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Post on 01-Oct-2015
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DESCRIPTIONClass 9th Science Presentation
TigerTiger-a speciesTiger FactsSize and FeaturesLife Expectancy ,Birth, MatingProject TigerWorld Tiger PopulationAlready ExtinctCauses For Tiger DemiseBig Cats In PerilCan They Be SavedEnactment of Project TigerFailure of Project TigerFurther Action PlanAchievement of Project TigerTiger Tiger -Fading Fast!Tiger Reserves In India
The tiger is one of the most charismatic and evocative species on Earth- it is also one of the most threatened. Only 6000 or so remain in the wild, most in isolated pockets spread across increasingly fragmented forests, stretching from India to south-eastern china and from the Russian far east to Sumatra , Indonesia. Across its range, this magnificent animal is being prosecuted. Today tigers are being poisoned, shot, trapped and snared to meet the demands of illegal wildlife trade.
The scientific name for a tiger is Panthera tigris. Panthera is the genus, and the word means "Roaring Cats," which includes lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars. The species "Tigris" refers to the tiger and is the Latin word for tiger. The full "Linnaean" hierarchy for the tiger is:Kingdom = Animalia Phylum = ChordataClass = Mammalia (mammals) Order = Carnivora (carnivores, or meat eaters)Family = Felidae (cats) Genus = Panthera (roaring cats)Species = tigris (tiger)
1)Typically 3 feet tall to the top of the shoulder, 7-10 feet long from the head to the rear end, with an additional 3 foot long tail, 2)weight ranges from 175-650 pounds. 3)only species of wild cat with stripes, which are actually pigmentation marks on the skin.
SIZE AND FEATURES
LIFE EXPECTANCY, BIRTH, MATING A typical tiger's life expectancy in the wild is 15-20 years; somewhat longer in captivity. The oldest tiger on record was 26 years.Although there is no set mating season for tigers, breeding often occurs in the spring. The male may stay with the female for 20-80 days during this period. Gestation period is typically about 15. The cubs nurse for about 2 months, learn to hunt after about 11 months, and spend the first two years of their lives with their mother, before going out on their own.
Figure shows how the range of tigers has changed over the past 100 years. Once ranging all throughout India, southeast Asia, central Asia, and eastern China, only small pockets of natural habitat remain.
Already extinct!The Javan tiger once roamed the Indonesian island of Java. The last one was seen in 1972 and is now believed to be extinct.The Caspian tiger once ranged from Turkey to Central Asia, including Iran, Mongolia, and Central Russia. They went extinct in the 1950's.The Bali tiger existed on the island of Bali. The last one was killed in 1937. There are no existing photos of a live Bali tiger
CAUSES FOR TIGER DEMISE1) Unlimited poaching a) supplying underground black markets with its organs, pelts and bones, which are used for fur, Chinese medicine. Dead tiger's parts are worth as much as $200,000 on the black market. The trade continues today in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Singapore, although tiger medicine is a hoax and has been shown to have no curative powers. b) hunted for recreation.
2) Human expansion 3) Deforestation (insecticides have reduced the danger of malarial mosquitoes in India, making land habitable that was previously home to tigers)
BIG CATS IN PERILJAN 2, 2008 : One tiger seized at Bandipur,KarnatakaJan 6: A tiger poisoned to death at Wynad at Kerala.Jan 7: One tiger found dead at Kanha,MP. Jan 13: Three pieces of tiger bones seized at Jaigaon,West Bengal.Jan 21: One tiger skin seized at Munnar,Kerala.Jan 28: Tigress found dead at Katerniaghat,Uttar Pradesh.Jan 29: One tiger found dead at Gudalur, Tamil NaduFeb 8: A tiger killed in road accident South Kheri division, UPFeb11: One tiger found dead at Melghat,Maharashtra.
Can they be saved?Yes!1) Saving the forest patches.2) Waging a war against poaching in tiger-breeding zones. The strictest enforcement of anti-poaching laws is a must-especially in the hot spots.3) We need to make a national pledge-there will be no further shrinkage. Instead of spending a few crores thinly across the entire country, more can be achieved by focusing money and effort on identified hot spots like Corbett, Bandhavgarh, Kanha and some parts of the northeast where tigers truly have a chance to breed and grow.
Project Tiger launched in 1973 was a giant leap by India in the field oftiger conservationin general and forest protection in particular. It was launched at the command of then Prime MinisterSmt. Indira Gandhiwho was a lover of animals. World wideFund organization had approached her for protecting the declining tiger population in India to which she responded positively. Infact, efforts for the protection of tiger was going on since long time and IUCN in itsmeetingin 1969 in Delhi had expressed concerns at the decline in wild life. Then another step in tiger protection was takenby imposing ban on its hunting in 1970.Though late it was very much needed. In 1972, first ever tiger census was done in India when a startling figure of mere 1827 wild tigers was discovered The reaction of the government and the conservationist in the shape of Project tiger was panicky. In the same year,WildlifeProtection Actcame into existence.ENACTMENT OF PROJECT TIGER
If we compare the tiger population at the start of the project and now that is 38 years laterthere is a decline in the number of tigers from 1827(1972 first tiger census) to around 1000 only.If after so much planning , actions and efforts the tigers population has declined then it seems that project tiger is not a success. The WWF, which was the force behind the project tiger has predicted 2022 as the doomsday.Though a huge money was pumped in the system but it can be concluded thatproject tiger has failed miserably. It is not justified to blame one or two reasons for its failure but it is a systematic failure.
Since then the government has pledged US$153 million to further fund the project, set-up a Tiger Protection Force to combatpoachers, and fund the relocation of up to 200,000 villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts. The Ministry of Environment & Forests is now in the process of developing a "Tiger habitat and population evaluation System" for the Indian subcontinent in the GIS domain. The objectives take care of the tiger sociology as well as the prevailing ground situation. FURTHER ACTION PLAN
In 2008, there were more than 40 Project Tiger reserves covering an area over 37,761km2(14,580 sqmi). Project Tiger helped to increase the population of these tigers from 1,200 in the 1970s to 3,500 in 1990s.
ACHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT TIGER
TIGER TIGER Fading Fast!Bitter truth! Its official-India has just 1,411 tigers. the 2002 census figure of 3500 tigers was clearly an effort to cover up the government failure to protect the glorious cat. This is the stark finding of the NATIONAL TIGER CONSERVATION AUTHORITY estimation report.
Safe heavens Dark holes Corbett,Uttarakhand Palamau,Jharkhand Kaziranga,Assam Nagarjun Srisailam,Andhra PradeshNagarhole,Karnataka Indravati,ChattisgarhKanha,Bandhavgarh, Madhya Pradesh Ranthambore, Rajasthan