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The Reformation Review

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  • The ReformationReview

  • The Reformation

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation

  • The Pope is lower than God but higher than man, judges all but is judged by no one.Pope Innocent III

  • Causes of the Reformation

    powerful popes spent money on art and wars

  • John Tetzel

  • illiterate priests were often immoral

    secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authorityCauses of the Reformation

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral

  • Martin Luther

  • The Spread of Lutheranism

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i. 1517 posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i. 1517 posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England)

  • Calvins World in the 16c

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i. 1517 posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology - predestination

  • Europe Starts Religious WarsThe Thirty-Year War (1618-1648)

    German princes use Reformation to get independence from Rome and from the Holy Roman Empire

    The war is extremely destructive and soon involves almost all of Europe

  • Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)St. Bartholomews Day Massacre

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i. 1517 posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology - predestination3. Effects of the Reformation A. religious wars broke out across Europe B. both Protestants and Catholics improve education

  • Council of Trent

  • The Counter-Reformation Ignatius of Loyola started the Jesuit Holy Order

    Catholic Church reformed some of its corruption (such as banning indulgences)

    reaffirmed basic tenants of Catholic faith (saints, pilgrimages, salvation through good deeds, etc.) rejected

    addressed political power

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Reformation1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral2. Reformation B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology3. Effects of the Reformation A. religious wars broke out across Europe B. both Protestants and Catholics improve education C. Catholic Church reforms itself i. Ignatius of Loyola leads Catholic Reformation ii. Council of Trent meeting that made church doctrine D. Catholic Church lost political and moral authority E. led to monarchs and states gaining power

  • Scientific RevolutionReview

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution

  • Age of ExplorationReformation Renaissance Scientific Revolution

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation ended church control of education

  • 200 BC 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1500 1700Ancient GreeksThe Scientific RevolutionPtolemy ancient Greek philosopher started the idea of geocentric universe

  • 200 BC 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1500 1700The Scientific RevolutionMiddle Ages

  • 200 BC 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1500 1700The Scientific RevolutionRenaissance Nicolaus Copernicus (1543)

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation ended church control of educationThe Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus sun at center of universe

  • On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary.Galileo Galilei

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation ended church control of educationThe Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei built telescope and observed the universe

  • Francis Bacon encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions)Rene Descartes used mathematics and logicIsaac Newton theory of gravityLeaders of the Scientific Revolution

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation ended church control of educationThe Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei built telescope and observed the universe d. Scientific Method hypothesis, experiment, observation, and conclusion e. Francis Bacon encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions) f. Rene Descartes used mathematics and logic g. Isaac Newton theory of gravity

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution Roots of the Scientific RevolutionThe Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei built telescope and observed the universe d. Scientific Method hypothesis, experiment, observation, and conclusion e. Francis Bacon encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions) f. Rene Descartes used mathematics and logic g. Isaac Newton theory of gravityEffects of the Scientific Revolution a. a new way of looking at the world b. tools developed for studying people and society c. Europeans make advances in medicine and science

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