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Threat Modeling and Analysis “Studying Disasters on Paper” Flood Hazard and Management Fred May Eastern Kentucky University Homeland Security Program

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Page 1: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Threat Modeling and Analysis

“Studying Disasters on Paper”

Flood Hazard and Management

Fred May

Eastern Kentucky University

Homeland Security Program

Page 2: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

FEMA Independent Study Course, IS 230,

Principles of Emergency Management

• p. 3.17. Cascading events are events that occur as a direct or indirect result of an initial event.For example, if a flash flood disrupts electricity to an area and, as a result of the electrical failure, a serious traffic accident involving a hazardous materials spill occurs, the traffic accident is a cascading event. If, as a result of the hazardous materials spill, a neighborhood must be evacuated and a local stream is contaminated, these are also cascading events. Taken together, the effect of cascading events can be crippling to a community.

Page 3: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

BASIC DOMINO CONCEPT

Page 4: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Multi-Hazard Concept - 1984

• The multi-hazard concept resulted from

FEMA discovering that earthquake losses

are likely not as severe as a resulting dam

failure flood.

Page 5: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

National Research Council, Toward

a Safer Future, F. May, 1992.

Page 6: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Interesting Concept

• Cascading Disasters

• What can be done with it as a science

• “Disaster Systematics”

Page 7: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Model Concepts

• Causation Sequences

• Threat Modeling for All-Hazards

• Analysis Using Principles of Critical

Thinking:

– Viewing Disasters as Content to be Analyzed:

• Essential Questions

• Elements of Thought

• Intellectual Standards

Page 8: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Vargas, Venezuela, Debris Flow

(December 1999)

The Model The Real Thing

Page 9: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

FRAGMENTAL THINKING

Page 10: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

SYSTEMS THINKING

Page 11: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Scientific Method

Hypothesis Development

Page 12: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Cascading Probabilities

Page 13: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

DEGREE OF DAMAGE AND

DEGREE OF CONSEQUENCE

Degree of Damage

Degree of Consequence

Page 14: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Degree of Damage

Degree of Consequence

Page 15: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Term “Analysis”

• The separation of an intellectual or material whole into its constituent parts for individual study.

• The study of such constituent parts and their interrelationships in making up a whole.

• A spoken or written presentation of such study: published an analysis of poetic meter.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth EditionCopyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Page 16: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

The Intellectual Whole

Page 17: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Begin An Analysis

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Simple Analysis

Preparedness and Mitigation

Page 19: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Complex AnalysisEarthquake Hazard – Threat Analysis

Page 20: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Complex AnalysisEarthquake Hazard – Threat Analysis

Page 21: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

PUTTING CASCADING CONCEPT

INTO PRACTICE - Expertise

Engineer: Division of

Drinking Water

USACE, Engineer

NWS, Meteorologist

Division of Water Resources, Engineer

Geological Survey,

Geologist

NRCS, Geologist

Page 22: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Types of Models

• Historic Models: documenting disasters that have

happened for lessons learned.

• Generic Models: documenting what can happen in

a disaster to be proactive.

• Predictive Models: documenting how some

particular threat can happen; i.e., a public health

threat.

• Reverse Pathway Analysis: documenting how a

noticed threat came to happen.

Page 23: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Types of Models

• Macro-Models

– The Earthquake Shook > The Dam Shook >

The Dam Failed > The Valley Flooded.

• Micro-Models: As shown in this

presentation.

Page 24: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

ANTECEDENT CONDITIONS

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Page 26: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Antecedent Conditions

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Related Terms

• Models– Historic

– Generic

– Predictive

• Systems– Systems Thinking

– Fragmented Thinking

• Analysis

• Process

• Cascading

• Diagram Format

• Outline Format

• Degree of Damage

• Degree of Consequence

• Point Threats

• Systems Threats

• Distal Threats

• Proximal Threats

• Terminal Threats

• Pathways

• Branches

• Concurrent Disasters

• Composite Disasters

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Models in Science

Models are of central importance in many

scientific contexts. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Page 30: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Model

• A schematic description of a system, theory,

or phenomenon that accounts for its known

or inferred properties and may be used for

further study of its characteristics: a model

of generative grammar; a model of an

atom; an economic model.

American Heritage Dictionary

Page 31: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Models in Science

• Models are one of the principle instruments of

modern science:

– Billiard ball model of a gas

– Bohr model of the atom

– MIT bag model of the nucleon

– Gaussian-chain model of a polymer

– Lorenz model of the atmosphere

– Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction,

– Double helix model of DNA

Page 32: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

System

• A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. Anderson & Johnson, p. 2.

• A functionally related group of elements, especially: – The human body regarded as a functional physiological unit.

– An organism as a whole, especially with regard to its vital processes or functions.

– A group of physiologically or anatomically complementary organs or parts: the nervous system; the skeletal system.

– A group of interacting mechanical or electrical components.

– A network of structures and channels, as for communication, travel, or distribution.

– A network of related computer software, hardware, and data transmission devices.

Page 33: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

Term – “Cascading”

• A succession of stages, processes, operations, or units.

• Electronics A series of components or networks, the output of each of which serves as the input for the next.

• A chemical or physiological process that occurs in successive stages, each of which is dependent on the preceding one, and often producing a cumulative effect: an enzymatic cascade.

American Heritage Dictionary

Page 34: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

MODEL GEOGRAPHY

Page 35: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

PROXIMAL -DISTAL

Page 36: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

BRANCH NOMENCLATURE

Page 37: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

PRIMARY AND TERMINAL

THREATS

Page 38: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

THREAT AND PATHWAY CODES

Page 39: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

CROSS CONNECTIONS

MUTUAL THREAT EFFECTS

Page 40: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways
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Pathways Lead to Mitigation Strategies

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Emergency diversion: Pre-

positioned jersey barriers,

straw bales.

Move children to upstairs

bedrooms.

Use sliding doors for basement rooms

Home mitigation: sand bags to

protect entry points or to

divert flows.

Elevated window wells

Sandbagging of window wells

Boarding of window wells

Fill window wells with bags of

gravel to displace water.

Use delicate door materials that can

be easily broken from inside.

Basement doors open to outward

direction

Build homes at 45 degree angle to

uphill slope.

No basement windows on uphill side

of house.

Place basement alarms in bedrooms

that can be activated by

occupants.

Streets in residential area: inverted

crowns; angled to catch and

route flows.

Use double-pane laminated glass for

basement windows.

Have tools quickly available to break

door.

Permanent debris basin at apex. Cover window wells with

impenetrable plastic shield.

Remove basement doors until

watershed is reestablished.

Monitor weather, satellite and

Doppler images.

Tape windows so glass is not easily

broken

Install plastic film to strengthen

window panes.

Place a ladder in occupied rooms

Page 44: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

USES OF CASCADING DISASTER

MODELS

• Conduct local hazard and risk analyses

• Serve as basis for hazard mitigation or

management plans

• Educate government officials and

community leaders on community threats

• Train hazard managers on cascading

hazards

Page 45: Threat Modeling and Analysis - KAMM...Threat Modeling and Analysis ... • Point Threats • Systems Threats • Distal Threats • Proximal Threats • Terminal Threats • Pathways

THE END