tsar nicholas ii - wordpress.com nicholas ii in world war 1. opposition to romanovs intensifies ......

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  • Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II of

    Romanov family was Tsar at the start of the 1900s

    Was married to an Austrian, Tsarina Alexandra

    Had 4 daughters and 1 son Alexei

  • Tsar Nicholas II and his familly

  • Problems faced by people in Russia under the Tsars

    Poverty, social problems Poor working and living conditions Landowners system Inequality in society (housing, education,

    healthcare, work) Lack of democracy (Duma set up in 1905 but

    had relatively little power) Lack of freedom to express ideas or criticise the


  • Russia in World War I Russia, Britain and

    France (main Allied Powers) faced Austria-Hungary, Germany and Turkey (main Central Powers)

  • Russia did badly in the war

    Lots of suffering, death, injury, destruction of property and food shortages

    Tsar decided to go to lead troops, hoping to inspire them

    Tsar Nicholas II in World War 1

  • Opposition to Romanovs intensifies

    Nicholas left Alexandra in charge

    She was advised and influenced by Rasputin

    Powerful people were unhappy with the situation and decided to stage a coup

  • Rasputin



  • February Revolution and the Provisional Government 1917

    In February 1917 a fairly bloodless revolution saw overthrow of Tsar

    Provisional Government set up until elections could be held

    Kerensky became leader of the Provisional Government

  • Unpopularity of Kerensky and the Provisional Government

    The Provisional Government continued the war with Germany and did not take land from landlords to distribute it to the peasant farmers

    Unpopularity of Provisional Government exploited by Bolsheviks

  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin 1870-1924 Lenin's brother

    executed for plot to kill Tsar

    Lenin thrown out of University for political activity

    Arrested in St. Petersburg in 1897 and sent to Siberia for 5 years

  • Vladimir Ilyich Lenin After his release he

    left Russia Went to Europe

    (England and Switzerland)

    Continued revoltionary activity from there

  • October Revolution 1917 The Provisional

    Government was overthrown in a revolution in October 1917

    Various groups competed for control but eventually the Bolsheviks (Communists) led by Lenin won out

  • The Bolsheviks Social Revolutionaries

    (Communists) were inspired by the ideas on revolution of Karl Marx

    SR split in 1903 into the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks

    Mensheviks believed in mass revolution

    Bolsheviks felt a small group was needed to secretly plan a revolution

  • Lenin returns to Russia 1917 In 1917 the Germans

    helped Lenin to return to Russia by train

    The Germans hoped Lenin would promote unrest or revolution and this would weaken Russia in the war

  • Aims of the Bolsheviks Greater equality and

    social justice Redistribution of

    wealth Workers' Councils to

    run factories Slogans like 'Land,

    Peace, Liberty' proved very popular

  • Changes introduced by Bolsheviks Bolsheviks announced that peace talks with

    Germany to start Bolsheviks said they would confiscate land from

    the landlords All ranks were abolished: social, military, naval,

    aristocratic All citizens to be known as 'comrade'

    Military officers were to be elected by soldiers Better working hours and conditions introduced

    for workers Factories put under control of the workers

  • The Brest Litovsk Treaty In March 1918 Russia signed peace treaty with

    the Germans Russia agreed to give up lots of territory with

    natural resources Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Estonia,

    Lithuania l High price but Bolsheviks wanted an end to war

    to consolidate power at home and deal with opponents of 1917 October Revolution

  • The Cheka Cheka was a secret

    police set up by the Bolsheviks to deal with opponents

    Hundreds of thousands imprisoned or executed

    Led by Dzerzhinsky Tsar and his family

    executed at Ekaterinburg Felix Dzerzhinsky

  • Opposition: Reds versus Whites Many Russians were unhappy with Bolshevik

    rule Nobility, aristocracy, Liberals, Tsarists Other socialist and revolutionary groups who

    had been marginalised or excluded Peasant Farmers (Kulaks) who hoped

    Bolsheviks would redistribute land Ordinary Russians who were still facing food

    shortages and other problems

  • Russian Civil War Bolshevik Red Army (led by Trotsky) fight

    'Whites' (opponents of Bolsheviks) Whites helped by USA, GB, France Czech Legion (led by Kolchak) took control of

    Siberia and Trans-Siberian Railway Denikin attacks from S.E. Russia Yudenith attack from Baltic Poles from West US/GB/French from North (White sea)

  • Trotsky and the Red Army

  • Anti-Bolshevik Poster 1918

  • The Russian Civil War

  • Why the Red Army won the Russian Civil War

    Whites did not win support of peasants (often looted from them etc...)

    Whites not very united (made up of very diverse groups with different politics and aims)

    Whites helped by France, GB etc.. made them seem unpatriotic to many Russians

    France and GB and USA did not send enough troops to make a significant difference (more interested in sorting out own problems by 1919)

    Red Army had a very effective leader Reds more unified geographically

  • The Red Terror The Red Terror was

    used to describe the period where harsh treament was given to anyone seen as opposing the Bolsheviks

    Millions imprisoned or killed during this period

  • War Communism WW1 and Civil War

    caused major disruption to agricultural and industrial production

    Lenin introduced a policy of 'war communism' where the 'means of production' (farms, factories, transport system, etc..) all came under control of the communist government

  • War Communism All private trading banned Strikes banned Food rationed Forced labour introduced Food to feed workers and soldiers requisitioned

    by the communist government Food taken by force from farmers (kulaks) if


  • Problems caused by War Communism Lenin's policy of War Communism helped the

    'Reds' win the civil war But caused hardship and food shortages for

    many Russians Revolts by peasant farmers (Kulaks) Food production fell in many areas because: Peasants had no incentive to produce surplus

    food Bad weather in 1920 & 1921 affected crops This contribute to famine in Russia in 1921-

    1922 in which over 4m people died

  • The Kronstadt Revolt In March 1921 sailors at naval base on

    Kronstadt Island near Petrograd revolted against the Communist Party

    Sailors disappointed by changes since revolution and angry at hardship caused by War Communism

    Sailors demanded reforms and an end to War Communism

    Kronstadt revolt was violently suppressed by Trotsky and the Red Army

  • New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin and communist government were worried

    about falling food production caused by war communism

    New Ecomonic Policy introduced by Lenin in March 1920

    Peasants had to provide a quota of food but could keep surplus which they could sell on if they wished

    Private trading was reintroduced Some small private business allowed to operate Major industries remained in state conrol Foreign trade and investment allowed

  • Lenin's Death Lenin died in 1924 In his 'Political Will' he

    made it clear that Stalin should not become dominant leader after his death

    Various leaders vied for control of the Communist Party's Central Committee after Lenin's death

  • Early life Involvement in politics Imprisoned: Siberia Lives in exile Revolutionary

    plotting/writing 1917 Feb. Rev. Returns

    to Russia 1917 October Rev.

    Bolsheviks Changes introduced:

    ranks, nationalise industries, confiscate land

    Peace: Brest-Litovsk Treaty

    Dealing with opponents/Red Terror/Cheka

    Civil War: Reds vs. Whites

    War Communism Kronstadt Revolt Problems: food

    shortages etc.. NEP (New Economic

    Policy Political will/legacy/




  • About the Communist Party's General Secretary (since 1922), Joseph Stalin, Lenin reported that the "unlimited authority" concentrated in him was unacceptable, and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post." His phrasing, " ", implies "personal rudeness, unnecessary roughness, lack of finesse", flaws "intolerable in a Secretary-General".

  • Early life October Revolution Communist

    government Brest Litovsk Treaty Dealing with

    opposition Civil War War Communism New Economic Policy

    Lenin's Testament

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