transmedia literacy

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Transmedia Literacy Transmedia Literacy Harry E. Pence Harry E. Pence SUNY Distinguished Teaching SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus Professor Emeritus SUNY Oneonta SUNY Oneonta [email protected] [email protected] Building Building Imaginary Imaginary Worlds Worlds

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Transmedia Literacy. Building Imaginary Worlds. Harry E. Pence SUNY Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus SUNY Oneonta [email protected]. Actually, transmedia is just the newest of the unusual narrative forms. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Transmedia Literacy

Transmedia LiteracyTransmedia Literacy

Harry E. PenceHarry E. PenceSUNY Distinguished Teaching SUNY Distinguished Teaching

Professor EmeritusProfessor EmeritusSUNY OneontaSUNY Oneonta

[email protected]@oneonta.edu

Building Building Imaginary Imaginary WorldsWorlds

Page 2: Transmedia Literacy

Actually, transmedia is just the Actually, transmedia is just the newest of the unusual narrative newest of the unusual narrative forms.forms.

TheThe Choose Your Own Adventure Choose Your Own Adventure series series of children's books were published by of children's books were published by Bantam Books from 1979-1998. The Bantam Books from 1979-1998. The reader chose what actions the main reader chose what actions the main character would take.character would take.

Michael Joyce's Michael Joyce's Afternoon, a storyAfternoon, a story, , (1987) is generally considered one of (1987) is generally considered one of the first hypertext fictions.the first hypertext fictions.

Movies, like Memento (2000) and Sliding Movies, like Memento (2000) and Sliding Doors (1998), have played with the idea Doors (1998), have played with the idea of nonlinear time flow. of nonlinear time flow.

Many of you can probably list other Many of you can probably list other examples of this. examples of this.

The Cave of Time, the first Choose Your Own Adventure book.

Page 3: Transmedia Literacy

Transmedia is a logical outgrowth of:Transmedia is a logical outgrowth of:

Fanzines, fan-produced publications that Fanzines, fan-produced publications that attempted to fill in the gaps of a commercial attempted to fill in the gaps of a commercial product.product.

The popularity of alternate reality games (ARG), The popularity of alternate reality games (ARG), like “The Beast (2001)” a promotional tool for like “The Beast (2001)” a promotional tool for the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence.the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence.

The popularity of Web 2.0 (blogs, wikis, etc.)The popularity of Web 2.0 (blogs, wikis, etc.)The increasing integration of the media The increasing integration of the media

industries. industries. See “Walt Disney University” by Josh KimSee “Walt Disney University” by Josh Kim

http://tinyurl.com/382y4dehttp://tinyurl.com/382y4de

Page 4: Transmedia Literacy

Christy Dena argues that, “Transmedia  Christy Dena argues that, “Transmedia  practices are not just the concern of practices are not just the concern of conglomerates who are horizontally organized, conglomerates who are horizontally organized, but also of individuals with limited resources.”but also of individuals with limited resources.”

Behnam Karbassi says, “Kids are already Behnam Karbassi says, “Kids are already porting content from one screen to another, porting content from one screen to another, blurring the lines of media.”blurring the lines of media.”

According to a 2005 study conducted by the According to a 2005 study conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life project, more Pew Internet and American Life project, more than one-half of all American teens—and 57 than one-half of all American teens—and 57 percent of teens who use the Internet—could percent of teens who use the Internet—could be considered media creators.be considered media creators.

http://www.pewInternet.org/PPF/r/166/report_display.asphttp://www.pewInternet.org/PPF/r/166/report_display.asp

http://tinyurl.com/2b6o47uhttp://tinyurl.com/2b6o47u

Page 5: Transmedia Literacy

Evolution of TransmediaEvolution of Transmedia

MultimediaMultimedia refers to a mix of text, images, refers to a mix of text, images, video, and sound within a single platform.video, and sound within a single platform.

Dana Goodyear writes about the Dana Goodyear writes about the cell-cell-phone novelphone novel, or , or keitai shosetsukeitai shosetsu, the first , the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular literary genre to emerge from the cellular age. An effort to encourage similar works in age. An effort to encourage similar works in the U.S. is called Figment.the U.S. is called Figment.

http://tinyurl.com/9wcrgwhttp://tinyurl.com/9wcrgw

““Distributed narrativesDistributed narratives don’t just bring don’t just bring media together but rather expand media together but rather expand the narrative across media, through the narrative across media, through the network and sometimes into the the network and sometimes into the physical spaces that we live in.” Jill physical spaces that we live in.” Jill WalkerWalker

Page 6: Transmedia Literacy

From Implementation, a sticker novel by Nick Montfort and Scott Rettberg.

Page 7: Transmedia Literacy

According to Henry According to Henry Jenkins,Jenkins,

Page 8: Transmedia Literacy

The Matrix Franchise is a true Transmedia The Matrix Franchise is a true Transmedia Story.Story.

InInThe MatrixThe Matrix franchise, information is communicated franchise, information is communicated through three live action films, a series of animated through three live action films, a series of animated shorts, two comic books, and several video games. See shorts, two comic books, and several video games. See Convergence CultureConvergence Culture, Chap 3, Chap 3

Page 9: Transmedia Literacy

http://tinyurl.com/3xfhl27

Page 10: Transmedia Literacy

Henry Jenkins has described the Henry Jenkins has described the characteristics of the transmedia aesthetic. characteristics of the transmedia aesthetic. http://tinyurl.com/37u3okq http://tinyurl.com/37u3okq

1.1. A shift from a focus on individual characters A shift from a focus on individual characters and their stories towards ever more complex and their stories towards ever more complex forms of world building. forms of world building.

2.2. The expansion of traditional forms of seriality The expansion of traditional forms of seriality that disperse story information across multiple that disperse story information across multiple chunks of entertainment content. chunks of entertainment content.

3.3. A focus on layered or multiple forms of A focus on layered or multiple forms of subjectivity where we experience the story subjectivity where we experience the story through the perspective of multiple characters, through the perspective of multiple characters, who often reflect different values or social who often reflect different values or social situations. situations.

This is a major shift in the way the we experience This is a major shift in the way the we experience media.media.

Page 11: Transmedia Literacy

Carlos Scolari (University Pompeu Carlos Scolari (University Pompeu Fabri, Barcelona, Spain) says that Fabri, Barcelona, Spain) says that the “reader’ of transmedia must be the “reader’ of transmedia must be accustomed to:accustomed to:

InteractivityInteractivityNetworksNetworksScreen fragmentationScreen fragmentationMore rapid presentationMore rapid presentationRapid adaptation to new InterfacesRapid adaptation to new InterfacesIntertextualityIntertextualityMulti-screensMulti-screensI would add that the responsibility for making I would add that the responsibility for making

meaning is shared by the author and the meaning is shared by the author and the reader.reader.

Page 12: Transmedia Literacy

Karbassi and Thompson describe three Karbassi and Thompson describe three types of transmedia projects: types of transmedia projects: franchise, marketing, and native. franchise, marketing, and native. http://tinyurl.com/22nn6oy

I found it easier to think in terms of who has I found it easier to think in terms of who has control.control.

Experience transmediaExperience transmedia: an individual or group : an individual or group uses various media platforms to create a uses various media platforms to create a unified experience.unified experience.

Framework transmedia:Framework transmedia: an existing world or an existing world or brand is adapted by brand is adapted by usersusers to create to create interlocking but independent visions of that interlocking but independent visions of that world. world. No single author (or group) has control.No single author (or group) has control.

Page 13: Transmedia Literacy

Examples of Examples of experience experience transmedia.transmedia.

Majestic (2001)Majestic (2001) is the classic alternate is the classic alternate reality game (ARG); there is no reality game (ARG); there is no separation between the in-game and separation between the in-game and out-of-game experiences. It used phone, out-of-game experiences. It used phone, instant messages, e-mail, and fax. instant messages, e-mail, and fax.

Valemont Valemont is the MTV transmedia murder is the MTV transmedia murder mystery which occurs on TV, blogs, mystery which occurs on TV, blogs, Facebook, phones, and web sites. Facebook, phones, and web sites.

Page 14: Transmedia Literacy

Framework Transmedia requires not just a plot Framework Transmedia requires not just a plot and characters, but a whole world that is and characters, but a whole world that is designed to be incomplete.designed to be incomplete.

This world then interacts socially with a networked culture to This world then interacts socially with a networked culture to create opportunities for exploration, interpretation, and create opportunities for exploration, interpretation, and expansion. expansion.

World without OilWorld without Oil is a massively collaborative vision of the first 32 is a massively collaborative vision of the first 32 weeks of an oil crisis, based on 1,500 blogs, images, and videos.weeks of an oil crisis, based on 1,500 blogs, images, and videos.

Page 15: Transmedia Literacy

What skills will patrons need to participate in a What skills will patrons need to participate in a transmedia world?transmedia world?

Page 16: Transmedia Literacy

My MediaMy MediaEnvironmentsEnvironments

Aggregators Virtual Worlds

Media SharingSocial Networks

SecondLife

FlickrSlideShareYouTubeHuluPodcastsPandora

NetVibesDeliciousDiigo

Twitter Twitter FaceBook FaceBook LlinkedInLlinkedIn

This diagram should also include both blogs This diagram should also include both blogs and online gaming site. and online gaming site.

Transmedia literacy requires familiarity with a Transmedia literacy requires familiarity with a variety of different platforms.variety of different platforms.

Page 17: Transmedia Literacy

Henry Jenkins has defined an Henry Jenkins has defined an extensive set of Transmedia Literacy extensive set of Transmedia Literacy skills. http://www.teachstory.org/?skills. http://www.teachstory.org/?p=535p=535

I am thinking of a simpler set of skills: I am thinking of a simpler set of skills:

the ability to search for, remix, and distribute the ability to search for, remix, and distribute information on various media platforms,information on various media platforms,

the ability to create independently within an the ability to create independently within an integrated vision,integrated vision,

the ability to represent ideas using a combination the ability to represent ideas using a combination of images and text, andof images and text, and

The ability to make effective use of reading from a The ability to make effective use of reading from a screen.screen.

Page 18: Transmedia Literacy

Anne Cranny-Francis says the multimodal Anne Cranny-Francis says the multimodal environment implies not only new technologies environment implies not only new technologies but also new cultural practices.but also new cultural practices.

Information storage is no longer just about text.Information storage is no longer just about text.

Web page design is becoming a critical skill (?).Web page design is becoming a critical skill (?).

Links define reading differently than footnotes.Links define reading differently than footnotes.

It is not either/or, text vs. image literacy, but rather It is not either/or, text vs. image literacy, but rather both, as well as how they interact.both, as well as how they interact.

Chap. 6,“Connexions”, Anne Cranny-Francis, (pg 135-174) Chap. 6,“Connexions”, Anne Cranny-Francis, (pg 135-174) Cyberlines Cyberlines 2.0: Languages and Cultures of the Internet, Donna Gibbs and Kerri-Lee 2.0: Languages and Cultures of the Internet, Donna Gibbs and Kerri-Lee Krause, James Nicholas Publishers, Albert Park, Australia, 2006.Krause, James Nicholas Publishers, Albert Park, Australia, 2006.

Page 19: Transmedia Literacy

Joshua Kim predicts that Joshua Kim predicts that curricular content will be curricular content will be consumed in shorter consumed in shorter chunks, by more non-chunks, by more non-traditional students, traditional students, across multiple times and across multiple times and placesplaces..

Recently, I heard a rep from Pearson say that in five years they expect that only ten percent of their income will come from traditional book publications.

This certainly sounds like transmedia!

Page 20: Transmedia Literacy

A host of sites is A host of sites is available that offer available that offer academic videos and academic videos and video articles.video articles.

Journals are also moving Journals are also moving toward mixed media, toward mixed media, with video articles.with video articles.

How will these be How will these be integrated into the integrated into the library holdings?library holdings?

Page 21: Transmedia Literacy

Transmedia narratives Transmedia narratives often seem to provide often seem to provide incomplete incomplete information.information.

They can change as we They can change as we are looking at them.are looking at them.

The reader must not The reader must not only adjust to only adjust to fragmented fragmented information space, information space, but also to but also to distributed media distributed media spaces.spaces.

Fluidity of Fluidity of KnowledgeKnowledge

Page 22: Transmedia Literacy

How does transmedia affect the library?How does transmedia affect the library?

How can you tie How can you tie together these together these different platforms different platforms in a catalog?in a catalog?

Many components Many components of transmedia are of transmedia are ephemera.ephemera.

By definition, By definition, transmedia transmedia assumes that assumes that traditionally traditionally separate media separate media are coequal. are coequal.

Concept for Stockholm libraryhttp://tinyurl.com/yd8go22

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Moving from atoms Moving from atoms to electrons for to electrons for information storage information storage offers new offers new cataloging options! cataloging options!

AssumeAssume““Everything is Everything is

Miscellaneous!”Miscellaneous!”David WeinbergDavid Weinberg

Page 24: Transmedia Literacy

Typically, courses in Art or Typically, courses in Art or Communications seem more Communications seem more likely to integrate transmedia likely to integrate transmedia literacies into the classroom.literacies into the classroom.

Blandy and Fenn have Blandy and Fenn have created a transmedia created a transmedia course using student course using student groups. (AAD 450 / 550: groups. (AAD 450 / 550: Art and Society). Here is Art and Society). Here is the syllabus.the syllabus.

http://tinyurl.com/387hzzchttp://tinyurl.com/387hzzc

Inanimate Alice is Inanimate Alice is designed to introduce designed to introduce teachers and students to teachers and students to new media literacies.new media literacies.

A free pedagogy pack is A free pedagogy pack is available.available.

http://www.inanimatealice.com/education/

Page 25: Transmedia Literacy

Elsevier is already reimagining the journal Elsevier is already reimagining the journal article with The Article of the Future project.article with The Article of the Future project.http://tinyurl.com/33cb4tdhttp://tinyurl.com/33cb4td

The Elsevier spokesman points out that despite being The Elsevier spokesman points out that despite being online current science articles are still print-based online current science articles are still print-based (though we call it a PDF); still require linear reading, (though we call it a PDF); still require linear reading, and don’t change based on the intended use of the and don’t change based on the intended use of the reader. reader.

They are experimenting with Tabs allow the reader to They are experimenting with Tabs allow the reader to configure the article to focus on just figures and configure the article to focus on just figures and data, the experimental results, or just skim, data, the experimental results, or just skim,

A Graphical Abstract are already becoming common,A Graphical Abstract are already becoming common,

Supplementary data only appears when the reader Supplementary data only appears when the reader chooses to see it. chooses to see it.

Page 26: Transmedia Literacy

The nature of links The nature of links is changing.is changing.

For example, see a free program For example, see a free program called apture called apture (www.apture.com).(www.apture.com).

It lets you look up content It lets you look up content without ever leaving a page.without ever leaving a page.

Imagine what this could do in a textbook.

And you can paste the information into the document.

Page 27: Transmedia Literacy

With special glasses a book can With special glasses a book can become a transmedia object.become a transmedia object.

A drawing A drawing can spring can spring from the from the page into page into 3D.3D.

Virtual tabs

Page 28: Transmedia Literacy

““Reading in a whole Reading in a whole new way.” by Kevin new way.” by Kevin Kelly Kelly http://tinyurl.com/35w4pwshttp://tinyurl.com/35w4pws

Moving between transmedia narratives require real time mental adjustments!

Will MS Kinect have us Will MS Kinect have us scanning a database scanning a database with gestures like a with gestures like a symphony symphony conductor?conductor?

Page 29: Transmedia Literacy

A closing thought:A closing thought:“We are definitely at moment “We are definitely at moment of transition, a moment where of transition, a moment where an old media system is dying an old media system is dying and a new media system is and a new media system is being born.” Henry Jenkinsbeing born.” Henry Jenkins

Thank you for listening.Thank you for listening.Are there any questions or Are there any questions or

comments?comments?

Page 30: Transmedia Literacy

Some references for those who want to Some references for those who want to learn more about transmedia.learn more about transmedia.

Convergence CultureConvergence Culture by Henry Jenkins is by Henry Jenkins is still the classic.still the classic.

““Hyper and Deep Attention: The Hyper and Deep Attention: The Generational Divide in Cognitive Modes” Generational Divide in Cognitive Modes” N. Katherine Hayles, N. Katherine Hayles, ProfessionProfession 2007, pp. 187–199 2007, pp. 187–199 (13)(13)

Christy Dena expands transmedia practices Christy Dena expands transmedia practices beyond the commercial franchise model. beyond the commercial franchise model. http://www.christydena.com/academic-2/phd/ http://www.christydena.com/academic-2/phd/

Jill Walkers article on distributed narratives Jill Walkers article on distributed narratives provides an interesting background to provides an interesting background to talk about transmedia. talk about transmedia. http://tinyurl.com/2fkre6t http://tinyurl.com/2fkre6t