victec and empathic interfaces
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONVICTEC and Empathic Interfaces. Ruth Aylett Ana Paiva. What does VICTEC stand for?. V : Virtual ICT : Information Communication Technology E : Empathic C : Characters. Inspired by theatre. Use of performance to dramatise the problem Theatre in Education Linked workshops - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
VICTEC and Empathic Interfaces
ICT: Information Communication
What does VICTEC stand for?
Inspired by theatre
Use of performance to dramatise the problem Theatre in Education
Linked workshops But is not a cheap option
In every group some will be bullying others Interaction is limited in conventional performance
Forum theatre (Boal)
An interactive form of theatre Sections of audience ‘own’ a character The actor meets them ‘in role’ and discusses
actionsCan only act ‘in character’
Episodic performanceActor can halt an episode to ask for more advice
Hard to manage in school environment
Implementing a Virtual Forum Theatre
3D interactive graphics and virtual actors - synthetic characters
Individual interaction based on creating empathy with the characters
Computer game technology - but NOT a game! Provide a safe environment for children to explore
different perspectives on bullying behaviour.
What are Intelligent SyntheticCharacters?
A synthetic character is a digital or physical entity with personality that can interact with people in real time. Computer games characters are not very intelligent Do not remember anything about interaction Hard to believe in them as personalities Thus hard to create empathy with them
How realistic should they be?
We want them to be believable Is believability the same as realism? We believe in Mickey Mouse…
Characters that are NEARLY realistic may be ‘creepy’ We have high expectations And then they clash with them
Already much experience in animation
(1) via the situation- the observer concludes the emotional state of the target from the situation the target is dealing with.
(2) via emotional expressions - the observer interprets the behaviour of the target: for example, when a target cries this means that he/she is probably sad.
Empathic Synthetic Agents
Users experience Empathic emotions
Characters show empathy towards users and other
""empathic synthetic agent" as empathic synthetic agent" as "an agent that is able"an agent that is able
to perceive and have an to perceive and have an internal representation of the internal representation of the other agent's emotions and/or other agent's emotions and/or experiencing an appropriate experiencing an appropriate emotion as a consequenceemotion as a consequence
"empathy triggering synthetic agent" empathy triggering synthetic agent" as "an agent that is able to, by itsas "an agent that is able to, by itsbehaviour and features, allow the behaviour and features, allow the
users to build an empathicusers to build an empathicrelation with it"relation with it"
Mediation by situation
Depends on narrative engagement Collection of narratives from children
Using Kar2ouche story-boarding tool Observation of dramatic performance Scripting of dramas by drama students
Performances by Uni Herts students
Narratives should be: believable, dramatic, somewhat unpredictable
Mediation by emotional expression
Expressive behaviour linked to internal state modelling character’s affect
Facial Expression (expressive facial expressions that include emotions and communication signals)
Voice Body expression, posture and gestures
Designing Characters in VICTEC: Mediating empathy through facial expression
Designing Characters in VICTEC: Mediating empathy though body expression
Designing Characters in VICTEC: Mediating empathy through exaggeration
Through body expression and animation
Through posture and facial expression
• Current Text-to-Speech technology is inadequate
•Real Voice must be used to emphasize emotional content
Engaging the user
The character must be believable No rerun - what happens counts Different scenarios and characters
Emerging story as in improvisational drama, not pre-scripted
Acting as an ‘invisible friend’. Tamagotchis seemed to evoke empathy Give advice about dealing with the situation and
see what happens
Not the finished software, but how we think it is going to look
Capturing affective responses
Creating an affective loop FearNot! Attempts to evoke empathy in the user How could one produce an empathic response to
the user? Requires ability to detect affective state of the
Interaction using Sentoy
Intelligent Physical InterfaceAims at making the bridge between the real and virtual worlds, extending and enhancing the child-system interactions
Hardware of SenToy
Magnet (on off)
Pressure sensors(4 positions each)
Accelerometer(x, y, z angles)
• Sensors size / number• Sensors capabilities• Battery vs Autonomy• Has to handled by children (not too heavy but also robust)
Validation of Embodiment
A Teddy, a puppet and a Barbie were tested - They had to express emotions and actions with
every dolls: - The subjects preferred a neutral expression (Barbie and Teddy)
- The doll had to be malleable (Teddy)
The teddy was easier to handle, more flexible and allowed the free expression of emotions / actions
Built-in patterns for emotion recognition
Gestures Emotions Reference
Put the toy's hands in front of it's eyes or moving the toy backwards
According to Lazarus fear is associated with avoidance.
Moving the toy slightly backwards (squeezing it slightly)
DISGUSTAccording to Lazarus action tendencies for disgust include “move away”, nausea and even vomiting.
Swinging the toy (putting it dancing) and/or playing with its arms
HAPPINESSJoy is portrayed with open arms, movements such as clapping or rhythmic movement according to Darwin.
Bend down its neck or bend down all the toy's trunk
SADNESSAccording to Scherer sadness is expressed through slow movement inwards and head down.
To place its arms crosswise or shake the toy vigorously ANGER
According to Lazarus anger is associated with “tendency to attack”
Open its arms backwards inclining its trunk slightly backwards too
According to Laban surprise is associated with attention and with a sudden event and inclination of trunk backwards. “A surprise person often raises his opened hands high above his head, or by bending his arms only to the level of his face”.
Swing the legs forward and backward alternately or moving the toy forward with
A bouncing jump in the vertical JUMP
To bend down and move the arm like it was picking something or moving the toy
like it was divingPICK
The Data from the sensors is passed through radio into a receiver connected with the computer.
Then some signal processing occurs that filters the information, detects patterns and send it to a specific application integration module that provides the semantic.
Sentoy in Victec
Roles of SenToy in the Interaction: Out-of-scenario interaction
As an embodiment of the user (toy as best friend). Number of toys is big restriction for evaluation
In-scenario As a form of transparently enriching the experience.
As inspirational input to the character (eg. cheering) As a non-intrusive recording device
Event for 400 children in June 2004 at University of Hertfordshire: Virtually friends: Social role-play with robots and
agents Questionnaire and interaction with the software Activities with the robots used in research
Challenges - 1
There IS no easy answer No strategy always works Tension between realism and a straightforward message Do we have to present a happy ending?
Producing believable characters and varying scenarios Pushing the technology here Especially language for unscripted interaction
Challenges - 2 Cultural differences
There is no word exactly equivalent to ‘bullying’ in German or Portuguese
School uniform and other differences Where bullying takes place
No school dinners in GermanyChildren unaccompanied to school
Now extending work to China...