turkey is a secular country
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DESCRIPTIONTurkey is a secular country. Rural or urban women take place in social life. Unveiled women vs Veiled women. Along with unvelied women , some of the women in Turkey cover themselves with either traditional-old head scarves or new-Islamist head scarves . traditional-new veiling. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Turkey is a secular country.
Rural or urban women take place in social life
Unveiled women vs Veiled women Along with unvelied women, some of the women in Turkey cover themselves with either traditional-old head scarves or new-Islamist head scarves.
Dressing style has been changing since 1980s in accordance with market economy.
Young Muslim girls have been replacing their long robes with jackets.5Women in Turkey
1. Wife of the President of Turkey. 2. Former Prime Minister/ 3/Current prime ministers wife.4. Businesswomen.5. Supreme court member. 6. Judges.7. Doctor in public service. 8. Doctor in private clinic. (Doctors, judges and lawyers who are female can not serve with a head scarf in public sector but in private sector. The ideology of modern Republic of Turkey,Kemalism, does not allow them to cover their hair in public sector.6Ideology of State: KemalismAfter the foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, the state implemented a series of reforms in order to establish a secular state instead of a religious one. One of them was to adopt a dress code like the European dress code. In 1924, the state passed a bill regarding the adoption of a hat instead of the traditional fez and other traditional head coverings, a ban which under the current constitution may not be lifted.
The main goal was to implement Western values to the society since west was developed.7Transition from veil to hat, 1925.
Before Tukish Republic was not found, girls had started to attended the universities in Turkey in the era of Ottoman Empire in 1915. The religious authority, eyhlislam, in those days wanted them with headscarfs in the classrooms but they were fighting for remove to their headscarves since they sought looking like a Western modern women. Women had to cover themselves at the era of Ottoman Empire as as religious and governmenteal obligation.Things changed in Turkey and new Turkish republich declared itself as a secularist state in 1923 and made some regulations consodilation to modern west. One of the regulations was made the dressing codes. The government accepted a bill which prohibited to use traditional dresses or religious dresses in the public sphere. That bill also enforce the man to get modern hats instead of fez which was a red conic hat . The Turkish Republics new face regarding the women was the same. Most of the women removed their head scarfs and replace them with hats. They believed Islam enforces them to cover their heads with a headscarfs as a religious obligation. They believe they could stay in religion while they looked modern in hats.
8Hat Law of 1925TheHat Law of 1925introduced the use of Western style hats instead of the fez. Legislation did not explicitly prohibit veils or headscarves and focused instead on banning fezzes and turbans for men.
Man was the subject of the ban. Man who resisted to the bills during the first years of the revolution were executed or punished.9Ataturks wife showed up in burqa.Government did not banned women to wear burqa instead some municipals between 1935-1939.
Although black burqa was not banned officially by the government, some municipalities pioneering from the Northern Turkey banned to wear them locally in some provinces. You can see the wife of Ataturk above both in traditional dress and modern dress in public sphere.10Coupe in 1960New constitution was introduced in 1961. New constitution gave more democratic rights in accordance with the political developments in the West. However, religious citizens could not benefit from this liberal rights.School principals and academics at the universities did not allow the girls to get in the school and attend the classes with their head scarfs.CHP which was formed by Ataturk lost the election 1950 and 1955. Democratic Party which held different values then CHP was in the office. In 1960 military took control of the government. 11Hatice BabacanIn 1968, a female university student, Hatice Babacan, refused to remove her headscarf and from then onwards, although there was not a uniformly applied ban, some problems began to arise for students wearing headscarves at universities.
Unlike women accepeted to wear hat or to uncover their head after founding of modern Turkish Republic, most of the women continued covering their heads traditionally. The movement that started 1960s in the USA, affected all over the world including Turkeys religious women. They wanted to their religious freedom with respect to dressing.
13Coupe in 1980Turkey banned to headscarf in the universities in 1982.Military took control in 1980 to protect Turkey from communism. Marxist revolutionaries and nationalist fought all over Turkey. Even family members became enemies because of their political views. Police and army detained a lot of people, tortured or exiled them. They mainly sought a refugee in the West, mostly in Germany where Kurdish movement and religious movement rooted there, both of wich influenced domestic politics of Turkey.14Headscarf was banned in1984 officially.With a constitutional principle of official secularism, the Turkish government has traditionallybannedwomen who wear headscarves from working in thepublicsector. teachers,parliamentarians,femalelawyersandjournalists,and others working on state premises.
Women who covered their heads can be served but cannot serve in public sector.15Students could not attend the classes with their headscarves
As I mentioned before some girls and women accepted hats instead of headscarf, most of the women resisted it since they believed they must cover not only their head but also their neck as well as their chest according to Koran, the holly book of Islam. Wives of some of the politicians had hats in order to convice the girls to have hats. But it did not work.Girls who wanted to attend the universities started defending that they had rights to be educated without removing their headscarfs at the beginng of 1960. Headscarf issue bacame a problem between students and state after 1965. Altough some girls graduated from Medical Schools from 1950s to 1960s. They did not cover their heads in the calssrooms.Conflict between religious univetsity students and state became more serious 1980s. While authorities like deans or chansellors forced the girls to go away from capus because they covered their heads,however girls stand up to authority with their headscarfs.(In tose years secuity would chect us and our purses before we get in the classrooms.)Incompatibiliy decisions of The Counsil of Higher Education followed each other. The Counsil of Higher Education prohibited the veilining 1982 while it liberated the other way of veiling which is called turban 1984, that only covers the hair but neck. In 1986, the Counsil of Higher Education empowered the liberation again. Then, the president of Turkish republic Colonel Kenan Evren who was the pioner of the que de ta in 1980 in Turkey got involved the dispute between the state and the students and the counsil banned the headscarf again. Altought the ruling party or governmet enacted two laws in 1988 and set a liberty for the students with headscarf, the president veto it in 1988. After a bill was pass by ruling party late 1988 again and admitted to the attendance the calsses with headscarfs in universities, the persident appealed the bill at the supreme court.In 1989, girls could not atten the classes with their headscarf. 1990 the ruling party modified a law and set the attendance to the classes free in universities. Then, students could not have their right at supreme court and the appeal courts in Turkey after 1997. 16Rulings of courtsIn 2000, Nuray Bezirgan, a Turkish female student, wore a headscarf at her college final exams. A Turkish court sentenced her to six months jail. The European Court of Human Rightsupheld the ban in 2004, saying the rules on dress were "necessary" and did not violate theEuropean Convention on Human Rights.In October 2006, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the university ban again, rejecting a complaint filed by another Turkish university student, Leyla ahin
A students appeal it to European Court of Human Rights; however, they could not find a solution for themselves.
17Trakya University April 27, 2011
University rectors (chancellors) are appointed by the President of Republic of Turkey. Chancellors have started allowing student attend the classes in 2012 and 2013.18In the parliament:In May 1999, the ban on headscarves in the public sphere hit the headlines whenMerve Kavakwas prevented from taking her oath in theNational Assemblybecause she wore a headscarf. She was the newly elected of Istanbul of the pro-IslamistVirtue Party.19Dispute on headscarf
Not only students but also civil servants, women want to work for governmet with headscarf as medical doctor, lawyer, judge etc, as well as teacher who work for goverment or private sector and also politicians themself. Altough many women work in a political party they can not be deputy in the parlaiment with their headscarf. They have to remove it before they get in the building of the parlaiment. Two women was elected as deputy at the elections of 1999, however one of them, Merve Kavak , was disqualifed by the supreme court and lost the membership of the parlaiment whereas Nesrinnal removed her headscarf when she was at the parlaiment.
20AK Party and headscarfAfter winning areferendumin September 2010, the ruling AKP vowed to support any student who was disciplined for wearing the headscarf on a university campus. While this goes against the Constitutional Court ruling of 2008, most universities have started permitting students to wear the headscarf on campus. AKP is one of the of springs of Prosperity Party, which is