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  • The Elements of the Story

  •   If the slide asks you a question, try to answer it inside your brain. You don’t have to write anything down, but you are expected to know the elements of a short story and recall them for use on tests and on the final exam.


  • Story Structure: tells how authors present the story

      Exposition: background about characters, setting, situation

      Rising Action: conflict arises, more information is learned about characters and setting

      Climax: when action reaches the highest point

      Falling Action: the story begins wrapping up, characters are dealing with whatever happened in the climax

      Resolution: This tells how the story concludes


    Falling Action


    Rising Action


  • How Writers Create Setting

      Details: Adding details makes the story seem more believable.

      Sensory Imagery: Adding details that

    appeal to the reader’s sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing creates a vivid picture.

  • Point of View: This is the view from which the story is told

      Ask yourself, “Who is telling the story?”

      There are 3 types of

    point of view. Get ready…here they are...

  • 1. First Person

    1. The narrator is recognizable by use of first person pronoun, generally "I" but sometimes "we"

    2. The narrator offers one perspective 3. The narrator asks reader to take into account the

    character of the storyteller The narrator may be a participant, a character involved in the events, or a non- participant, an observer-character not actually involved and therefore closely resembles third person . When reading stories in the first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective truth. We should question the trustworthiness of the accounting.

  • 2. Third Person (a)

    An outside force without any clear identity tells the story [described elsewhere as like the eye of God] • 1- Omniscient: Narrator moves freely about in

    time and space and into characters’ thoughts and feelings . The narrator knows everything about them, interprets and comments on their behavior, and even comments on the significance or meaning of the story.

    There are 2 kinds…

  • 2. Third Person (b) • 2 - Limited omniscient: Like omniscient, the story

    is told in third person, but the author tells it from the viewpoint of only one character. The author looks at events through the eyes, mind and emotions of that one character. The writer moves inside and outside the character and knows what that character sees, hears, feels, and thinks. However, nothing is revealed about the other characters except for what his chosen character knows or infers. This point of view is closer to the conditions of real life and may serve to unify the story since all details are seen through the eyes and experience of one person.

  • 3. Objective

    • narrator refrains from any editorial commentary . The narrator can go anywhere, but can only record what is seen and heard. The narrator tells what happens without stating more than can be inferred from the story's action and dialogue. The narrator never discloses anything about what the characters think or feel, remaining a detached observer.

  • Theme what the story is about--the issues that it explores   A theme is a universal idea.   A theme teaches a specific lesson or

    moral.   Most stories have more than one

    theme.   For example: sometimes it’s better to turn a person in to the

    cops if it means they will turn their life around and be a more positive and successful person!

  • Imagery uses details to describe something and evoke feelings

      Imagery gives you detailed pictures in your mind.

    The icy hail furiously pelted my car, leaving

    magnificent holes in the smooth hood. The sound pierced

    my ears ruthlessly, as I tried to find shelter.

  • Symbol an image, character, or action that stands for an idea

    beyond its literal meaning

    Some are obvious... Some aren’t...

  • Tone is like the author’s “tone of voice”--it tells you their attitude towards the characters, setting, etc.

    “She dismally muttered that she’d always

    love him, even though he was gone.

    She’d never love again.”

    What’s the tone here?

  • Irony to intend a meaning opposite of what is expected.

    There are a few kinds of irony.   Dramatic Irony: The audience knows

    something that the character does not.

      Situational Irony: when the opposite of what

    was expected happens.

  • Dramatic Irony: You know what the farmer does not.

  • Situational Irony: You’d expect cheetahs to run, not speed-walk.

  • Which kind of irony is this?

  • Which kind of irony is this?

  • Hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong


    “Whoa! That cookie looks like a million bucks!”

  • Foreshadowing A writing technique that gives readers clues about

    what will happen later in the story. “As he pondered the morning, he reassured himself that he locked the door. Something kept telling him otherwise, but he pushed it out of his mind.”

    What might this be foreshadowing?

  • Protagonist: the main character in the story (good guy) Antagonist: the force against the protagonist (bad guy)

  • Simile: comparing 2 things using like or as.

    Metaphor: comparing 2 things without using like or as.

    Her hair was as soft as cotton.

    A heavy blanket of snow fell all day long.

  • Flashback details from an earlier point in time are revealed to

    the reader

    This reminds me of a slide long ago, when I mentioned Story Structure