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VIDEO EDITING UNIT 1,16,29 TASK 4 By Talia Vachman

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Video editing

Video editingunit 1,16,29Task 4By Talia Vachman

Some History ofVideo EditingCinematography which was a device that projected motion pictures was an invention founded by the Lumiere brothers in 1895.Films today can be very entertaining and are quite popular, however in the early days of this invention, a film would simply be one long projected motion picture, with no editing and so could be long and boring and show nothing worth seeing that the public couldnt see in person. It was said by the inventor of film himself that cinematography had no future.Then Edwin S. Porter changed it, and used footage to change the original meaning of a story to something more interesting, and showed that film didnt have to be one excessively long film, but could be made entertaining.In 1908 D.W Griffiths For Love of Gold film features the first ever continuity cut in a scene. It was then realised that emotion could be portrayed through the camera angles and editing as well as the actors themselves, starting off the development that lead to film editing today.

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF VIDEO EDITING?Video editing is the process of changing, cutting segments and altering a video, piecing together raw video footage in a (rational) sequence to create a final video product which suits ones desired result.Editing is a powerful tool as it can create transitions with special effects and alter time and space to a motion video production. It also has the authority to decide what viewers may be able to interpret in the video through how it is used, for example, the use of special effects may help to give a futuristic tone to a Science fiction film to make it more believable. Special effects and some of the editing techniques you will learn about in this presentation such as match on action, fading in and out, etc. can also help draw in the attention of the audience and enhance the quality of the footage.Editing may also allow the viewer to understand certain emotions of characters which otherwise would not be able to be expressed in a clear way and so is a really important part of the making of a film. For example, the use of cutting from one person to another in a conversation helps the viewer to understand the perspectives of both characters instead of just one, so that they are then able to understand the effect one persons words may have on the other.Today, a Director spends the majority of his time with the Editor of a film out fo all the crew members.

The Principles of Video Editing:StorytellingCreating paceCombination of shotsThe 180 degree rule

STORYLINE AND STORYTELLING This is the process of piecing together scenes in a way that the audience can be told a story so that a message can be clearly delivered.The plot of a story can be told in different ways; it can be done in a linear narrative which means that the events of the story are told in the order in which they occur, or it can be done in a non-linear narrative which shows the events in a different order to which they took place. The latter may be used to attract the attention of the audience, as the beginning may leave them confused and they would have to keep watching to understand what is happening. A film/ video can also have a closed storyline where the story is resolved at the end or an open-ended storyline which is an incomplete ending or cliff-hanger, leaving it open to interpretation.The scenes may be cut in time with the beat which helps create certain moods, too. For example, a quick beat with fast cuts may help to build up suspense in an action film, and as it gains speed, draws in the full attention of the viewer before reaching the climax in a scene.

EXAMPLESThe animation film How To Train Your Dragon is a linear narrative film that has a resolved conclusion at the end and so is an example of a film with a closed storyline.Home Alone(1990), Pirates of the Caribbean (2003), Wild Child (2008) are all some examples of linear narrative films, where the events that take place in them are set in a chronological order.The film Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) is an example of a non linear narrative film as it goes back and forth from present day to events from the past of an old lady.

CREATING PACEThe pace created in a film may slow down or speed up in specific part of the scenes in a film or video depending on the action taking place and the effect the director want it to give to the audience. The pace creates the mood that the director want to convey.Action films for example, would most likely use a fast pace, particularly during a fight scene or a chase, cutting quickly between shots to match the pace of the film, whereas a romance film would perhaps take on a slower pace so that the emotions and the small details of scene are paid closer attention to.An example of a fast paced scene is in the James Bond film Skyfall (2012) where James Bond is on a mission to find a man -

COMBINATION OF SHOTSThis is combining a mixture of shot types in varies angles to attract an audiences attention and construct settings, relationships and emotions that may be introduced in a scene. This may be used in an action film, for example, during a car chase. The camera might quickly cut from a wide shot of both cars to a close up of the drivers face to the wheels of the car, etc. so that the scenes dramatic edge is emphasised to give the full impact unto the viewer and keep it engaging and interesting.This may also help the viewer gain a better understanding of the scene and what each character feels in the midst of a fast pace scene.The animation film Incredibles (2001) and Mr and Mrs Smith are example of films that had intense action scenes at some point during the film This clip below is also an example of a combination of shots from the James Bond film Skyfall (2012) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCEqYlrrOq0

THE 180 DEGREE RULEThis rule states that once two or more actors/characters have been established on a certain side of the screen, than they must remain on that side throughout the edit, regardless of how the camera angles may vary.Sometimes this rule may be broken. This is because by breaking this rule, the audience watching may become disoriented and confused as, for example, it may seem as though two actors facing each other may be looking in the same direction. If a director is filming a scene where he wants to portray a feeling of confusion to match the characters mood, he may break this rule to emphasise this feeling onto the audience as it would have a disorientating effect on the viewer(s).When the camera passes over the invisible axis of the two subjects, it is called crossing the line, and the shot becomes a reverse angle', which may be used to give more perspective to the viewer and reveals what both side may be feeling during a confrontation. Some examples of this are over the shoulder shots, angled shots, left/right alternating shots, or even a combination of all three.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0xiCIMIwLY

BREAKING THE 180 DEGREE RULESome film makers decide to break this rule in certain scenes in order to gain a certain visual result that can help the scene create the right impact on the audience, that otherwise, may not be possible.Of course, there are only a few times when it may be possible to use it correctly as it can easily confuse the audience (though in some films, that is the effect the Director is looking for). It may be particularly confusing if the characters are making lots of movement and action.In the 1980 film The Shining breaks this rule during the hallucination of a character. This helps the audience to share his disoriented state of mind and understand that something is not quite right, giving the right effect that otherwise, would not be able to be conveyed in such a direct manner. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oF_5k4AWTFw (second scene shown in clip)

Shot Reverse ShotShot reverse - shot helps the audience understand what is happening in a scene better as they get to see both sides the people in a confrontation or certain situations.This is how to works: Character A looks at character B. Then the shot cuts to character B looking at Character A and then the camera goes back to the original shot.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vc1UqeHhjeo - Twilight (2008) in Chemistry class https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIxGhLILsNs Mr and Mrs Smith (2005) shooting scenehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0xiCIMIwLY Spiderman (2001), when the father of Peters best friend becomes a villain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1Ey0a6LJRA Hunger Games (2012) Katniss and Peta talk

EDITING TECHNIQUESContinuity EditingFade in/Fade outParallel EditingShot Reverse ShotMatch on ActionSuperimpositionDissolveEllipsisWipeJump Cut

CONTINUITY EDITINGContinuity editing is ensuring that the mise-en-scene is kept constant throughout cuts in a video so that the transition from each shot flows smoothly. This means that the settings of each scene as well as the props and costumes used are without fault or error by changing something in the same scene after a cut.It is important that this is kept constant throughout any film as it keeps the audience under the influence of the story and gives the film a more realistic impresstion, rather than creating a distraction away from the plot and drawing the viewers focus on technical issues and faults of the film.An example of a continuity mistake is in The Huger Games movie (2012):https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDCPcfT-UT8e An example of good continuity editing is in the music video Till The World Ends by Brittney Spears:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu9NQCfurDY

MATCH-ON-ACTIONMatch on Action is an editing technique used in continuity editing. It is when an action that begins in one shot is continued or completed in the next shot but by a different object or person(s) and most often is shown through a different angle. This subconsciously presents a link between each scene/shot and shows a subtle continuity between the two scenes in their transition, creating a visual bridge between the two shots.This technique also helps to make a smooth transition between shots.In the clip below this technique is shown when the woman in Bringing Up Baby (1938) lights a match for her cigarette.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKS2d6TyiWo

PARALLEL EDITINGParallel editing, also known as cross cutting, is cutting between two or more storylines that are taking place at the same time, but in different places. Many times, parallel editing is used to build up a climax as the scenes intersect with one another, creating a major plot point.Parallel editing was first properly introduced as an eminent technique in film by Edwin S. Porter in his movie The Great Train Robbery in 1903 in which he used the cross cutting technique to show what occurred in two different places at the same time, linking them both together. From this, people added to the technique so that it could be used for other purposes too, such as creating a feeling of suspense and to heighten tension when needed. For example, in the horror film The Silence of the Lamb during the third act, this cross cutting technique is used to reveal a big plot twist in a way that heightens suspense for the viewer."The Silence of the Lambs" (1991) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ts1x6uADFtMIn every episode of the soap opera EastEnders, this technique is used to tell the story of the residents too - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCl8K58yQjg

DISSOLVEDissolve is a type of editing technique used to transition from one scene to another. Also known as mix or crossfade, dissolve is a gradual fade from one shot to another and is often used to convey the sense of time passing and is used to make a soft, subtle transition. It is similar to Graphic (match) cut.It may be used to transition from what one character may be doing to the person that they are thinking about or another character associated with them and what they are doing meanwhile. It is also sometimes used to show different shots of the interactions two characters may have during a chunk of time.In Shrek (2001) as Shrek and Donkey make the journey to rescue the Princess Fiona, dissolve is the technique used to transition to different scenes, effectively creating the sense of a period of time passing, highlighting the length of their long journey. The same technique for showing the passing of time is in The Longest Yard when the protagonist of the story is confined in a box.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSrJIDBFZ98

DISSOLVEGeorges Mlis managed to utilize the very first dissolve transition in the film Cendrillon in 1899. He did this by closing the lens aperture and rewinding the film, and then re-opening the aperture.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_yk5sQfsgo0

GRAPHIC (MATCH) CUTGraphic (match) Cut this is the technique of transforming an object or shape in one shot into something else in the next. This is often used to denote a connection between two separate shots via a visual representation and help make the transition smooth and flow easily.However, in the film A Space Odyssey its purpose was to connect two time periods that would otherwise have no connection, helping to show the developments created over time.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mI3s5fA7ZhkAn example of Graphic match cut is in the clip below, from Alfred Hitchcocks film psycho as a bathtub drain becomes the eye of a dead woman.https://videopress.com/v/mRPQxnCZ

WIPEThis is the technique when a scene transition follows the previous shot off screen, almost chasing it away or pushing it out of a frame. Many times the following shot will follow a movement from the previous one on screen.This technique is used in the film The Longest Yard, during a basketball scene and is also useful in DC or Marvel films too, as it gives a more comic feel, like from where they originate. For example, this was a technique used quite often in the Star Wars films to transition from one shot to another, as shown in the clip below.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usXca7W_jvM

STRAIGHT CUT & CUTAWAYStraight cut is one of the most basic and common techniques used in media, that simply cuts from one scene to another, which is easy to then edit and to cut unneeded footage.Cutaway is an editing technique that moves the camera away from the main subject of a shot to its surroundings so that the viewers may be able to see what is happening around the centre character, thereby gaining better perspective.Both are popular and basic editing techniques that are simple and so are easier to edit and manipulate.An example of cutaway is in The longest yard, the football scene - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FToDEyatbAk

FADE IN/FADE OUT A transition that occurs gradually, eventually darkening from one shot to the next is called fade out whereas if a scene transition turns from darkness, eventually brightening it is called fade in.This helps to smoothly transition from scene to scene.This clip below if from the introduction of the 2012 James Bond film Skyfall. It contains fade in and out transitions as well as dissolve, match on action and Graphic match cut.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLXxlEM0RxwAnother example is in Harry Potter and The Philosopher's Stone (2001) in the opening scene - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wH4cNrUB4ss

SLOW MOTION/FAST MOTIONSlow motion is slowing down time to show an action happen slowly. Ironically, this can be to emphasis the idea that the action is occurring quickly. To present it through slow motion, it is giving the effect that the viewer would be unable to see the action being done clearly trough normal speed of the action being done as it would be too fast too see properly. It can also be used to highlight the dramatic atmosphere or intensity of something in the scene. Fast motion can show an increase in time or emphasises the fast pace in which an action is happening.In the TV show The Flash fast motion and slow motion are used together; the superhero Flash speeding up really fast while the things happening around him are shown so slow they almost stop in time to show the extent of his speed.Another example of slow motion is in Spiderman 2002, which is used to demonstrate Peters quick speed in comparison to his surroundings and helps the audience to understand his train of thought during the quick actions taking place.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4S723Xa04YNew Moon (2008)- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4gEFZ0TJ8o

ELLIPSISIn this case, the technique is used by playing into the idea of the phrase Less is more. Ellipsis if the technique of editing out a period of time or series of events, leaving the viewers to fill in the gap using their own imagination to narrate it. Without doing so, it may leave the audience feeling tedious as it may be unnecessary scenes to have, for example, if a character is preparing to go out to work, the viewer may not need to see him brushing his teeth for two minutes, though we can correctly assume that he did. The void in between the shots where jump cut has been used can be filled in by the imagination of the viewer and would only be used in a section that becomes futile and boring, for instance, if a character was seen waking up late for something and then heading to work, we can assume he has brushed his teeth and dressed in between.In the first few minutes of the movie The Proposal (2009) in the link below, it shows the male protagonist of the story getting up late in bed half naked, to him dressed in a suit in the streets on his way to work in between a shot of his boss getting ready for work too. This is an example of Ellipsis.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OxzjWMCb4A

JUMP CUTJump cut is the editing out one of more sections of a long take so as to shorten it. This is useful as, if a Director was to keep the entire take, it might be too long and boring which would result in the audience losing interest and the film would therefore lose attention and the scene losing its effect. In the film Little Shop of Horrors (1986) there is a scene where three characters are waiting for a period of time and the technique of jump cut is used -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wH4cNrUB4ss