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Unit 15 Creative problem Solving Approach: TRIZ. CSEM04: Risk and Opportunities of Systems Change in Organisations Dr Lynne Humphries Prof. Helen M Edwards. Overview. Background History of TRIZ development: TRIZ Development, TRIZ Teaching What is TRIZ? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Risk Assessment of Systems Change CSEM04: Risk and Opportunities of Systems Change in Organisations
Dr Lynne Humphries
What is TRIZ?
How TRIZ works
The TRIZ Domain
TRIZ Contradictions
Smart Little People
Background
We heard about the beginnings of TRIZ when we looked at the “9 boxes” approach
The approach originated in Russia
It was developed by a patent engineer named Altshuller, starting in the 1940s.
It started being used in the Western World since the 1990s.
For example it has been taught in the UK for the last 7 years by Oxford Creativity (Karen Gadd and Henry Strickland) and others.
Slide No:
What is TRIZ?
“TRIZ is a system of several powerful tools for problem analysis, understanding and solution in any scientific, technological or administrative field.
ARIZ, the algorithm of inventive problem solving, may be used as a guide through a problem solving process showing how and when to apply the TRIZ tools.
However, each of the tools can be applied separately according to the problem situation.”
Bauer-Kurz, I (1999) A Comparison of the Global-8D-Process and TRIZ.The Triz Institute. Online article at :
[http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2000/07/c/]
Altshuller worked in the Soviet Navy’s Patent Office.
He was in a position to recognise:
the duplication in effort of the thousands of technologists and scientists who filed patents
Each was working in a specialised area
and did not know of solutions that existed to similar problems but in different disciplines
This insight was innovative
but largely researchers work within their own disciplines
Slide No:
Altshuller published a paper and wrote to Stalin
he said could bring about an end to the chaos, duplication and ignorance in the Russian approaches to invention and innovation.
He said he had uncovered theories which would help any engineer and
could lead to a revolution in the technical world.
Altshuller was arrested and charged with inventor’s sabotage
after torture and interrogation he was sentenced to 25 years in prison in Siberia.
Slide No:
Altshuller set out to
categorise all the solutions in the design patents to identify all the innovative ways to solve any problem.
Altshuller hoped
To prove his theory
So that he could get scientists and engineers to work together,
without duplication, and
end the growing practice of each discipline “toiling in their own silos”
Slide No:
TRIZ Development
The TRIZ tools were developed in Russia by engineers with thousands of man-years of work (and many women-years).
Over 200,000 patents were analysed
However, TRIZ was banned from the 1970s onwards in Russia.
Slide No:
TRIZ development
In the 1990’s many TRIZ scholars left Russia and began to successfully introduce TRIZ to the rest of the world,
Something Altshuller was aware of before he died.
Alsthuller died in 1998 having suffered from Parkinson’s disease in his latter years.
Slide No:
TRIZ Teaching
Russia 30-50 years ago had a very different culture to our own and time was not of the essence for them.
to learn TRIZ the Russian way takes at least 3 months.
The method is rigorous, requires great application of thought and lots of worked examples.
This approach is not practical in the Western World.
Other approaches to training have been developed for this context.
For example: Oxford Creativity has created TRIZ courses which
do not compromise the thoroughness or rigour of TRIZ
but will give an understanding and use of the best TRIZ tools in two courses which last 5 days in total .
Oxford Creativity has 4 stages to TRIZ qualification:TRIZ Aware, TRIZ Tyro, TRIZ Champion and TRIZ Problem Solver.
Helen and Lynne are both TRIZ Champions
Slide No:
A problem solving toolkit: the principal TRIZ tools direct us
to find all the ways of solving a problem,
to find new concepts and
the routes for developing new products.
TRIZ has simple general lists of how to solve any problem:
these “solution triggers” are distilled from analysing all known engineering success.
There are also tools for
problem understanding,
Slide No:
TRIZ offers a systematic process for stimulating innovation
The aim is to accelerate creative problem solving for both individuals and project teams by following the TRIZ approach and following its rules
Why is this process desirable?
Companies that successfully apply TRIZ are not dependent on:
 the spontaneous and occasional creativity of individuals,
(or groups of engineers, within their organisation).
Slide No:
system tools for everything from invention to improving.
TRIZ can complement other problem solving toolkits.
It has been used as a valuable addition to
Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, KT, Value Engineering etc.
This is especially valuable when you need innovation, and to find powerful solutions.
Slide No:
TRIZ is a set of powerful tools which help us
Understand, list and prioritise what we want (all our requirements)
Understand, analyse and map the right systems (and locate the right systems) for delivering what we want
Identify the problems (the gaps between our requirements and the system)
Solve the Problems to get the right system for our needs and get the system working right
Slide No:
What we
Slide No:
N.B. techniques with “” have been introduced in this module
Thinking in Time and Space [Nine Boxes]

Contradictions
Diagram from http://www.triz-journal.com/whatistriz/index.htm
TRIZ recognizes two categories of contradictions:
Technical contradictions are the classical engineering “trade-offs.” The desired state can’t be reached because something else in the system prevents it. In other words, when something gets better, something else gets worse. Classical examples include
The product gets stronger (good) but the weight increases (bad)
The bandwidth increases (good) but requires more power (bad)
Service is customized to each customer (good) but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad.)
The automobile airbag should deploy very fast, to protect the occupant (good) but the faster it deploys, the more likely it is to injure or kill small people or out of position people (bad)
Physical contradictions are situations where one object has contradictory, opposite requirements. Everyday examples abound:
Surveillance aircraft should fly fast ( to get to the destination) but should fly slowly to collect data directly over the target for long time periods.
Software should be easy to use, but should have many complex features and options.
Coffee should be hot, for enjoyable drinking, but cold, to prevent burning the customer
Training should be thorough and not take any time
The automobile airbag should deploy quickly and slowly.
The automobile airbag should deploy at high threshold and low threshold.
The TRIZ research has identified 40 principles that solve the Technical contradictions and four principles of separation that solve the Physical contradictions. As in the case of the air bag deployment threshold, many problems can be stated as both physical and technical contradictions. When using the TRIZ research findings, in general the most comprehensive solutions come from using the physical contradiction formulation, and the most prescriptive solutions come from using the technical contradiction. In terms of learning, people usually learn to solve technical contradictions first, since the method is very concrete, then learn to solve physical contradictions, then learn to use both methods interchangeably, depending on the problem.
The TRIZ patent research classified 39 features for technical contradictions. Once a contradiction is expressed in the technical contradiction form (the trade-off) the next step is locate the features in the Contradiction Matrix.
CSEM04 ROSCO Unit 15
Technical contradictions
classical engineering “trade-offs.”
The desired state can’t be reached because something else in the system prevents it.
when something gets better, something else gets worse. Classical examples include
The bandwidth increases (good) but requires more power (bad)
Service is customized to each customer (good) but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad.)
Physical contradictions:where one object has contradictory (opposite) requirements. E.g.
Software should be easy to use, but should have many complex features and options.
Coffee should be hot, for enjoyable drinking, but cold, to prevent burning the customer
Training should be thorough and not take any time
Slide No:
TRIZ recognizes two categories of contradictions:
Technical contradictions are the classical engineering “trade-offs.” The desired state can’t be reached because something else in the system prevents it. In other words, when something gets better, something else gets worse. Classical examples include
The product gets stronger (good) but the weight increases (bad)
The bandwidth increases (good) but requires more power (bad)
Service is customized to each customer (good) but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad.)
The automobile airbag should deploy very fast, to protect the occupant (good) but the faster it deploys, the more likely it is to injure or kill small people or out of position people (bad)
Physical contradictions are situations where one object has contradictory, opposite requirements. Everyday examples abound:
Surveillance aircraft should fly fast ( to get to the destination) but should fly slowly to collect data directly over the target for long time periods.
Software should be easy to use, but should have many complex features and options.
Coffee should be hot, for enjoyable drinking, but cold, to prevent burning the customer
Training should be thorough and not take any time
The automobile airbag should deploy quickly and slowly.
The automobile airbag should deploy at high threshold and low threshold.
The TRIZ research has identified 40 principles that solve the Technical contradictions and four principles of separation that solve the Physical contradictions. As in the case of the air bag deployment threshold, many problems can be stated as both physical and technical contradictions. When using the TRIZ research findings, in general the most comprehensive solutions come from using the physical contradiction formulation, and the most prescriptive solutions come from using the technical contradiction. In terms of learning, people usually learn to solve technical contradictions first, since the method is very concrete, then learn to solve physical contradictions, then learn to use both methods interchangeably, depending on the problem.
The TRIZ patent research classified 39 features for technical contradictions. Once a contradiction is expressed in the technical contradiction form (the trade-off) the next step is locate the features in the Contradiction Matrix.
CSEM04 ROSCO Unit 15
The TRIZ patent research classified 39 features for technical contradictions.
Once a contradiction is expressed in the technical contradiction form (the trade-off) the next step is locate the features in the Contradiction Matrix.
4 principles of separation that solve the Physical contradictions.
Slide No:
TRIZ recognizes two categories of contradictions:
Technical contradictions are the classical engineering “trade-offs.” The desired state can’t be reached because something else in the system prevents it. In other words, when something gets better, something else gets worse. Classical examples include
The product gets stronger (good) but the weight increases (bad)
The bandwidth increases (good) but requires more power (bad)
Service is customized to each customer (good) but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad.)
The automobile airbag should deploy very fast, to protect the occupant (good) but the faster it deploys, the more likely it is to injure or kill small people or out of position people (bad)
Physical contradictions are situations where one object has contradictory, opposite requirements. Everyday examples abound:
Surveillance aircraft should fly fast ( to get to the destination) but should fly slowly to collect data directly over the target for long time periods.
Software should be easy to use, but should have many complex features and options.
Coffee should be hot, for enjoyable drinking, but cold, to prevent burning the customer
Training should be thorough and not take any time
The automobile airbag should deploy quickly and slowly.
The automobile airbag should deploy at high threshold and low threshold.
The TRIZ research has identified 40 principles that solve the Technical contradictions and four principles of separation that solve the Physical contradictions. As in the case of the air bag deployment threshold, many problems can be stated as both physical and technical contradictions. When using the TRIZ research findings, in general the most comprehensive solutions come from using the physical contradiction formulation, and the most prescriptive solutions come from using the technical contradiction. In terms of learning, people usually learn to solve technical contradictions first, since the method is very concrete, then learn to solve physical contradictions, then learn to use both methods interchangeably, depending on the problem.
The TRIZ patent research classified 39 features for technical contradictions. Once a contradiction is expressed in the technical contradiction form (the trade-off) the next step is locate the features in the Contradiction Matrix.
CSEM04 ROSCO Unit 15
Using Contradictions
Many problems can be stated as both physical and technical contradictions. In general:
the most comprehensive solutions come from using the physical contradiction formulation,
the most prescriptive solutions come from using the technical contradiction.
In terms of learning,
since the method is very concrete,
then learn to solve physical contradictions,
then learn to use both methods interchangeably, depending on the problem.
Slide No:
TRIZ recognizes two categories of contradictions:
Technical contradictions are the classical engineering “trade-offs.” The desired state can’t be reached because something else in the system prevents it. In other words, when something gets better, something else gets worse. Classical examples include
The product gets stronger (good) but the weight increases (bad)
The bandwidth increases (good) but requires more power (bad)
Service is customized to each customer (good) but the service delivery system gets complicated (bad.)
The automobile airbag should deploy very fast, to protect the occupant (good) but the faster it deploys, the more likely it is to injure or kill small people or out of position people (bad)
Physical contradictions are situations where one object has contradictory, opposite requirements. Everyday examples abound:
Surveillance aircraft should fly fast ( to get to the destination) but should fly slowly to collect data directly over the target for long time periods.
Software should be easy to use, but should have many complex features and options.
Coffee should be hot, for enjoyable drinking, but cold, to prevent burning the customer
Training should be thorough and not take any time
The automobile airbag should deploy quickly and slowly.
The automobile airbag should deploy at high threshold and low threshold.
The TRIZ research has identified 40 principles that solve the Technical contradictions and four principles of separation that solve the Physical contradictions. As in the case of the air bag deployment threshold, many problems can be stated as both physical and technical contradictions. When using the TRIZ research findings, in general the most comprehensive solutions come from using the physical contradiction formulation, and the most prescriptive solutions come from using the technical contradiction. In terms of learning, people usually learn to solve technical contradictions first, since the method is very concrete, then learn to solve physical contradictions, then learn to use both methods interchangeably, depending on the problem.
The TRIZ patent research classified 39 features for technical contradictions. Once a contradiction is expressed in the technical contradiction form (the trade-off) the next step is locate the features in the Contradiction Matrix.
CSEM04 ROSCO Unit 15
Move to the super-system or the sub-system (use 9 boxes)
Slide No:
Smart Little People
A creativity tool for breaking the “psychological inertia” caused by specialist terminology/knowledge
Helps in analysing systems at the micro-level.
It is especially useful in brainstorming sessions.
Using Smart Little People (SLP): you imagine
the system you are analysing consists of many clever, ingenious small objects or people,
These can make decisions
Smart Little People (SLP) looks at the micro-level
SLP is helpful to understand the problem on a micro-level and to identify the zone of conflict.
Why does the varnish not cover heater parts at certain spots?’.
The knowledgeable engineer may answer: ‘The varnish does not stick to the metal surface if the surface is dirty.
This is a sign that the cleaning bath is not effective.
This aspect leads us to redefine the problem:
The bath for cleaning heaters before coating becomes dirty and ineffective, instead of
the quality control shows defects in varnish of heaters’
Slide No:
Ideality
The formulation of the ideal final result for the case study is:
Every heater is evenly coated with varnish all by itself.
Slide No:
SLP Modelling
The modelling shown in the figure [Figure 6 from the paper] may also suggest that an imperfect surface structure is partially responsible for the varnish defects.
Slide No:
Some solutions from
the contradictions matrix
Apply the 40 standard solutions, as suggested in the contradiction matrix, to the problem VARNISH DEFECTS
[these are presented in order of their number of occurrences: since the principles recurring the most often are considered most likely to solve the problem].
4 x No 10: Preliminary Action. E.g:
a preliminary cleaning step: if the parts are sandblasted or rinsed with pressurized water before the chemical cleaning bath, the bath does not deteriorate as fast, or
measures taken not to make the heater parts dirty in the first place: to prevent the parts from getting dirty, the workers should use only suitable hand crème or wear clean gloves when touching the parts.
4 x No 28: Mechanics Substitution. E.g:
the varnishing is done electrostatically: can the cleaning be done in a similar manner? Can the cleaning solution be an electrolyte solution using charged particles to separate dirt particles from metal surfaces, and transport and deposit the dirt to a waste deposit surface?
Slide No:
4 x No 35: Parameter Changes. E.g:
The cleaning solution would be easily recyclable if it evaporated after cleaning, leaving the dirt at the vessel ground as solid residue. Is dirt, especially grease, more easily solvable at higher temperatures? If so, it is well worth heating the metal parts or the cleaning bath.
3 x No 1: Segmentation. E.g:
The degree of fragmentation of the production process is increased by introducing a stage of pre-cleaning of the heater parts. This solution leads to a similar action as suggested already with the solution principle “Preliminary Action”, and also similar to the G8D solution alternative 6.
3 x No 18: Mechanical Vibration. E.g:
Can cleaning be done with ultrasonic devices? Can vibrational motion of the part or in the cleaning bath enhance the efficiency of the bath?
2 x No 22: Blessing in Disguise. E.g:
Could the chemical waste of the cleaning process be used to produce something? Could the metal pieces left over from the production of heater parts be recycled?
Slide No:
CSEM04 ROSCO Unit 15
Systems Analysis/ Problem Solution
Thinking of the system like this helps make sure everyone really understands how the system works,
It’s a very good way of explaining complex situations
as they can be broken down into smaller, more digestible parts.
Once you have analysed your problem context with SLP,
You think of ways they could solve your problem, by acting alone or as a group,
ie what they would have to do to solve the problem.
This is then translated into a feasible solution.
Slide No:
Introduction to the lesson. Problem 1.  “a disappeared parcel”
A post office receives an insured parcel that when sent was 8 kilograms and with a high value insurance.
On receipt at the delivery post office the weight turned to be much less. 
The customer collecting them demanded compensation for the damage. 
What’s wrong?      Let’s consider the problem about a ”disappeared parcel”.
IF         a parcel becomes rotten during transportation,
THEN     its weight decreases,
BUT       this will be noticeable at once.     
Find opposite properties: A parcel must be heavy, to be announced valuable,
And it must be light to let its receiver demand compensation for the loss.     
Articulate an ideal solution: The parcel is losing its weight by ITSELF.      
What resources exist for solution of this problem: the contents of the parcel.     
Method of solving contradictions: in time – first it is heavy, then later it is light.     
Solution:
(If you have already guessed the clue of this nearly…

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