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1 The Getty Conservation Institute Field Trip Report By F. LeBlanc, Head, Field Projects HIROSHIMA – UNITAR TRAINING WORKSHOP Management and Conservation of World Heritage Sites April18-21, 2005 The GCI was invited to participate to the international workshop organized by UNITAR. Jeff Cody and I participated as instructors and resource persons to this one-week workshop held in Hiroshima. Following is a summary account of the workshop. It is not intended to be an exhaustive report but simply an overview to share with you some of the topics discussed and the technical visits that enriched the experience of the participants. View of downtown Hiroshima. To the left of the Motoyasu-gawa River is the Peace Memorial Park with buildings designed by world famous architect Kenzo Tange. The A- Bomb Dome, a World Heritage Site, is in the center of the image and UNITAR’s offices are located in the dark building immediately behind. UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research) What is UNITAR? The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. UNITAR is governed by a Board of Trustees and is headed by an Executive Director. The Institute is supported by voluntary contributions from governments, intergovernmental organizations, foundations, and other non- governmental sources. Japan UNITAR Offices in Hiroshima in proximity of the A-Bomb Dome building, World Heritage Site

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The Getty Conservation Institute Field Trip Report By F. LeBlanc, Head, Field Projects HIROSHIMA – UNITAR TRAINING WORKSHOP Management and Conservation of World Heritage Sites April18-21, 2005 The GCI was invited to participate to the international workshop organized by UNITAR. Jeff Cody and I participated as instructors and resource persons to this one-week workshop held in Hiroshima. Following is a summary account of the workshop. It is not intended to be an exhaustive report but simply an overview to share with you some of the topics discussed and the technical visits that enriched the experience of the participants.
View of downtown Hiroshima. To the left of the Motoyasu-gawa River is the Peace Memorial Park with buildings designed by world famous architect Kenzo Tange. The A- Bomb Dome, a World Heritage Site, is in the center of the image and UNITAR’s offices are located in the dark building immediately behind.
UUNNIITTAARR ((UUnniitteedd NNaattiioonnss IInnssttiittuuttee ffoorr TTrraaiinniinngg aanndd RReesseeaarrcchh))
What is UNITAR? The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. UNITAR is governed by a Board of Trustees and is headed by an Executive Director. The Institute is supported by voluntary contributions from governments, intergovernmental organizations, foundations, and other non- governmental sources.
UNITAR Offices in Hiroshima in proximity of the A-Bomb Dome building, World Heritage Site
UNITAR has the following functions: • To conduct training programs in multilateral diplomacy and
international cooperation for diplomats accredited to the United Nations and national officials involved in work related to United Nations activities.
• To carry out a wide range of training programs in the field of social and economic development.
• To carry out result-oriented research, in particular, research on and for training and to develop pedagogical materials including distance learning training packages, work books, as well as software and video training packs.
• To establish and strengthen cooperation with other inter- governmental organizations, faculties and academic institutions, in particular for the development of research on and for training.
TThhee WWoorrkksshhoopp In a pilot phase, UNITAR and the Hiroshima Prefectural Government conducted, in cooperation with UNESCO World Heritage Centre, a Training Workshop on the Conservation and Management of World Heritage Sites in Hiroshima, October 2001. The topic of World heritage conservation was selected for its relevance for Hiroshima, which has two sites on the World Heritage List and upon analysis made by UNITAR on the importance and relevance of the theme for the region, especially the need to consider the management of cultural and natural assets in a comprehensive manner. A three-year series on the Management and Conservation of World Heritage Sites was launched in 2004, with annual week-long workshops to be organized in Hiroshima. The 2005 workshop is entitled “World Heritage Management: A Value- Based Approach”. Special emphasis this year was on the value-based approach introduced to the series from the 2004 workshop. The participants were trainers and decision makers from within World Heritage administrations, mid-level national government officers from different authorities such as the Ministries of environment, culture or forestry and World Heritage site managers. The course long-term objective is to foster a better use of the World Heritage Convention through national policy making and planning and exchange of information on best practices and case studies. The 2005 training workshop introduced the participants to basic knowledge, information and updates on the World Heritage regime and current topics regarding heritage management, study leading policies and strategies including their successes and failures, explained legal and policy planning techniques, discussed case studies and practical
Nassrine Azimi, Director UNITAR Hiroshima
Hiroko Nakayama, International relations specialist from UNITAR’s Geneva office
Christopher Moore, Lawyer specialized in intellectual property rights, UNITAR Hiroshima Office
UNITAR Workshop participants in boardroom
exercises, and enhanced long-term learning and exchange among the participants. The study tours to two world heritage sites in Hiroshima, the A-Bomb dome and Itsukushima Shinto Shrine, provided additional learning opportunities and a case study during the training workshop.
TThhee FFiirrsstt DDaayy OOff TThhee WWoorrkksshhoopp The first workshop session was held in the Hiroshima Memorial Hall (Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum) during the morning of Monday, April 18. This session was opened to the public, and seventy persons were in attendance. Nassrine Azimi, Director of the UNITAR office in Hiroshima, welcomed the participants and teachers from 23 different countries and made introductory remarks. She was followed by Richard Engelhard UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia, who gave a presentation on “The World Heritage Convention System and its Relevance for the Humanity”. He reminded us that the notion of world heritage as we know it today stems from UNESCO’s international campaign to save the temples of Abu Simbel in Egypt from destruction by the construction of the high dam at Assuan. Before that event, heritage was private property. After, it was recognized that some of the world’s heritage is the property and responsibility of every human being. He went on to describe some of the issues and challenges that the World Heritage Convention and its Committee face today. Francois LeBlanc from the Getty Conservation Institute, a private institution based in Los Angeles, followed with a presentation and discussion on “What is Heritage”. This presentation introduced the concept that heritage is basically whatever individuals or collectivities wish to preserve for the next generations, whether it is natural, built, living or intangible. It showed that the GCI is mostly concerned with built heritage while UNESCO has programs in the areas of natural, built and intangible heritage. It will be up to the next generation of heritage specialists to deal with living heritage in a more formal way. It is interesting to note that Japan was the first nation in the world to adopt a legislation in 1950 that protects its national built, living and intangible heritage. Ms. Teresa Swiebocka’s presentation was entitled: “Signification of Memorial Sites – Memories, Commemoration and Determination” Ms Swiebocka is an historian and Senior Curator of the Auschwitz- Birkenau Museum in Poland. This year is the 60th anniversary of the Hiroshima A-Bomb event and also of the liberation of the Auschwitz- Birkenau concentration camps. Both sites are on the World Heritage List and are there to remind us of the atrocities of war and inspire us to strive for peace, which is also a means for preservation of our heritage.
Richard Engelhardt, UNESCO Bangkok Regional Office for Education
The salvage of the Abu Simbel temples began in 1963, and cost 36 million dollars.
Francois LeBlanc, Head of Field Projects at the Getty Conservation Institute
Teresa Swiebocka, Curator of the Auschwitz-Birkenau museum in Poland
The Nazi death camp Auschwitz is one of the best-known sites of genocide in human history. In this place, from 1940 to 1945, the German Nazis murdered between 1.1 and 1.5 million people, primarily Jews from almost all over Europe, as well as Poles, Soviet prisoners of war and people of other nationalities. Before the liberation of the camp, in order to obliterate the evidences of crime, the Nazis destroyed many buildings and documents, particularly those connected with the process of mass murder. They did not, however, manage to destroy everything. The physical site of Auschwitz, with its barracks, guard towers, barbed wire fences, ruins of the gas chambers and crematoria, exist today as a museum. Ms Swiebocka talked about the issues surrounding the restoration and conservation of the camps, especially that it is more important to share the message of the victims than the statistical numbers or even preserving the physical assets. Currently, the site’s boundaries cover some 200 hectares of land, but to really understand the message and the scope of the event, it is more than 2000 hectares that would be required. Since it is already quite a difficult challenge for the Poles to care for the existing site even with the help of the international community, one can imagine the difficulties that would be associated with a much larger site.
Augusto Villalón spoke on the subject: “Making your site a World Heritage or Not – a National Choice”. Mr. Villalón is a preservation architect and head of A. Villalón Associates, a Manila-based firm specializing in architectural and heritage conservation. He explained that naturally, every country wants to inscribe sites on the World Heritage List. It is a matter of national pride and international recognition. But it is not a “beauty contest” even though the Minister of Culture in his country if a former Miss Universe!
There is substance in the purpose of the Convention. Of course the Convention brings benefits in terms of additional funding and tourism but it should also generate reflection and discussions on universal values and on the fundamental reasons for protecting and safeguarding this precious heritage for future generations. National governments need to understand those values in order to afford appropriate protection and manage carefully.
In many countries, the management of heritage sites of national or international significance is mostly a question of “do what ever you want”. In the Philippines, because it was so difficult to get national approval of the “Rice Terraces” site for nomination to the World Heritage List, the promoters turned to the local authorities. It is with their help and working their way up the administration ladder that in the end, this site became the first living culture to be inscribed on the List. But then, several years later, the government changed and the
Auschwitz, Poland
Auschwitz, Poland
Augusto Villalón , Conservation Architect from the Philippines
For 2,000 years, the high rice fields of the Ifugao have followed the contours of the mountains.
They have helped to create a landscape of great beauty that expresses the harmony between humankind and the environment.
new administration did not understand that the safeguarding of such a site is a long-term process that is based on maintaining the local population, not the physical fabric. So it invested in physical work, not in the population. Now the site is in danger of loosing the very qualities that enabled its inscription and it has been inscribed on the World Heritage List in Danger.
Mr. Villalón also used the case of the historic town of Vigan and the Baroque Churches of the Philippines to illustrate the fact that it is possible to use the Convention to the advantage of the citizens.
He concluded by saying that management of historic sites is not essentially about managing the site, but about managing the people who manage the sites. The site of Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park was a good example of this because the local population is effectively involved in the site’s management.
Medical Effects Of The A-Bomb by Katsuko Kataoka, Medical Doctor
This year being the 60th anniversary of the atomic bomb explosion over Hiroshima, Dr. Katsudo Kataoka, a member of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) was invited to speak to the participants about the effects of the bomb and the efforts of the Hiroshima people to ensure that such an event never happens again.
She reminded us that on August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb, the equivalent of 15 kilotons of TNT, was dropped over the heavily populated commercial area of Hiroshima. The city was destroyed almost instantaneously by the blast and the heat within a 2 km radius from the hypocenter, and countless lives were lost immediately. A few days later, many people began to show symptoms of acute radiation. Within a few weeks, people were dying of causes such as gastrointestinal bleeding, infection and sepsis. About 140,000 people out of a total population of 350,000 were killed by the end of 1945.
Dr. Kataoka went on to describe the various and numerous physical and mental effects of the A-Bomb on the population and concluded by saying that the Atomic Dome and the Peace Memorial Museum show the destructive, cruel and inhumane nature of the atomic bomb to people worldwide. At the same time, Hiroshima citizens have appealed for “reconciliation instead of retaliation, humanity instead of animosity”. The Memorial Cenotaph in the Peace Park reads: “Let all the souls here rest in peace, for we shall not repeat the evil”.
Yushi Utaka Japanese Heritage Conservation and Hiroshima – Challenges for World Heritage Sites in Hiroshima was presented by Dr. Yushi Utaka, Associate Professor, University of Hyogo, Japan.
Vigan, 16th century city inscribed on the WHL 1999
Puerto Princesa. This park features a spectacular limestone karst landscape with an underground river
A man with burns over his entire body
A-Bomb survivor being treated
Yushi Utaka, Hyogo Univ.
Dr. Utaka explained the structure of Japanese heritage conservation at the government, prefecture and municipal levels in light of current social trends such as an aging society, depopulation, natural disasters and economic downturn. The Japanese national Cultural Heritage Preservation ACT came into effect in 1950. In Japan, cultural affairs come under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The legislation provides for the protection of physical heritage (buildings, fine art, calligraphy etc.), living heritage (people with special skills) and intangible heritage (traditions, plays, music etc.). There are 61 conservation areas in Japan at this time, and the national budget to care for this heritage is approximately 120 million US dollars (14.4 billion Yens). In Japan, public participation for the conservation of heritage is very important and Dr. Utaka went on to describe two case studies to illustrate how this all works: Hiroshima and the A-Bomb Dome. On the subject of Japan and the World Heritage List, he stated that there are currently 12 Japanese sites on the WHL and there are 50 candidatures of cities, monuments or sites in Japan that wish to present their nomination to the List. He called this “The World Heritage Rush”.
TTeecchhnniiccaall VViissiitt:: PPeeaaccee MMeemmoorriiaall MMuusseeuumm aanndd tthhee AA--BBoommbb DDoommee,, WWoorrlldd HHeerriittaaggee SSiittee Participants visited the Peace Memorial Museum designed by world famous architect Kenzo Tange (who died this year) and the A-Bomb Dome World Heritage Site. Kazuhiko Takano, the Deputy Dir.-Gen. of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial museum made a brief introduction.
The Commercial Exhibition Hall and downtown Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
The Hiroshima Peace memorial (Genbaku Dome) was the only structure left standing in the area where the first atomic bomb exploded in 6 August 1945. Through the efforts of many people, including those of the city of Hiroshima, it has been preserved in the same state as immediately after the bombing. Not only is it a stark
Kazuhiko Takano, Deputy Director-General of the museum making presentation to participants
Participants visiting the A- Bomb Dome
Wisnu Prastowo - Indonesia
Richard Bautista, Philippines
and powerful symbol of the most destructive force ever created by humankind, it also expresses the hope for world peace and the ultimate elimination of all nuclear weapons.
The Peace Memorial Museum designed by KenzoTange
The Peace Memorial Museum located near the A-Bomb Dome offers a very moving experience for the visitor on the events surrounding the drop of the first atomic bomb in human history. The people of Hiroshima decided that what happened to them should not be forgotten and should be shared with the whole world in an effort to promote world peace and to eliminate atomic bombs altogether by showing to the world the human tragedy that accompanies such an event.
Hiroshima before blast After A-Bomb explosion Location of explosion
Following the visit, the participants exchanged their impressions in groups of three and reported in plenary some of the lessons they learned; among those were: - Interpretation at the Peace Memorial Museum is extremely well
done; even though everything is written in Japanese, the message still gets across and it is a very emotional and strong message.
- Events at Nagasaki should also be discussed in the museum and they are not at present.
- The Peace Memorial Museum and Park designed by world famous architect Kenzo Tange should be part of the World Heritage site designation but it is not presently.
The peace message that Hiroshima proclaims is far from having been heard by the world; the Japanese people should continue to work on educating the world on the suffering generated by nuclear arms.
Hiroshima Peace Memorial Cenotaph
Elizabeth CARDOSA Malaysia – Workshop participant
The first day concluded by a reception hosted by the Hiroshima Prefecture where the international participants were welcomed and the local Japanese authorities were thanked for their support and collaboration.
TThhee SSeeccoonndd DDaayy OOff TThhee WWoorrkksshhoopp Francois LeBlanc, Getty Conservation Institute Value-Based Management: Its implication. As heritage managers, we manage three things: assets (buildings, ruins, roads, vehicles, collections etc.) people (who work for us or who visit our sites) and values (that is what differentiates us from managers of airports or hospitals for instance); we have to manage values that need to be passed on to the next generations. Values are at the core of all conservation strategies. That is why we do what we do. Since 1987, the Getty Conservation Institute has been involved with values-based site management planning through research efforts, professional training courses, symposia, and field projects. As an extension of this commitment, and associated with related research and publication efforts on values and heritage conservation, the Institute has led an effort to produce a series of case studies that demonstrate how values-driven site management has been interpreted, employed, and evaluated by four key organizations. In this project, the GCI has collaborated with the Australian Heritage Commission, English Heritage, Parks Canada, and U.S. National Park Service.
Each of the four case studies in this series focus on values and their protection by examining these agencies’ roles in management. By looking at one site and the management context in which it exists, they provide detailed descriptions and analyses of the processes that connect theoretical management guidelines with management planning and its practical application. During this workshop, the case of Grosse Ile in Canada and Chaco Culture National Park were presented to the participants. At the end of each presentation, two participants were asked what lessons could be learned from the case study and if they had been the manager of this site, what they would have done to mitigate the impact of clashing values.
Duncan Marshall, ICOMOS Australia Value-Based Management Application to Heritage Management – Crash of Values and Setting National Priorities
There are quite a number of values clashes that can happen at historic sites or in natural parks. Conflict of values may occur between nature and culture, between culture and culture and between nature and nature. Duncan illustrated this fact by several cases such as
Canada - Grosse-Ile
Jerusalem where there are obvious clashes between different cultures and the site of Kakadu, a natural park in Australia, where clashes of values between nature, culture and uranium mining (economic values) created a very difficult situation for everyone.
He shared with the participants various useful concepts for good heritage management, to deal with the real problems (often, people are not clear about the real problems and issues), for dispute resolution and co-existence. Sometimes, co-existence of two opposing groups of values is the only solution for the survival of heritage values.
He then suggested useful resources:
World Heritage system:
- Nomination and inscription process - Periodic monitoring - World Heritage in Danger List - Experts (WHC, ICOMOS, IUCN, ICCROM)
- Charters and guidelines - Code of ethics of co-existence in conserving significant places
(ICOMOS Australia)
Richard Engelhardt, UNESCO, Bangkok) Does the World Heritage Convention Regime Reflect the Values of the Resources? Mr. Engelhardt said that the international community really started to come together to address global heritage issues when the Egyptians took the decision to build the Assouan dam on the Nile River in the 1950s. This project was going to send the Abu Simbel temple under water. There was an international reaction and expression of solidarity to save the temple that was considered to be not only the heritage of the Egyptians but of all humankind. Of all the international conventions currently in force in the world, UNESCO’s 1972 World Heritage Convention is now the UN’s second most ratified convention, just behind the one for the protection of children.
Mohammad Al-Aidaroos, Saudi Arabia – Workshop participant
Malahat FARAJOVA Azerbaijan – Workshop participant
Luo-jie HE, China - Workshop Participant
Aruna NAKARMI, Nepal - Workshop Participant
Tuilo Lorna SCHUSTER, Samoa – Workshop part.
He reminded participants that once the government of a country signs the World Heritage Convention, it automatically and immediately becomes law in that country. One of the first steps a country must make after signing the Convention is to prepare an “indicative list” of the sites it intends to nominate. There are some 3,000 sites that have been identified on the tentative lists of countries in Asia. At the beginning, countries wanted to inscribe the “Cadillac” sites, the best of the best. Since then, mentalities have evolved and the WH Committee now strives to represent all cultures of all periods, not only the major cultures. Its aim is to conserve our common heritage and its diversity. There are untold stories on the World Heritage List. Stories such as forced migration, survival in the ice age, engineered transformations of natural landscapes, religious education, trade and war that have created new cultures etc. We have a long way to go to meet the intent of this very successful convention. As much as we can’t afford to loose a single gene in our body, we can’t afford to loose any of the world’s cultures. Some of the challenges facing us include: infrastructure development, lack of respect of world heritage sites, risk to wildlife, increase in illegal practices, destruction of vegetation, crisis management and becoming advisors to community-based management. Community-based management is the main management tool that will be used in the near future to safeguard and care for our cultural and natural heritage sites. There are simply not enough government resources to do the job. And we, as professional managers, are going to have to learn how to become advisors to these communities, talk to them, work with them, and learn with them. Working behind our desks, in boardrooms, or on our PCs developing policies and regulations is not the answer. Francois LeBlanc, Getty Conservation Institute Interpretation of Cultural Resources Just as the Venice Charter established the principle that the protection of the extant fabric of a cultural heritage site is essential to its conservation, it is now equally acknowledged that Interpretation of the meaning of sites is an integral part of the conservation process and fundamental to positive conservation outcomes. A significant number of charters, principles, and guidelines – including the Nara Document on Authenticity (1994), the Burra Charter (1999), the International Charter on Cultural Tourism (1999), and the Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China (2002) -
Teresa Swiebocka, Auschwitz-Birkenau museum, Poland
Jeffrey Cody, Arch. Historian, Getty Conservation Inst., USA
Hiroshima Castle (reconstruction)
Interpretation tool – Augmented reality projects 3D images on ruins
have emphasized the fundamental role of sensitive and effective interpretation in heritage conservation. This session briefly introduced the ENAME Charter (in preparation by ICOMOS) that aims to define the basic objectives and principles of site interpretation in relation to authenticity, intellectual integrity, social responsibility, and respect for cultural significance and context. The Charter recognizes that the interpretation of cultural heritage sites can be contentious and should acknowledge conflicting perspectives. Although the objectives and principles of this Charter may equally apply to off-site interpretation, its main focus is interpretation at, or in the immediate vicinity of cultural heritage sites. The Charter seeks to encourage a wide public appreciation of cultural heritage sites as places and sources of learning and reflection about the past, as well as valuable resources for sustainable community development and intercultural and intergenerational dialogue. During a brief introduction (15 mi.), a variety of contemporary tools for interpretation of cultural resources were presented to the participants. These comprised traditional tools such as typical information panels, brochures, guide books etc. to animals, costumes and events etc. to more recent tools such as augmented reality and virtual reality. The participants dispersed into four working groups. Each one was assigned a Leader who introduced a cultural site and explained its universal heritage values (10 mi.). The participants then suggested tools for interpreting these values to a specific target audience (business, children, adults, foreigners etc.) while respecting the principles and guidelines of the ENAME Charter (20 mi.). The resource person assigned to each working group reported results in plenary (15 mi.). Their proposals were amazingly interesting and creative considering the variety of the cultural background of the participants to this exercise.
Team 1: Baroque Churches of the Philippines. Under the leadership of Richard Bautista, architect from the Philippines, this group discussed what tools they would use to convey the universal values of this site to a group of visiting businessmen. This group used interpretation as a means of influencing business visitors to consider helping with financing of various essential conservation work on the Churches. Team 2: Kabul Old Town. Under the leadership of Zahra Breshna from Afghanistan, this group discussed what tools they would use to convey the universal values of this site to a group of Afghan children aged between 10 and 12 years old. The main idea suggested by the team was to create dynamic, authentic and highly personalized tours that would bring the children in contact with “real” people in the city doing “real” everyday activities and bringing the children into their
Interpretation tool – arts & crafts demonstrations
Interpretation tool – Period costumes are always popular
Interpretation tool – Cultural events
homes or working places. By the time Augusto Villalón had finished reporting on the proposals of this group, everyone in the room wanted to go to Kabul and share what these lucky children would be experiencing.
Team 3: Taj Mahal, India. Under the leadership of Muhammed Karinkamunnu Kuzhiyil, archaeologist from India, this group discussed what tools they would use to convey the universal values of this site to a group of Japanese visitors, aged between 35 and 50. Fortunately for this team, there were two Japanese women participating. Japanese visitors, especially women, are very much influenced by the cleanliness of the site and its facilities. That would have to be very carefully considered by the tour organizers. Also, because Agra is not renowned as a major “shopping” destination city such as Paris, Rome or New York, the Japanese visitor’s profile would probably be a group of people looking for a stimulating intellectual exchange. It is on the basis of these considerations that the interpretation program would be structured. Abha Narain Lambah made a colorful and lively description of the Japanese visitors’ proposed interpretation program.
Team 4: Bam, Iran. Under the leadership of Mehrdad Mohammad Hejazi, a civil engineer from Iran, this group discussed the tools they would use to convey the universal values of this site to a group of Iranian visitors aged 60 years or older. The proposed interpretation scheme is to focus on the future of Bam, its repair and reconstruction efforts and having its landmarks still lit at night as a beacon of hope. These visitors would not really appreciate to have to walk through rubble or heavily damaged areas; therefore, much of the interpretation message described by Richard Engelhardt would have to be conveyed by means of presentations in a well developed interpretation center.
Kumiko Yoneda, Japan Wildlife Research Center The IUCN Strategy – Japanese Sites IUCN (The International Union for the Conservation of Nature) was asked by the World Heritage Committee as an advisory body to analyze the natural sites on the World Heritage List and the Tentative Lists to provide a clear overview of the present situation and a view to identifying under-represented categories. IUCN reported the results of the study to the Committee in 2004 and then made it public as the Strategy Paper on their web page and invited comments. IUCN is well known as a strict evaluator of World Heritage nominations, and this paper shows their views and policies very clearly. It also has a list of twenty key areas that are potential World heritage sites. Among those twenty areas, there are several areas in Asia and the Pacific but none in Japan or in Eastern Asia.
Taj Mahal in India
Kumiko Yoneda, Japan Wildlife Research Center
Shirakami-Sanchi forest
Japan joined the Convention in 1992 and nominated two natural sites, Yakushima and Shirakami-Sanchi, which were inscribed on the World heritage List in 1993. After these inscriptions there was no visible movement to nominate new natural sites for a number of years, although the number of cultural sites steadily increased. After ten years of silence, however, the Ministry of the Environment decided to consider new nominations. The Ministry organized the “Review Committee on Candidate Natural Sites for Nomination to the World Heritage List” in 2003 and reviewed natural sites in Japan from the viewpoint of World Heritage value and integrity. It was the first time that Japan had reviewed natural sites in such a way. From the discussion of that committee, three areas were listed as candidates, and among those three, “Shiretoko” in northern Japan was nominated in 2004. After the evaluation mission, the IUCN asked several questions on the integrity of the site, closely related to the value of the site. It is a tough challenge for the Japanese Government to effectively promote nature conservation. On a universal basis, after a long reflection period and analysis of what is currently known of natural sites all over the world, IUCN suggests that the maximum number of natural sites that should be inscribed on the World Heritage List is around 300. These sites would cover all aspects of uniqueness and diversity that the Convention strives to illustrate and protect from an outstanding universal significance point of view. On the cultural side, we are far from being able to come up with such a number for many reasons. Jeffrey Cody, Getty Conservation Institute World Heritage Conservation - From Theory to Action By raising basic questions about what we do in conservation and why we do it, Jeff invited the participants to reflect on their work and its purpose. In this workshop, we have used the concepts of “conservation” and “management” as though they were two very different ones. Is this true? How are these concepts different? How are they similar? How are they linked together? Are we over- emphasizing “management” and under-emphasizing “conservation”? He presented in a graphic form the inter-relation between theory and action as having an inherent relationship that strives for equilibrium. He suggested that this equilibrium is what “good” managers strive for and asked participants to discuss these forces as they apply in their own context and see if this concept is useful to them to try to understand the forces at play and how they inter-relate. From the micro to the macro, from technique to management, nature to culture,
Shiretoko – Japan candidate for World Heritage nomination
Jeffrey Cody, Getty Conservation Institute
Yen NGUYEN THI - Vietnam.
site to people, should we not be striving for balance, the area of intersection between theory and action, technique and management? In groups of two, the participants then discussed how their own sites were either moving toward or away from dynamic equilibrium.
TTrraaiinniinngg TThhee TTrraaiinneerrss
Abha Narain Lambah, conservation architect from India and Jeffrey Cody, Getty Conservation Institute
Considering that all participants will be facing the challenge of training or educating adult trainers on the values and issues surrounding their historic sites, Jeff and Abha gave a brief presentation on the theory of training the trainers. Abha Narain Lambah, architect and planner from India, presented the case of the nomination of the old city of Mumbai in India to the World Heritage List, a practical exercise that took place over a two-day period during UNITAR’s last year course and gave the team members a clear understanding of how such a nomination should be prepared. The exercise was quite successful in terms of a learning experience and in terms of the quality of the material prepared by the participants. Jeff Cody briefly presented five theories for educating adults. Theory 1: Adult Learning Theory by Malcolm Knowles, based on a seven-step process: 1. Create a cooperative learning environment 2. Devise mechanisms for mutual planning 3. Diagnose learners’ needs and interests 4. Define learning objectives based on needs and interests 5. Design sequential activities for achieving objectives 6. Execute design by selecting methods, materials and resources 7. Evaluate the quality of the learning experience. Theory 2: Reflective Practitioner Theory by Don Schon. This theory is based on reflection in action, or thinking on our feet to build new understanding. 1. Reflection: What do you notice? 2. Interpretation: What do the connections mean? 3. Application: What will happen next? 4. Engagement: Do it! Theory 3: Progressive Theory by John Dewey and Alfred Whitehead. This theory is based on the idea that learning is rooted in experience and that if you are to educate adults, you should consider approaches that bring out this experience and builds on it.
Abha Narain Lambah
Theory 4: Cognitive Growth by Jerome Bruner. This theory is based on using games, simulations and improvisations to create “disequilibria”, which produces the need for explanation through questioning. Theory 5: Confucius (551-479 BC) The Analects. This theory is based on absorptive learning of essentials and transferring knowledge rather than expressing personal hypotheses. Respectful learning from authority figures and collectivist learning with others, rather than an individual’s pursuit of truth.
TThhee TThhiirrdd AAnndd FFoouurrtthh DDaayy OOff TThhee WWoorrkksshhoopp Presentations by Participants During the two last days of the workshop, the morning session began early with short presentations by some of the participants of the sites that they manage and some of the issues they are facing. The following presentations were made: • Bhuj, India, by Azhar Byabji • Angkor, Cambodia by Khun-Neay Khuon • Gallipoli, turkey by Lucienne Thys-Senocak • Pakistani sites by Muhammad Swati • Mongolian sites by Erdene-Ochir Badarch • And sites in Saudi Arabia by Muhamad Al-Aidaroos. Qunli Han, UNESCO Jakarta Interpretation of Resources – Nature Natural heritage protection in this region is based upon the premise that the value of the heritage depends on the inspiration of the people and therefore the protection implies the protection of indigenous people's way of life and livelihood. Mr. Han presented several cases in the region from which he extracted guidance and tendencies: necessity of strong political will; need for effective governance; application of principles within appropriate and sustainable capacity and good understanding of heritage values. The definition of outstanding universal significance that seems to be relatively easy to establish in the cultural field is much more difficult to ascertain in the natural field.
TTeecchhnniiccaall SSiittee VViissiitt:: MMiiyyaajjiimmaa aanndd IIttssuukkuusshhiimmaa SShhiinnttoo SShhrriinnee,, WWoorrlldd HHeerriittaaggee SSiittee The island of Itsukushima, in the Seto inland sea, has been a holy place of Shintoism since the earliest times. The first shrine buildings are estimated to have been erected in the 6th century. The present shrine dates from the 13th century and the harmoniously arranged buildings reveal great artistic and technical skill. The shrine plays on the contrasts in color and form between mountains and sea and
Khun-Neay Khuon, Manager at Angkor site in Cambodia
Atsushi YASUI, Fellow, UNITAR Hiroshima
Qunli HAN, UNESCO Jakarta
illustrates the Japanese concept of scenic beauty, which combines nature and human creativity. The marvelous shrine building arrangement of Itsukushima-jinja Shrine, was originally designed by Taira no Kiyomori, a powerful figure in the 12th century Japan. The architectural layout of these buildings displays the “shinden-zukuri” style of the Heian period (794- 1191), which makes this shrine so outstanding. It is exemplary due to its unique location on the seawater, the way it is beautifully framed by the mountain in the background, and how it manifests Kiyomori’s extraordinary conception. The Shrine was designed to worship nature and enshrine mountain gods, following a custom to locate a shrine at the foot of the worshipped mountains. It represents the Japanese traditional architectural style of shrine. The set of structures harmonizes perfectly with their surroundings to create an incomparable artistic masterpiece, which has comprehending Japanese spiritual culture. Itsukushima-jinja is one of the few remaining shrines in japan that show the original construction. It is also one of the rare structures built in the Kamakura period (1192-1333). Despite repeated reconstructions, this shrine is still an extraordinary reflection of the Heian period. The shrine is based on Shintoism, which is deeply rooted in Japanese culture, and it displays the history of integration and differentiation of Shinto and Buddhism. It offers a fundamental understanding in the special character of Japanese religion, which emphasizes the use of space. In December 1996, the World Heritage Committee officially inscribed Itsukushima Shinto Shrine as a World Cultural Heritage.
Itsukushima Gate Itsukushima Shrine Shops near the Shrine
During the debriefing session that took place on the bus returning from the site, some of the participants offered the following comments:
- The visitor is left with a wonderful feeling of beauty and calmness after the visit.
- In contrast to the Peace Memorial museum, the interpretation at this site was quite lacking.
- The buffer zone is too close to the shrine; cheap souvenir shops abound in the immediate vicinity of the shrine.
Itsukushima Shinto Shrine
Miyajima Daishoin Temple
Chinh CAO XUAN - Vietnam
Bandula BASNAYAKE, Sri Lanka
Final exercise – Part of Team working on manage- ment plan for Isfahan
WWoorrkkiinngg TTeeaammss EExxeerrcciissee An effective way of teaching adults is to make them work in teams on practical exercises. Five working groups were established to prepare specific documents or reports that are required by the World Heritage Convention from the State Parties. Each group worked on a different site and prepared a different document. Following an intense two-day of discussions, each team presented its report in the form of a PowerPoint presentation to a panel composed of the workshop resource persons. Each team member was asked to present one segment of the presentation. The presentations were truly remarkable and the panel was impressed by the quality of the information provided. Team 1 - Isfahan, Iran This team worked on the preparation of a management plan. The data provider was Mr. Mehrdad Hejazi from Iran. The resource person: F. LeBlanc from the GCI The participants: Richard Bautista (Philippines), Elizabeth Cardosa (Malaysia ) Malahat Farajova (Azerbaijan), Khun-Neay Khuon (Cambodia), Abha Narain Lambah (India) and Gul Pulhan (Turkey), the group leader. Making use of a proposed table of contents for a management plan prepared by Kate Clark of English Heritage, this team did a magnificent job in preparing quite a comprehensive 5-year management plan for the Naqsh-e-Jahan Square in Isfahan in less than 24 hours. This site was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1979. Interestingly, I was the Director of ICOMOS in 1979 and I presented the nomination dossier of this site to the World Heritage Committee meeting in Cairo, Egypt. Team 2 – Taj Mahal, India This team worked on the preparation of a periodic report on the condition of the monument. The data provider was Mr. Muhammed K.K from India. The resource person: J. Cody from the GCI The participants: Muhammad Al-Aidaroos (Saudi Arabia), Zahra Breshna (Afghanistan), Muhammed Swati (Pakistan), Teresa Swiebocka (Poland), Lucienne Thys-Senocak (Turkey) and emma Usmanova (Kazakhstan) The current site condition was assessed and various techniques were proposed for addressing some of the pressing conservation questions. Team 3 – Leuser, Indonesia This team worked on an emergency request for assistance. The data provider was Mr. Wiratno from Indonesia The resource person: Qunli Han from UNESCO Jakarta The participants: Kanda Keosopha (Lao), Aruna Nakarmi (Nepal), Tuiolo Schuster (Samoa), Soewartono (Indonesia)
Medan Emam, Isfahan
Mehrdad Hejazi, Iran
Taj Mahal, India
This natural site is plagued by illegal logging and agricultural land encroachment and the local authorities need immediate financial assistance to police the site and train their staff on how to deal with such a situation. Team 4 – Phong Nha-Ke, Vietnam This team worked on the preparation of a periodic report on the condition of the site. The data providers were Mr. Cao Xuan and Ms. Yen Nguyen Thi from Vietnam. The resource persons: Kumiko Yoneda from Japan and Duncan Marshall from ICOMOS Australia. The participants: Phaivanh Phiapalath (Lao), Wisnu Prastowo (Indonesia), Mizuko Ugo (Japan) and Meng Hao Wan (Singapore). The integrity of this site is maintained but there are many pressing questions to address, especially concerning tourism, road construction, illegal logging and forest crimes. Team 5 – Batanes, Philippines This team worked on the nomination of a new site. The data provider was Mr. Byron Peralta (Philippines) The resource persons: Augusto Villalon (Philippines) and Duncan Marshall (Icomos Australia). The participants: Erdene-Ochir Badarch (Mongolia), Bandula Basnayake (Sri Lanka), Luo-jie He (China), Azhar Tyabji (India), Sam Ath Ung (Cambodia). This site is an outstanding example of biodiversity and integration. Nature and culture have been intertwined for many centuries in an effort to resist an incredibly harsh climate. The resilience and adaptation of the inhabitants and of nature over time is absolutely remarkable and the site is certainly worthy of being inscribed on the World Heritage List.
UUsseeffuull WWrriittiinngg SSoouurrcceess FFoorr ((EEssppeecciiaallllyy NNoonn--NNaattiivvee)) SSppeeaakkeerrss OOff EEnngglliisshh Jeff Cody, Getty Conservation Institute Considering that participants may have to prepare official submissions to the World Heritage Committee and that these submissions must be made in English or French, which is not their native language, Jeff compiled and recommended to them a few references that could help with this task: The purpose of this web site is to provide students with the information required to write essays for the US academic audience. Helpful, but not free. The site offers tools designed to help non-native speakers master English language skills.
Phong Nha-Ke, Vietnam
PPuubblliicc RReellaattiioonnss The workshop resource persons participated to a press conference and met with local Japanese authorities. News about the workshop was published in several local and regional newspapers.
CCoonncclluussiioonnss At the workshop conclusion, participants were asked to share one important lesson that they had learned during the workshop. Everyone said that the workshop had definitely improved their knowledge of what the World Heritage Convention was all about and how to prepare some of the essential documents or reports required by the Convention. The lessons learned applied not only to world heritage sites but also to all types of heritage sites within their countries. The field trips to the
Phong Nha-Ke
two Japanese World Heritage sites were considered to be essential to the success of the course and the practical exercises were deemed to be most interesting and useful.
Team working on interpretation proposal for the Taj Mahal
Team working on developing a management plan for Isfahan in Iran
Plenary session in boardroom
Team working on interpretation proposal for a group of 10-12 year old Afghan children visiting Kabul
F. LeBlanc and J. Cody, Getty Conservation Inst.
Meng Hao WAN, Singapore
Population 126,580,000, Ninth largest population in the world Capital Tokyo Geography Japan is an archipelago situated off the north-east coast of mainland Asia. There are four main islands: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido, all linked by road or rail. There are a number of smaller islands, including the Ryukyu group to the south, centered on Okinawa.
The land is mountainous. The highest mountains are in the Japan Alps in Honshu. The land suitable for cultivation (less than one fifth of the total area) is mostly concentrated in a number of coastal plains. Japan has several active and inactive volcanoes, including Mt Fuji, a dormant volcano and Japan's highest peak. The land is crisscrossed with fault lines, and experiences frequent small earth tremors and the occasional big earthquake.
OOSSAAKKAA CCAASSTTLLEE MMUUSSEEUUMM On the way from Osaka to Hiroshima, Jeff and I stopped at the Osaka Castle Museum. The Castle’s origins go back to 1496, when the priest Rennyo of the Jodo-shinshu Buddhist sect built monks’ quarters near the site of present-day Osaka Castle. The monks’ quarters grew into a big temple called Osaka Hongan-ji. This temple exerted great influence throughout the country during its period of civil wars. In 1583, Hideyoshi Toyotomi who had seized control of Osaka began building a large-scale castle at the site, and the result was the magnificent Osaka Castle, unprecedented in its excellence. However, during the Summer War of 1615, some 17 years after Hideyoshi’s death, Osaka Castle was completely destroyed by fire.
Osaka Castle
Giant granite stones were quarried all over the region and brought to the site
Children wearing historic warrior costumes have their picture taken in front of the golden tiger
The trees are in full bloom at this time of the year
Osaka Castle model
By 1620, shogun Hidetada Tokugawa placed Osaka under the direct control of the government, and he started to rebuild Osaka Castle, completing the task by 1629. Just 36 years later, the Main Tower was struck by lightning and was lost in fire. Many Osaka Castle structures were later destroyed by fire during the turbulent transition to Imperial Restoration. We have to wait until 1931 to see the Main Tower rebuilt in accordance with the wishes of the citizens of Osaka. Made of a steel frame and reinforced concrete, the reconstructed 55 meters tall Main Tower was exposed to intense bombing raids during World War II. But even though most other castle structures were lost, the Main Tower fortunately escaped damage. After the war, Osaka Castle began in 1948 a new era as a “Historic Site Park”. The Main Tower was reopened to the public, repair work on the remaining buildings was undertaken, and a new museum was created. Large-scale repairs were completed in 1997. The beautiful appearance of the original castle, which was embellished with white walls and glittering gold, has been revived by re-plastering the outer walls, restoring ornamental fixtures, and re-applying gold leaf. The Main Tower has been reinforced to withstand earthquake of 7 magnitude on the seismic scale. The site is now universally accessible. The reborn Main Tower, illuminated both inside and outside, once again shines as the symbol of Osaka. The approach of “rebuilding” or “reconstructing” historic structures is very controversial in the field of conservation. The professionals in the field try to discourage this practice because for the most, it is based on speculation. This site provides an interesting case for discussion, as the reconstruction of the Main Tower is a practice that goes back to the 15th century and is part of the local culture on the inhabitants.
Kyoto is on UNESCO’s World Heritage List
Kyoto, Yasaka Pagoda
TTHHEE WWOORRLLDD HHEERRIITTAAGGEE SSIITTEESS OOFF KKYYOOTTOO History Built in A.D. 794 on the model of the capitals of ancient China, Kyoto was the imperial capital of Japan from its foundation until the middle of the 19th century. As the center of Japanese culture for more than 1,000 years, Kyoto illustrates the development of Japanese wooden architecture, particularly religious architecture, and the art of Japanese gardens, which has influenced landscape gardening the world over. The Kyoto basin was not settled until the 7th century. Little more than a vast, fertile plain, Kyoto - then known as Yamashiro-no-kuni - became home to the Hata clan from Korea. Meanwhile, the Yamoto imperial court was centralizing its power. In 784 AD, the powerful Buddhist clergy had become so meddlesome that Nara-period Emperor Kammu moved the capital away to Nagaoka (a suburb of Kyoto), and 10 years later shifted again to present-day Kyoto, where it remained until 1868. The city was laid out according to traditional Chinese geomancy in a grid pattern adopted from Xi'an in mainland China. The ensuing Heian period (literally 'Peace and Tranquility') lived up to its name. Over the next four centuries the city became Japan's cultural and commercial center as well as its political hub. In this time, isolation from China allowed a native Japanese culture to emerge. Arts and literature flourished, spurred on by the development of a unique Japanese character set called hiragana, and the court reached the apogee of elegance. In the provinces a new power was on the rise - the samurai or warrior class - with an armed force that defended the group's autonomy. Samurai families moved into Kyoto where they muscled in on the court, causing mayhem. This was the beginning of the Shogun feudal system, when a succession of samurai families ruled the country until imperial power was restored in 1868. Although Kyoto was home to the Japanese imperial family for almost 1100 years, the division between political and ceremonial power was already emerging. The political capital was Kamakura for about 150 years from 1185, and from 1600 to 1868 the Tokugawa Shogunate ruled Japan from Edo (now Tokyo). Despite the decline of the court, Kyoto continued to prosper economically. The Mongols, under Kublai Khan, reached Korea in 1259 and sent a request for the Japanese to submit to their rule. Declining, Japan was eventually invaded in 1274. The first attack was repelled (with help from a well-timed typhoon) and subsequent Mongol envoys were beheaded. Seven years later, 100,000 Mongols invaded, but again were defeated by a typhoon. This lucky typhoon is even now known as kamikaze, or 'divine wind'.
Kyoto – Typical heritage street
Kyoto – Private house, cobble street, historic monuments
Kyoto – Pathway along a small river surrounded by cherry blossom trees
Kyoto – Pedestrian activity along a narrow inclined street
A rebellion led by Emperor Go-Daigo restored political authority in Kyoto. Various splits and broken promises followed. The Ashikaga period was marked by flourishing arts and the construction of beautiful temples and gardens - many still standing today - but the rest of the country was slowy slipping into civil chaos. In 1467 a feudal argument ignited the most ferocious battle in Kyoto's history. The 90,000-strong Yamana army faced off against the 100,000 soldiers of the Hosokawa. The 10-year Onin war was fought mostly in the center of Kyoto, destroying most of the city and scattering the population. The war marked the start of the chaotic Warring States period until 1568, when power was seized by Oda Nobunaga, who used his military genius to consolidate power throughout central Japan. His program continued following his suicide and, by 1590, the whole country had fallen under the rule of 'Mr Monkey' - Hideyoshi. At the time of his death, Hideyoshi had completely rebuilt Kyoto, which had a swelling population of 500,000 people, but soon a rival government was set up at Edo, and the emperor's authority became nominal. In Edo, the Tokugawa family virtually rebuilt society, imposing a strict hierarchical social structure and enforcing international seclusion. In Kyoto, a push to increase the power of the shogun led to a wave of antigovernment sentiment and a state of internal unrest. In 1868 the shogun resigned and Japan was again reunified, and began emerging from isolation. Over 1000 years, Kyoto had fought back from its considerable loss of power by using its strongest weapon - culture. By 1900 Kyoto was again pre-eminent in education, culture and the arts, as well as excelling in industry. The city boasted an electrical system, water system, transport network and hydroelectric power generation. In 1926 Emperor Hirohito took the throne, and a rising tide of nationalism coincided with the world depression and internal political strife. By 1940 Japan was at war with China (having invaded Manchuria in 1931) and had signed treaties with Italy and Germany. When diplomatic attempts to secure US neutrality in WWII failed, Japan drew them into the war by bombing Pearl Harbor. Japan had suffered greatly by the time of their unconditional surrender in 1945, although Kyoto had escaped the devastation of mass bombings and atomic attack. The Kyoto Revival Plan was drafted in 1945, and by 1949 the city's university had already produced the first in a long line of Nobel Prize winners. By the late 1950s Japan's economic miracle had made Kyoto an international hub of business and culture. The city rode high on the back of technology and tourism through the 1970s and '80s. With another world market collapse in 1989, Kyoto again suffered heavily, and recovery - though sure - has been gradual.
Kyoto – Some sectors are absolutely free of clutter while others…
Kyoto – Modern architecture of the train station
Kyoto – Simplicity and good taste can go a long way
Kyoto – A Ryokan, typical bed & breakfast where Jeff and I stayed
The battles in Kyoto today are being fought with pens, as preservationists desperately struggle to save the city from a coalition of local government forces and commercial interests. The latter win more often than not. In 1994, the year that marked the city's 1200th anniversary, developers capitalized on the milestone to undertake yet more rule-breaking projects. Despite the development, however, Kyoto remains an important cultural and educational center. Kodai-ji Temple Kodai-ji Temple is located in the Higashiyama Mountains of eastern Kyoto. It was established in 1605 by the noblewoman Kita-no- Mandokoro in memory of her late husband, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598). Kodai-ji Temple’s construction was extensively financed by Tokugawa Ieyasu, Hideyoshi’s chief vassal and later Shogun of Japan; the result was a temple renowned for its beautiful design and exquisite craftsmanship. In 1624 Sanko Joeki, Abbot of Kenninji Temple, was appointed founding priest, and Kodai-ji Temple has remained one of Kenninji Temple’s largest and most important sub-temples ever since. Kodai-ji Temple was ravaged by a series of fires after 1789. Fortunately, the remains are in an excellent state of preservation, and have all been designated “Important Cultural Properties” by the Japanese Government. Kita-no-Mandokoro (known more familiarly as “Nene”) was awarded the highest rank of nobility by Emperor Goyozei in 1588, and in 1603 was accorded the honorary name Kodai-in. Believe it or not, this is a historical fact that my colleague Jeff Cody had memorized when I asked him if he knew anything about the name “Nene” which was the name of the street on which our hotel was located. It is from this honorary name Kodai-in that Kodai-ji Temple’s name derives. Following the custom among noble ladies of her time, she became a Buddhist nun after the death of her husband and adopted the religious name Kogetsu-ni. She died at the age of 76 on September 6, 1624. The Temple’s garden was redesigned by the renowned landscape architect Kobori ensyu (1579-1647) from an older garden located on this site. Famous for its excellent stone layout, it is one of the finest gardens of its period. In the north section of the pond is an island in the form of a turtle, and in the south section is a group of stones representing a crane. This garden has been designated by the Japanese Government as a “Place of Historical Importance and Outstanding Scenery”.
Kodai-ji Temple structure
Myoshin-ji Temple The Japanese have made much of nature. So have others but none perhaps with more dedication. Nature was early and permanently woven into habit and language. Not only were the spatial facts of spring fields and autumn orchards rendered obligatory in writing and in talk, but also the temporal facts of rain and sun and the daily temperature were so ingrained that even now, it is still impermissible to leave out of note fax or e-mail some reference to the weather and its possible ability to alarm or delight. What, one wonders, could have so motivated so early such an enormous concern. Perhaps, just as theEgyptians so loved living that they constructed the pyramids, those titanic containers of the dead, so the Japanese, aware of gossamer life, of this short respite before the setting of the sun of late summer enameled onto all their words and thoughts these colors of eternity, the world of nature which lives but to die and dies but to live. One such rural temple was Myoshin-ji, but over the years as the city grew it lost its rustic air and eventually became a complex of temples and, like the medieval cathedrals of Europe, a center of learning. It was here that the retired emperor Hanazono who reigned from 1309 to 1318, studied his Buddhism. Myoshin-ji was run like a very strict religious school. This may account for its layout, odd among the big Zen templesk though the customs of Zen construction were followed faithfully enough. It is enormous but not compact in that linear way of most Japanese temple complexes: teling a story and starting with the fact of the grand front gate. It covers nearly seven acres, has its great Sanmon, its butsuden, lecture Hall, and so on. But is also extends to form a small city with a main street, side alleys, all in neat rows, dormitories systematically arranged on the east and west sides ofr the larger buildings. It is liek a university town, a campus. Even today it contains nearly sixty subtemples and has nearly four thousand affiliated temples throughout the country. Heian Shrine Although it dates only from 1895, Kyoto’s most famous shrine was built in commemoration of the 1,100th anniversary of the founding of Kyoto and is a replica of the main administraiton building of the Heian capital. It also deifies two of Japan’s emperors: Emperor Kanmu, 50th emperoe of Japan, who founded Heian-kyo in 794; and Emperor Komeik, the 121st ruler of Japan, who ruled from 1831 to 1866. Although the orange, green, and white structue is interesting for its Heian-Era architectural style, the most important thing to see here is the Shinen Garden. Typical of gardens constructed during the Meiji Era, it is famous for its weeping cherry trees in spring, its irises and water lilies in summer, and its changing maple leaves in the fall.
Myoshin-ji Temple
Kiyomizu Temple This is Higashiyama-ku’s most famous temple, known throughout Japan for the grand views afforded from its main hall. Founded in 798 and rebuilt in 1633 by the third Tokugawa shogun, Iemitsu, the temple occupies an exalted spot on Mount Otowa, with itsw main hall constructed over a cliff and featuring a large wooden veranda supported by 139 pillars, each 15m high. The main hall is dedicated to the goddess of mercy and compassion, but most visitors come for the magnificence of its height and view, which are so well known to the Japanese that the idiom “jumping from the veranda of Kiyomizu Temple means that they’re about to undertake some particularly bold or daring adventure. Kiyomizu’s grounds are parcicularly spectacular in spring duirng cherry-blossom season and in fall during the turning of the maple leaves. Ryoanji Temple Ryoanji Temple is home to what is probably the most famous Zen rock garden in all of Japan. Laid out at the end of the 15th century during the Muromachi Period, fifteen rocks set in waves of raked white pebbles are surmounded on three sides by a clay wall and on the fourth by a wooden v eranda. Visitors sit down and contemplate what the artist was trying to communicate. The interpretation of the rocks is up to the individual. This simple yet remarkable garden measures only twenty-five meters from east to west and ten meters from south to north. The rectangular Zen garden is completely different from the gorgeous gardens of court nobles constructed in the Middle Ages. No trees are to be seen; only fifteen rocks and white gravel are used in the garden. It is up to each visitor to find out for himself whqat this unique garden signifies. The longer you gaze at it, the more varied your imagination becomes. This rock garden surrounded by low earthen walls may be thought of as the quintessence of Zen art. The walls are made of clay boiled in oil. As time went by, the peculiar design was made of itself by the oil that seeped out. This garden of worldwide fame is said to have been laid out by soamji, a painter and gardener who died in 1525. Ginkakuji Temple This Zen temple was established in 1482 by Ashikaga Yoshimasa, the eighth Muromachi Shogunate. Yoshimasa, following Kinkakuji Temple Kitayaa den built by his grandfather, built villa Higashiyama den to spend his retired life. GinKakuji is the common name. This is the place where Higashiyama culture formed and is the start of modern life style of the Japanese. Even now, the combination of Higashiyama culture and Zen culture can be seen here. Ginkakuji is considered to be one of the more beautiful structures in Kyoto. The sand mound in tghe garden is shaped to resemble Mount Fuji, and the sand raked in the shape of waves, was created to enhance the views during a full moon.
Kiyomizu Temple
Ryoanji Temple vegetation
Ginkakuji Temple structure
Ginkakuji Temple garden