the progressive era, 1880-1920 chapter 22. the progressive era, 1880-1920

The Progressive Era, 1880-1920 Chapter 22

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The Progressive Era, 1880-1920

Chapter 22

The Progressive Era, 1880-1920

Main points & Issues

Origins of Progressivism Characteristics and Beliefs Moderate Responses to Extremes in

America Major Trends and Examples Successes and Legacies

Origins of Progressivism

Reaction to “extremes” of modern life Capitalism & individualism Urbanization & Industrialization Labor conflict Immigration Environmental exploitation Social “problems”


Middle class morality

Moderation Scientific Order and stability Active government Collective



Conservation of resources

Assimilation Social Gospel Professional Organizations

Economic Extremes

Corporate control of industry, resources

Rockefeller & Oil (1911) Carnegie & U.S. Steel “Big Four” railroads Political influence Anti-democratic

Standard Oil, 1906

The Other “Extreme” Labor Unions Strikes & protests Knights of Labor AFL Populist Party United Mine Workers I.W.W.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

1911 New York City Locked doors 800 trapped 146 women died Female labor, bad

working conditions, immigrant rights, shop floor laws

Deaths from Fire

Immigration& Progressivism

9 million between 1900-1910 The American Dream? Tenements and sweatshops Racial hierarchies Ethnic enclaves Southeastern Europe, Catholic,

languages and customs

Controlling Immigration 1882: Immigration Act

Tax, “idiots, lunatics, convicts, and persons likely to become a public charge”

1883: Chinese Exclusion Act Immigration Act of 1891

Polygamists, moral turpitude, diseases Office of the Superintendent of Immigration

1894: Immigration Restriction League 1895: Bureau of Immigration 1903: Moved to Department of Commerce &

Labor 1904: Made anti-Chinese laws permanent 1906: Basic Naturalization Act

1917 Immigration Act

"all idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons; persons who have had one or more attacks of insanity at any time previously; persons of constitutional psychopathic inferiority; persons with chronic alcoholism; paupers; professional beggars; vagrants; persons afflicted with tuberculosis in any form or with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; persons not comprehended within any of the foregoing excluded classes who are found to be and are certified by the examining surgeon as being mentally or physically defective, such physical defect being of a nature which may affect the ability of such alien to earn a living; persons who have been convicted of or admit having committed a felony or other crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude; polygamists, or persons who practice polygamy or believe in or advocate the practice of polygamy; anarchists, or persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States"

Asiatic Barred Zone, 1917

El Paso in the Progressive Era

Using Ringside Seat to a Revolution, find three examples of events, issues, debates, controversies, people, etc., that are related to the themes of the Progressive Era

Explain why and how are they Progressive Era issues.

El Paso in the Progressive Era

Housing, prostitution, poll taxes, drinking, inter-racial relationships

“Muckraker” journalism & photography

Revolution, 1910-1920s Anti-Mexican fears Radicalism Defacto segregation &

Segundo Barrio

The Border, The Bridge and the Bath Riots Control the border, orderly immigration Immigration Law of 1917 1917 shut down the bridge Mayor Tom Lea Carmelita Torres Delousing & the Bath Riots

Zyklon B Dozens died in fire

Eugenics & scientific racism

Progressivism in El Paso

Prohibition 1918 18th Amend 16 de Septiembre

Prostitution Vice squads Jazz & inter-racial

nightclubs Journalism, film &


Segregated Schools Douglas & Aoy

Segundo Barrio & Chihuahuita

Destruction of Mexican adobe homes

Democratic Ring Poll taxes Censored newspapers

Settlement Houses

Jane Addams Hull House Employment, health,

education, language Assimilation and

Americanization Best and worst of


Public Health and Cities

No clean water Sewage systems Tenements Ventilation & fire

codes Zoning & regulation Tuberculosis &


Jacob Riis, Photographer

Police photographer Photography and

social justice Muckraker

Progressive Journalism

Corruption and social injustice Raise the consciousness of America Morality, democracy, Christianity Muckrakers

Ida B. Wells and lynching Ida Tarbell and Standard Oil Upton Sinclair and The Jungle, 1906

Progressivism & Eugenics Produce superior races

of people Social Darwinism No miscegenation Anti-immigration Control & organize races Racial purity “Intelligence” Sterilization

“Fitter families & better babies”


Exploitation Natural Resources

as public resources Preserve & protect Use but conserve John Muir Gifford Pinchot National Parks

Child Labor

No regulations Few public schools Cotton fields,

factories and coal mines

People of color Immigrants Working class poor

whites, southerners

National Progressivism

Power of government to regulate national activities

Theodore Roosevelt Trust-busting Active Gov’t Global Power Conservation Americanization Eugenics

Woodrow Wilson Southerner New Jersey, Princeton 1912 & 1916 Child labor, FTC, farms,

workers compensation, anti-monopoly

Reduce Regulation Opposed women’s

suffrage Segregation

Reform Legislation

1906: Pure Food and Drug Act 1913: 16th Amendment (Taxes) 1913: 17th Amendment (Senators) 1913: Harrison Act regulated narcotics 1918: 18th Amendment (Prohibition) 1920: 19th Amendment (Women’s


Racial Equality

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1909

Society for American Indians, 1911

League of United Latin American Citizens, 1929

Japanese American Citizens League, 1929

Women Progressives

Organizations WCTU GFWC WTUL Feminists Alliance

Issues Women’s rights Poverty Alcoholism Child Labor Public Education

Women’s Suffrage


Reaction to extremes of modern life Middle class reform and regulation Government activity in economy A range of reform activities Assimilation and progressivism It had a wicked side to it…