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Section3. The Enlightenment Spreads. The Enlightenment Spreads. Spread across Europe through books, magazines and word of mouth Influenced everything from artistic world to royal courts across continent - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


The Enlightenment Spreads

The Enlightenment SpreadsSection3

1The Enlightenment SpreadsSpread across Europe through books, magazines and word of mouthInfluenced everything from artistic world to royal courts across continent1700s Paris was cultural and intellectual capital of Europe, center of Enlightenment ideas

2The Enlightenment SpreadsDiderot's EncyclopediaDiderot was a leading philosophe1751 he began to publish a set of books that contained essays and articles by leading Enlightenment thinkersCalled it the EncyclopediaAngered the French government and the Catholic Church, said it undermined authority and encouraged a spirit of revoltBook helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment to people all over Europe

3The Enlightenment SpreadsEuropean art in 1600s and early 1700s was dominated by a style known a baroque (had grand, ornate, design)Enlightenment influenced changeSimple, elegant style influence by classical Greece and Rome called neo-classical developed by late 1700sSimple structure and decoration reflected order and reasonMusic styles changed lighter, elegant style of music developed known as classical musicMozart, Haydn and Beethoven were classical composers

4The Enlightenment SpreadsMany philosophes thought the best form of government was a monarchyThey wanted rulers to respect individuals rights Some monarchs made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment (known as enlightened despots)They did not want to give up power, but made changes for two reasons:To make their country strongerAn to make their own rule more effectiveBest examples of enlightened despots were Fredrick the Great of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria and Catherine the Great of Russia5The Enlightenment SpreadsFredrick the Great of PrussiaInvited intellectuals to Prussia Allowed free press, relig. toleration, reduced use of tortureJoseph II of AustriaMost radical reformerTraveled among peasants to learn problemsSupported religious equality, freedom of the pressDiminished power of Catholic ChurchPromoted education Abolished serfdom, Serfs had to be paid for labor All reforms were cancelled after his death

6The Enlightenment SpreadsCatherine the Great of RussiaBased her reforms on the ideas of Montesquieu and BeccariaBelieved in enlightenment ideas of equality, liberty (not for all, only middle and upper classes)Made limited reforms, but did little to improve lives of peasantsGave nobles absolute power over the serfsShe did expand Russian power and size through wars with the Ottomans and PolesHelped make Russia an international power