different if Debbie were a government employee. The correct answer is NO. Government employees engage in consumption, just like everyone else.

Regarding part C: Janes purchase causes investment (for her own business) to increase by $1200. However, the computer is sold out of inventory, so inventory investment falls by $1200. The two transactions cancel each other, leaving aggregate investment and GDP unchanged.

Regarding part D:This problem illustrates why expenditure always equals output, even when firms dont sell everything they produce due to lackluster demand. The point here is that unsold output is counted in inventory investment, even when that investment was unintentional. This example is similar to that in the text, but using different goods and different numerical values.

Suggestion: Ask your students to compute nominal GDP in each year, before revealing the answers. Ask them to compute the rate of increase before revealing the answers.

In this example, nominal GDP grows for two reasons: prices are rising, and the economy is producing a larger quantity of goods.

Thinking of nominal GDP as total income, the increases in income will overstate the increases in societys well-being, because part of these increases are due to inflation.

We need a way to take out the effects of inflation, to see how much peoples incomes are growing in purchasing power terms. That is the job of real GDP. This example shows that real GDP in every year is constructed using the prices of the base year, and that the base year doesnt change.

The growth rate of real GDP from one year to the next is the answer to this question:

How much would GDP (and hence everyones income) have grown if there had been zero inflation?

Thus, real GDP is corrected for inflation. The table in the top half of this slide merely summarizes the answers from the previous two slides. This table will be used shortly to compute the growth rates in nominal and real GDP, and to compute the GDP deflator and inflation rates. Again, the growth rate of real GDP from one year to the next is the answer to this question:

How much would GDP (and hence everyones income) have grown if there had been zero inflation?

This is why real GDP is corrected for inflation.The source I used: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/The original source: U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis

Note: I created this graph in Excel. If you wish, you may be able to access the original Excel file simply by double-clicking on the graph. (I have embedded the full Excel file on this slide, rather than simply making a copy of the finished graph.)

Note: This graph is different than the one in this chapter of the textbook. The one in the textbook excludes nominal GDP, but includes shaded vertical bars over the dates of each recession.

Since you have just finished covering real vs. nominal GDP, it might be worthwhile pointing out the following to your students:

The graph shows that nominal GDP rises faster than real GDP. This should make sense, because growth in nominal GDP is driven by growth in output AND by inflation. Growth in real GDP is driven only by growth in output.

The two lines cross in the year 2000 (the base year for the real GDP data in this graph). This should make sense, because real GDP equals nominal GDP in the base year. (Better yet, ask your students whether theres anything significant about the point where the two lines cross.)

Before the base year, real GDP > nominal GDP. For example, in 1970, nominal GDP is about $1 trillion, while real GDP is about $3.8 trillion (in 2000 dollars). This should make sense, because prices were so much higher in 2000 than in 1970, so using those high 2000 prices to value 1970 output would lead to a bigger result than valuing 1970 output using 1970 prices.

Similarly, after 2000, nominal GDP is higher than real GDP, because prices are higher in later years than they were in 2000. The GDP Deflator gets its name because it is used to deflate (i.e., take the inflation out of) nominal GDP to get real GDP. The data in the table are for a hypothetical economy that produces two final goods, A and B. For all problems, use 2004 as the base year.

If youre running short on time, you can skip part A its the least challenging. If you only have time for one of the three, you might skip A and B, as C by itself covers all of the material: it requires students to compute nominal and real GDP before they can compute the GDP deflator. Most economists, policymakers, social scientists, and businesspersons use a countrys real GDP per capita as the main indicator of the average persons standard of living in that country.

Very scathing words, indeed!

Much of what Robert Kennedy said about GDP is correct. Then why do we care about GDP?

Because a large GDP does in fact help us to lead a good life. GDP does not measure the health of our children, but nations with larger GDP can afford better health care for their children. GDP does not measure the beauty of our poetry, but nations with larger GDP can afford to teach more of their citizens to read and enjoy poetry. GDP does not take account of our intelligence, integrity, courage, wisdom, or devotion to country, but all of these laudable attributes are easier to foster when people are less concerned about being able to afford the material necessities of life.

In short, GDP does not directly measure those things that make life worthwhile, but it does measure our ability to obtain the inputs into a worthwhile life. This figure and the two that follow are from the data in Table 23-3 of the textbook. See that table for a full list of the included countries.

Real GDP per capita figures are expressed in U.S. dollars.

Source: Human Development Report 2004, United Nations.

Source: Human Development Report 2004, United Nations.

The lowest-income countries are all clustered near the origin, so their names dont all fit on the graph, sorry!

Source: Human Development Report 2004, United Nations.