uncommon ancestors

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  • 1. Uncommon Ancestors Razib Khan A fashionable Neanderthal ancestor in feathers

2. In the beginning.... 3. Charles Darwin,up from apes 4. Out of Africa, according to Darwin

  • Monogenism, all races have a common origin

5. vs. polygenism, dominant position 6. Modern scientific polygenism 7. Modern scientific monogenism 8. 1987, Out of Africamonogenism victorious! 9. Cultural impact of Out of Africa 10. 1987,mitochondrial Eve

  • Africans basal

11. Africans more diverse 12. Non-Africans branch of Africans 13. Implies recent African origin of all of humanity 14. Consensus since 1987

  • Y chromosomal Adam indicates African origin

15. The total genome supports African origin 16. Skulls don't lie, Africans had modern skulls first 17. How about Neanderthals?

  • Ancient mtDNA was extracted and compared to modern human mtDNA

18. In a sentence.....

  • Everyone alive today is descended from a small group of African hominins who flourished 100-200,000 years ago, and whose descendants left their home continent and replaced all other human lineages in totality

19. Case closed, we won, they lost? 20. 2010, The End of the Orthodoxy

  • Researchers extracted DNA from fossils, and reconstructed the genomes of ancient humans, and compared them to modern populations

21. How Do These Populations Relate 22. How Do They Relate To Us 23. Top line, circa 2011

  • All non-Africans have 2.5% Neanderthal ancestry

24. Living Archaic Humans 25. The Neanderthal (gene) in my family

  • Dystrophin gene, skeletal and muscular development

26. ~10% of non-Africans have a Neanderthal dystrophin variant

  • A sequence of markers which seems to match the one in the Neanderthal reference genome

27. About dystrophin

  • On X, so men have 1 copy, women 2

28. Is why most of Jerry's kids are male 29. Big gene, huge RNA transcript 30. Critical to skeletal muscle development 31. Me, myself, & genotyping

  • Who carries the Neanderthal haplotype?

32. My Neanderthal brother?

  • I share 53% of genes with my brother, 1 standard deviation above the expected value

33. We look very similar.... 34. Except, he is considerably more robust 35. Coincidence? 36. More than just ancestry

  • In the near future you will likely be able to know which genes you carry the Neanderthal variants

37. Who cares?

  • Many of you have been part Neanderthal your whole life. Now you know!

38. Are you inferior to those who aren't part Neanderthal? 39. Or are they inferior to you? 40. Does Neanderthal make you superior, and Denisovan make Papuans inferior? 41. Are we no longer brothers?

  • In 1988, in reaction to mitochondrial Eve Stephen Jay Gould stated:"If it's correct, and I'd put money on it, this idea is tremendously important," says Stephen Jay Gould, the Harvard paleontologist and essayist. "It makes us realize that all human beings, despite differences in external appearance, are really members of a single entity that's had a very recent origin in one place. There is a kind f biological brotherhood that's much more profound than we ever realized."'