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Virginia Department of Forestry www.dof.virginia.gov Rain Gardens V I R G I N I A Technical Guide A landscape tool to improve water quality

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Rain Gardens Technical Guide

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Page 1: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

Virginia Department of Forestry

www.dof.virginia.gov

Rain Gardens

V I R G I N I A

Technica l Guide

A landscape toolto improve water quality

Page 2: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

AcknowledgementsThis publication, developed by Stephanie Keys Golon and Dr. Judith Okay for the Virginia Department of Forestry, is available from the Virginia Department of Forestry, 900 Natural Resources Dr. Charlottesville, VA 22903 Phone: 434-977-6555 Web site: www.dof.virginia.gov.

The publication of this document would not have been possible without the support of J. Michael Foreman, formerly with Virginia Department of Forestry. His strong belief in public outreach and education and his ability to gather financial support through the Potomac Watershed Partnership is greatly appreciated.

The following individuals contributed to the publication through their suggestions and/or editing:

Barbara White, Virginia Department of ForestryCarol Heiser, Virginia Department of Game and Inland FisheriesChristin Jolicoeur, Northern Virginia Soil and Water Conservation DistrictJennifer Schill, The Potomac ConservancyMargaret Bryant, Department of Landscape Architecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityChristin Jolicoeur, Nicholas Kokales, Willie Woode - Northern Virginia Soil and Water Conservation District for help with survey logistics

Garden Graphics were provided by: Jeremy Hinte, Department of Landscape Architecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

A special thanks to John Campbell and Janet Muncy, Virginia Department of Forestry, Public Information Division, for their professional review and additions to this publication.

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Contents Page

Introduction ...................................................................................................................3 What is a Rain Garden? .................................................................................................4How Do I Begin? ............................................................................................................5How Does My Rain Garden Work? .................................................................................6Where Should I Locate My Rain Garden? ......................................................................6Survey the Land .............................................................................................................8Your Soil .........................................................................................................................9Determine the Area of the Rain Garden ......................................................................10Cost of Supplies ...........................................................................................................11Plant Selection .............................................................................................................13 Building the Rain Garden .............................................................................................14Maintenance .................................................................................................................16Rain Garden Designs ....................................................................................................17Glossary........................................................................................................................21Additional Resources ...................................................................................................22

APPENDICESAppendix A: Water Quality Protection Tips .................................................................23Appendix B: A Good Habitat ........................................................................................24Appendix C: Conversion Chart .....................................................................................25Appendix D: Plant Selection Guide ..............................................................................26

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURESFigure 1. Forest Function Changes with Development ..................................................4Figure 2. Illustration of Forest Function........................................................................5Figure 3. Cross Section of a Rain Garden ......................................................................6Figure 4. Site Inventory .................................................................................................7Figure 5. Graph of Survey Data .....................................................................................9Table 1. Runoff Value for Rain Garden Calculations ...................................................11Table 2. Appropriate Retail Price for Supplies .............................................................12Table 3. Maintenance Schedule ...................................................................................16

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ForewordThis guide has been compiled as a resource for individuals, groups and organizations interested in creating a landscape feature that will: solve drainage problems, address erosion problems, improve water quality, create wildlife habitat, and/or create a garden focal point. We hope homeowners, teachers, community leaders, gardeners, and landscape architects will find this information useful.

The Virginia Department of Forestry has shown leadership in promoting Rain Gardens for improved water quality for many years. Demonstration projects have been implemented throughout the state and partnerships have been formed for these projects, resulting in agencies, organizations and citizens becoming interested in the concept of Rain Gardens. It has become clear that there is a need for a guide that landowners can use to develop a Rain Garden on their property. This concept is an element of planning low-impact development, retrofitting older development, and creating natural solutions to drainage and erosion problems.

It is the intention of this guide to limit the technical jargon found in manuals designed for engineers, without losing the purpose and integrity of the bio-retention concept. It is also the intention of this guide to present the sources of information and guidance necessary to avoid mistakes that would be troublesome to landowners, their neighbors or jurisdictional ordinances.

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Introduction

Rain is an important occurrence in nature because it replenishes water supplies, provides moisture for living resources and maintains flow levels of rivers and streams. There are also negative effects that rain can cause due to human interactions. All deposited pollutants on surfaces wash away with rain and flow overland to the nearest waterway. Examples of less desirable substances that are carried in storm water runoff are petroleum products, animal waste, fertilizers, pesticides, and household chemicals. Although we use these substances in our daily lives, how can we protect our waterways? The first line of defense is to alter human behavior in a positive direction. A secondary means of protecting our waterways from pollution is the use of practices that intercept storm water runoff before it enters the waterways.

The landscape of Virginia is ever changing, and, for several decades, we have witnessed the conversion of rural areas to urban. This conversion has created areas with less forests and increased impervious cover, such as sidewalks, roads and roofs. This has amplified the amount of storm water runoff that is being carried directly to streams and lakes with little or no treatment. Problems created by urban and rural runoff include increased pollutants and temperatures in waterways, increased flooding, and increased costs for municipalities.

On a regional level, municipalities have developed catch basins —known as storm water management ponds —to gather storm water from developed land with impervious surfaces. The storm water ponds are intended to mimic forested floodplains in their retention of water and the beneficial removal of nutrients. Although there are many jurisdictions that are not yet employing these methods of storm water management, many communities were developed before storm water management was required.

The natural resource consequences of traditional storm water management practices without volume controls include: stream degradation, soil erosion and nutrient loading of waterways, loss of in-stream and corridor habitat, and riparian buffer loss along streams. It is through new technology in current development and older, pre-storm water management development that water quality improvement goals can be met.

Bio-retention is the most current practice used to minimize impacts of storm water runoff. Bio-retention takes several forms, which include grassy swales, engineered wetlands, and Rain Gardens. Each of these practices employs physical water retention and biological and chemical interaction among soil, vegetation and water. All of these practices mimic one or some of the functions of a riparian forest buffer. In altered or urban landscapes, the use of bio-retention practices mitigates the amount of runoff from smooth, compact surfaces. The more impervious surface present in a landscape, the less rainwater that will infiltrate into the soil and recharge groundwater supplies. Figure 1 illustrates the effects of increased imperviousness.

There are many situations where the development of a Rain Garden would be beneficial. Placing a Rain Garden in your yard is easier than you may think. Follow the guidelines, plan well, and have fun. Your investment of time and resources will reward you for many years to come. For other water quality protection tips that you may use, refer to Appendix A.

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What is a Rain Garden? A rain garden is just what the name implies—a garden planted with native plants that can be placed within your yard. It captures the first flush or runoff from a rain event. By capturing the runoff in the Rain Garden, you will not only provide runoff reduction benefits, you may also produce substantial neighborhood and community environmental benefits, such as:

An increase in the vegetation mixture in your yard that will provide habitat for insects and birds;

An enhancement of the beauty of your yard, thereby improving the landscape in your neighborhood;

An increase in the amount of groundwater renewal;

The bringing together of your family and neighbors for a fun, physical activity;

Plant material that can provide shade and a light or noise screen, and

A layer of vegetation to include a canopy, understory and ground cover.

Figure 1: Forest function changes that take place with increased developmenthttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/stream_restoration/scrhimage.htm

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You may think that a small, individual garden will not make a difference, but collectively they can make a great impact. This is a guide for your Rain Garden design, not a set of strict rules. Each site is different and the concepts can be applied many different ways. You do not have to be an engineer to build a rain garden. The garden can be as complex or as simple as you are able to provide, depending on time, space and budget. The rain garden does not require much space and can fit into existing landscapes or made into any shape.

How Do I Begin?We will design a Rain Garden that will capture the first flush of runoff from your impervious surfaces and will attempt to mimic the functions of a forest. Forests provide many benefits that reduce the negative effects of storm water runoff. These include interrupting and redirecting the flow of storm water, allowing for the percolation into the soil, and filtering pollutants from the water as it passes through the organic forest soils. Trees also remove nutrients and use them for growth, which in turn reduces erosion by leaf interception of water droplets and the root masses hold soil in place. Figure 2 illustrates the interaction between trees and rainfall.

Figure 2. Illustration of forest functionhttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/

So, are we actually creating a forest by using the Rain Garden concept? No, but we are putting a system into the landscape that can provide functions that are missing because forests have been lost to urbanization.

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In order for us to begin to learn how a Rain Garden works, we must first know the layers of the rain garden (refer to Figure 3). These layers include:

A grass buffer strip around the garden that will slow the velocity of the runoff;A mulch layer will provide a medium for the biological activities to occur and will keep the soil moist;Plants that will use the runoff for moisture and nutrient requirements; A soil layer is where the plant roots will collect the moisture and nutrients for their growth;A ponding area or depression of the garden will provide the storage needed for the runoff, andA berm that is at least six inches of soil or rocks that works like a dam to pond the runoff.

Figure 3: Cross section of a Rain Gardenhttp://fairfaxcounty.gov/nvswcd/youyourland/landscape.pdf

How Does My Rain Garden Work?Now that you know the layers of a Rain Garden, let’s go into more detail on how this storm water management tool works. The Rain Garden is placed in a location to collect the runoff as a rain event occurs. The layers filter the runoff naturally as the runoff moves into and throughout the Rain Garden. The native plants and microorganisms found in the soil will remove the pollutants that are carried in the runoff from the roof and driveway. By preventing the runoff from going into a typical curb and gutter storm water system, you will help eliminate the pollutants from going directly into streams and lakes and, eventually, into the Chesapeake Bay.

Where Should I Locate My Rain Garden?There are several places that you may wish to consider when looking for a location for your Rain Garden. You may decide to place it near the house to catch the roof runoff, or you may place it farther from your house and collect the runoff from your lawn and possibly your driveway. You can decide where the best location will be. Sketch a drawing of your property similar to Figure 4.

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Figure 4. Site Inventoryhttp://fairfaxcounty.gov/nvswcd/youyourland/landscape.pdf

Placing your rain garden may be easy if there is a low spot in the landscape, but it is also possible in a relatively flat lot. Take a walk around the property and make note of high and low areas and areas where water naturally flows. Note areas around gutters, pavement, and outbuildings.

Here are some ideas to consider when planning the location of your Rain Garden:

Do not remove or damage existing trees to construct the Rain Garden. If you would like to plant in the vicinity of an existing tree, please make sure you do not disturb the soil or roots. Make sure the garden is located outside the drip line of the tree.

You may feel that a location where water already ponds in your yard may be appropriate, but it is NOT. This is a location where the soil does not allow adequate infiltration and is not a good place for the Rain Garden. You will want a section of soil that has adequate infiltration, the procedure to test for this can be found on page 9.

Know where your utility lines, such as electric, sewer, water and gas, are located before you decide the garden location. Call Miss Utility. You would not want to place a great deal of effort into a garden that will be dug up by a utility company.

Pick out a location that is at least 10 feet from your home. You do not want a flooded basement or leaky foundation.

Choose a site that does not have a steep slope. Slopes that are greater than 12% will take much more effort to design and may not be as effective.

Know where your water table is located. You do not want the Rain Garden to directly interact with your water table.

Take into consideration the views from inside and outside your home. Why not place the garden near a large window or near your patio so that you and your family can enjoy the beauty of the garden all year long?

Use native plants when possible as they usually are better adapted.

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Survey the LandOnce you have determined the location of your Rain Garden, the following steps will help you get the lay of the land (elevations). Once you know the elevation differences of the Rain Garden area, you will know the extent of soil removal or replacement needed to make the garden ponding area level.

Tape the yardsticks together with a clear tape; you now have a six-foot survey rod.

One person (Person #1) holds the yard sticks/survey rod and this person will move around the property.

The second person (Person #2) has the beginning of a tape measure or string of a known length (minimum 25-ft. length).

Person #1 with the rod holds the other end of the string/measure tape.

Place the line level on the string or tape.

Person #2 holds the string at eye level—the eye level height will be used as a benchmark for all other measurements. (Keep the string at eye level until measurements are complete.)

Person #1 Moves the string up the rod until the line is level with Person #2. Then read the number off the rod, be sure to add the height on the second yardstick to that of the first. (Example: if the string is on 24 inches on the second yardstick, the number is actually 5 feet—3 feet on the first stick plus 2 feet on the second.)

The third person (Person #3) will determine the line is level when the bubble on the line level is in the middle of the level. He or she will also be the recorder for the heights.

Person #2 stays put while persons #1 and #3 move down the tape measure horizontally repeating the leveling procedure at each foot or 2-foot increment along the tape or string.

Then start another survey line with person #2 still standing in the original spot and persons #1 and #3 moving in another direction from #2.

There are certain tools you will need to determine the slope of the land. It is really a task that requires three people. The following tools will be helpful: two yardsticks - a tape measure - string - a line level - paper - pencil.

Person #1 Person #2 Person #3

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After you have completed at least 4 transects or lines from the center (position of person #2), plot each transect on a sheet of graph paper with the length being the x axis and the elevation being the y axis. Refer to Figure 5. The line on the graph demonstrates to you the high and low spots across the bottom of the garden site. This will help determine the soil removal or additions to get a level ponding area.

Figure 5. Graph of survey data

Your Soil In Virginia, we have varying soils. We recommend contacting your local extension office for assistance with your decisions involving nutrients and pH. We will give you a simple process that can help you test your infiltration rate. You can test your drainage by digging a hole six inches wide and 18 inches deep. Pour water into the hole and observe how long it takes for the water to infiltrate into the soil. If the water has not infiltrated within 48-72 hours, then you will need to amend your soil to improve infiltration or choose another location for your Rain Garden.

What If My Soil Needs Amending?If your site does not have good infiltration, we recommend blending a mixture of amendments to improve the drainage. The recommended soil replacement mix is 50% sand, 25% topsoil (no clay) and 25% compost or leaf mulch. These supplies can be bought in bags from most home and garden stores or can also be purchased in bulk, depending on the size of your job. If you choose bagged amendments, avoid purchasing sterile soil.

Elev

atio

n in

feet

Rain Garden length in feet

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Determine the Area of the Rain Garden

DepthIf you have checked your soil using the infiltration test and found that it has adequate infiltration and you do not need to amend your soil, then you may just need to excavate the area for the ponding depth of no more than six inches. You will not want your ponding depth to be greater than six inches because of the possibility that the ponded water could be retained longer than 96 hours. After 96 hours, the area would be prone to mosquitoes breeding, along with other undesirable insects.

If your infiltration test led you to amend your soil, then you will need to excavate the maximum six inches for ponding and three feet for ideal conditions. We recommend three feet of amendments to provide sufficient depth for plant root growth and for moisture capacity. You must also be able to determine where your water table is located. You do not want to go three feet, if this interacts with your water table. If you must locate your Rain Garden in the location that needs soil amendments, please count on the Rain Garden taking more time and money, so plan accordingly. If your location has extremely poor soil conditions, a layer of gravel or stone may be placed into the bottom of the Rain Garden to increase storage.

Width and LengthAs you are planning your Rain Garden, visualize how the water will be directed to the garden and how it will be stored. You want to distribute the water evenly throughout the garden so that the entire garden gets equal amounts of flow. To help alleviate a potential excess ponding problem, you should place the Rain Garden length perpendicular to the flow of the runoff so that it can catch as much water as possible. You also want the Rain Garden to be wide enough to ensure sufficient room for plant variety and spacing and enough room for the water to be distributed over the bottom of the garden. A good rule of thumb is that the garden should be at least twice as long as it is wide.

When deciding your width and depth of the garden, keep the slope in mind. Rain Gardens that are on very steep slopes and extremely wide gardens will need to be dug much deeper on one side than the other in order to be level. Garden shapes can vary; the square footage is the most important feature to consider. Decide on the size garden that suits your site. We should state that the calculations are guidelines to include 100% of the runoff into the garden. If size or cost becomes an issue, it is acceptable to construct a smaller rain garden.

The size of the garden must be large enough to hold the water within the drainage area. The kind of surface the water is flowing over is important because that will determine how much will run off and how much infiltrates into the surface. For this reason, there is a runoff value that needs to be determined. Here are some examples of drainage area sizes and runoff values. For parking lots, roofs and other pavement the runoff value = 0.9; for turf it is 0.25. As stated by Prince George’s County Design Manual For Use of Bio-retention In Storm Water Management, the garden size should be 7% of the runoff surface area multiplied by the runoff value.

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Step One: Calculate the square footage of the Impervious Surfaces.Roof - 50 ft. x 50 ft. = 2500 sq. ft.Driveway - 12 ft. x 20 ft. = 240 sq. ft.Concrete Patio - 15 ft. x 12 ft. = 180 sq. ft.Total impervious surface = 2920 sq. ft. = runoff surface area

Step Two: Calculate the square footage of the Pervious Surfaces.Lawn Area 50 ft. x 30 ft. = 1500 sq. ft.

Step Three: Multiply the square footage obtained in Steps One and Two by the appropriate runofff coefficient from Table 1 and by the 7% of runoff.2920 sq. ft. (impervious surfaces) x 0.07 (percent of runoff) x 0.9 (runoff value) = 183.96 sq. ft.1500 sq. ft. (lawn area) x 0.07 (percent of drainage) x 0.25 (runoff value) = 26.25 sq. ft.

Step Four: Add both impervious and turf areas together to get total Rain Garden size. 183.96 sq. ft. + 26.25 sq. ft. = 210.21 sq. ft.

We will need to install a Rain Garden that is 210.21 sq. ft. in order to accommodate 100 percent of the runoff from the property – a 17.5 ft. x 12 ft. or a 10 ft. x 21 ft. garden design would work.

Table 1: Runoff value for Rain Garden calculations

Cost of SuppliesTo determine the approximate cost of the sample garden (210 sq. ft.), use the calculations and prices from Table 2. The soil amendment calculations are for the 210 sq. ft. garden, the six inches of ponding and three feet of soil amendments to replace the soil that does not have adequate infiltration. We are using bulk amendments and mulch.

Step One: Calculate the amount of compost, topsoil and sand you will need.Find the cubic footage of your garden. Multiply the size of the Rain Garden by the three feet of soil amendments.

210 sq. ft. x 3.0 sq. ft. = 630 cu. ft.

Now determine the percentage of each item to be included. The recommended soil replacement mix is 50% sand, 25% topsoil (no clay) and 25% compost or leaf mulch.

Sand: 50% of the 630 cu. ft. is 315 cu. ft.Topsoil: 25% of the 630 cu. ft. is 157.5 cu. ft.Compost or Leaf Litter: 25% of the 630 cu. ft. is 157.5 cu. ft.

Now we know our needs of each medium in cubic feet, we can decide how many yards we need to purchase (1 cu. yd. = 27 cu. ft.).

Type of Surface Runoff ValueRoof, parking lot, concrete walks, decks, patios and driveways 0.9Lawn, woodlot, turf, playing fields and planted garden beds 0.25

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Sand:315 cu. ft. ÷ 27 cu. ft. = 12 cu. yd. of sand

Topsoil:157.5 cu. ft. ÷ 27 cu. ft. = 6 cu. yd. of topsoil

Compost: This item may be free if you have a compost pile or decide to use leaf litter. But we will also include the price for your consideration.

157.5 cu. ft. ÷ 27 cu. ft. = 6 cu. yd. of compost

Step Two: Calculate the amount of mulch you will need:We will want the mulch to be at least 3 inches (0.25 ft) deep. So to find the cubic feet of mulch, multiply the square footage of your garden by the depth. 210 cu. ft. x 0.25 ft = 52.5 cu. ft. of mulch

Now we need to know how many yards of mulch. 52.5 cu. ft. ÷ 27 cu. ft. = 2 cu. yd. of mulch

Step Three: Calculate your excavation costs.If you choose to amend your soils and decide to rent a small piece of equipment, such as a backhoe, this will be an additional charge of $160-$200 per day. You may also want to think about being able to operate this type of equipment and decide if you need to hire a professional to assist you with the installation of your garden.

Table 2: Approximate retail price for supplies (check local sources for current prices)

Supplies Amount Needed Price ($) Total Cost ($)Mulch 2 cu. yd. $26/cu. yd. $52Sand 6 cu. yd. $16/cu. yd. $96Compost 6 cu. yd. $32/cu. yd. $192Topsoil 12 cu. yd. $26/cu. yd. $312Native Plants Approx. 30 $2-15/plant $60-450Excavator 1 $160-200/day Cost VariesApproximate Cost $712-$1,102

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Plant Selection

When you are deciding what types of native plants you would prefer for your garden, consider that the Rain Garden will have various zones where different kinds of plants will thrive. For example, the center and the deepest part of the garden will support the very wet to wet-loving plants. The middle of the side slope of the garden will support the wet to dry plants, and the upper rim of the garden will support the drier types of vegetation.

Other factors that you may consider when choosing the plants for your Rain Garden are the following:

Sunlight, moisture and soil requirements.Decide on your objectives, such as what type of wildlife you would like to attract, then decide

on the varieties you would plant to attract those species. Refer to Appendix B for additional habitat information.

The location of the Rain Garden will help you to decide if you prefer fruit-bearing plants. If your Rain Garden is near the driveway or walkway, you may want to choose other varieties to avoid mess and cleanup time.

Think about where your Rain Garden is located before you plant certain trees. You would not want to plant an oak next to a powerline or too close to your home.

If planting near a road that receives chemical treatments in the winter, choose plants that are tolerant to salt. Your local nursery can help you make those decisions.

Think about a color scheme and visual interest for each season of the year.We always recommend using plants native to your area. Please see contact information in the

back of the guide to assist you in finding plants native to your area.To protect your home from forest fires, refer to www.virginiafirewise.org.

Why Native Plants?They are best adapted for the local climate and, once established, do not need extra water or

fertilizer.Many are deep rooted, allowing them to survive droughts.Native plants are attractive to the diverse native pollinators (bees, butterflies, beetles and

birds).Natives provide habitat and food for native wildlife.For plant selection, refer to plant list in Appendix D.

Joe Pye WeedVirginia Department of Forestry

Jerusalem ArtichokeVirginia Department of Forestry

Great Blue LobeliaJennifer AndersonUSDA-Plants Database

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Building the Rain GardenAfter all your planning, you are ready to mark your calendar for construction day. We have found that spring is a better time of the year, but fall may also be an option. The next task is to make sure that you call Miss Utility at 1-800-552-7001. Please call ahead, it may take up to a week for marking.

Step One: Site PreparationBefore excavation begins, use your plan and mark the Rain Garden areas on the ground with fluorescent spray paint. Also be sure to mark the area where you would like to locate the berm. Use the appropriate erosion controls if necessary. Silt fences or straw bale barriers can direct and contain sediment during construction. Please refer to The Virginia Department of Forestry Web site at: http://www.dof.virginia.gov/wq/resources/BMP-Field-2003-Erosion-Control.pdf. Whether or not your are amending your soil, you may need a piece of machinery (like the one pictured) to assist with the project. You may use a roto-tiller, backhoe or bobcat depending on how deep your Rain Garden will be. If you choose to dig by hand, then you may need other volunteers who can be on site to help with installation. Either way, you will need a means to remove the extra soil (wheelbarrow, garden cart, or truck). After you have had the soil amendments delivered, the equipment placed on site, and have called Miss Utility, you are ready to dig. Please use caution when operating any equipment, and provide hard hats for those working on the ground.

Step Two: ExcavationDig your garden the size, shape and depth that you have determined for your location. You may need to use the survey rod that you made yourself from the previous section or use other survey equipment to assist you with keeping track of how deep you have dug. Once you have excavated to the desired depth, use a hand level or survey equipment to make sure that the bottom of your garden is level throughout. If you have areas that are lower than the rest, you will have problems with too much ponding in that area.

Step Three: Amending the SoilAfter the excavation is complete and the excavated soil has been removed from the location, you are ready to mix and add your amendments. You can choose to do this by hand or with the piece of machinery you are using. We have found it best to mix and add small portions of the amendment at a time. Using a wood stake and a string, mark the depth of the ponding area that you plan to leave so that you do not overfill the garden. Also, after the amended soil has been placed in the excavated area, allow it to settle overnight. After this time period, add additional soil if needed. Use the survey rod that you made yourself from the previous section or use other survey equipment to ensure that the area is level throughout.

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Step Four: Constructing the BermTo construct your berm, you will need to reserve soil that has been excavated from the Rain Garden. If you have clayey soil, this is one location where it is useful, or any well-packed soil will work. You will need to locate the highest part of the berm on the downhill side of your Rain Garden. The berm should not exceed 6 inches tall. Then the berm should gradually taper and lower on each side of the garden until the berm is integrated into the existing lawn.

Once you have the soil (preferably clay soil) in place, begin shaping and compacting the berm. Use your foot or tamping bar to compact because the berm will act as a dam for the runoff and will need to be firmly pressed together. As you compress the soil, smooth it into a gradually rounded berm. This will be visually pleasing and also help reduce the erosion of the berm. Seed and straw the area with your choice of grass seeds. To prevent erosion prior to the establishment of grass, you may chose to place burlap or other matting on the berm.

Step Five: Planting Now that you have excavated the area and made any needed adjustments to the soil, you are ready to plant the plants that you have selected. This is so easy to do and can be a fun activity in which the entire family or neighborhood may participate.

If you chose not to amend your soils, you may choose to add compost or potting soils into the planting holes. Some reminders on planting:

Dig the holes for planting shallow and broad and fill the hole gently but firmly. Do not step on the planted area to pack, this will only damage the plants’ root system.

Choose plants that are established, usually one to two years old. Ask the nursery to assist you with selecting the plants.

If you have chosen a tree for your rain garden and the tree was dug properly at the nursery and is being planted under normal circumstances, staking should not be necessary. Please refer to the International Society for Arboriculture or Virginia Cooperative Extension Web site listed in additional resources section for further information.

Water plants immediately after installation, whether or not the soil is already moist.

Retain identification tags from plant material until the end of the warranty period.

Plant shrubs 3 feet apart; plant perennials 1 foot apart; plant annuals 6-8 inches apart; plant trees 15 feet apart.

Step Six: MulchingMulch is applied over the soil of the Rain Garden to maintain moisture, prevent erosion, provide weed control and help improve soil conditions over time. We recommend using shredded hardwood mulch or hardwood chips. The supply should be aged at least six months, or your mulch may float away. There are a few do’s and do not’s that we must mention.

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To provide optimum results, apply 3 inches of mulch after the plant stock has been planted in the planting soil.

If you have chosen a tree, mulch wide not deep around the tree. Do not fall for the desire to create a “mulch volcano.” The excessive mulch around the base of the tree will cause disease and damage to the tree.

Use organic mulches, such has hardwood mulch, instead of inorganic mulches, such as recycled tires. Organic mulches decompose and benefit the soil.

MaintenanceMaintaining your rain garden is not much different than maintenance already required by your landscaping. We have provided a brief outline for you to reference throughout the year. The first year, the plants may need watering to get them well established.

Table 3. Maintenance Schedule

Description TaskPlant Material Sunlight, moisture and soil requirements. Check plants periodically for

signs of distress (wilting, yellow/brown leaves, etc.).

Weed as necessary.

Clean dead debris from plants after growing season and add to your compost pile.

Berm Check periodically for berm failure.

Do not allow plants other than grass to grow on berm because they could cause the berm to fail.

If water goes through rather than over the berm, this indicates failure.

Erosion ridges in berm could lead to failure. Ponding Area If ponding area begins to retain water longer than specified time, then

soil pores may have become clogged with particulate matter. If this occurs, you may need to replace the soil.

Check for the accumulation of sediment or debris and remove it.Soil Check soil annually for excessive acidity or alkalinity.

If soil becomes compacted or if sediment clogs pores, soil layer may need to be replaced.

Mulch After the initial mulch layer has been applied, check periodically to ensure that rainwater has not washed out areas of mulch.

You may choose to add a new mulch layer every year, either in the fall or spring.

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Rain Garden Designs

The following gardens are actual gardens depicted graphically as well as with digital photos. The plant lists should be referenced to the graphic design. They are gardens that can be copied if individuals find them suitable for their own sites. Be conscious of the placement, light requirements and wildlife values of the plants listed. Check with a local nursery to find other suitable plants that can be substituted in these designs. There is an extensive list of plants located in Appendix D.

Page 20: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

18

Blandy Farm Sample Garden Plant List

Plant Species Description Height Wildlife Value Moisture Tolerance Light Needs

1. Sweetbay Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana

Small tree with large white fragrant flowers,

red seed

10-20 ft. Pollinators and seed for large birds/small mammals

Moderately Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

2. Red Twig Dogwood

Cornus sericea

Woody, red-stemmed shrub with white flowers

and berries

10 ft. Pollinators, birds and small mammals

Very Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

3. Winterberry Holly

Ilex verticillata

Shrub with red berries 10 ft. Pollinators, birds and small mammals

Wet to Very Wet Partial Sun to Shade

4. Cardinal Flower

Lobelia cardinalis

Perennial with red flowers on spike

3-4 ft. Pollinators including hummingbirds

Moderately Wet to Very Wet

Full Sun to Partial Shade

5. Turtle Head

Chelone glabra

Tall spikes with pink, red, white flowers

3-4 ft. Insect pollinators Moderately Wet Partial Sun to Shade

6. River Birch

Betula nigra

Medium tree with weeping branches and

peeling tan bark

40 ft. Seeds for songbirds, particularly finch

Moderately Wet to Dry Partial Sun to Shade

7. Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium maculata

Perennial with lavender flat flowers

4-6 ft. Insect pollinators, particularly butterflies, and

songbirds

Wet to Moderately Dry Full Sun to Partial Shade

8. Witch Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana

Shrub with yellow flowers in fall

8-10 ft. Small birds Moderately Wet to Dry Full Sun to Partial Shade

9. Goldenrod

Soidago sempervirens

Perennial spike with gold flowers

2-3 ft. Insect pollinators and songbirds

Slightly Wet to Dry Full Sun to Partial Shade

10. Sweet Pepper Bush

Clethra alnifolia

Small shrub 5-8 ft. Pollinators including hummingbirds

Slightly Wet to Dry Full Sun to Partial Shade

11. Hibiscus

Hibiscus moscheutos

Large perennial with snowy flowers - variety

of colors

3-5 ft. Pollinators particularly hummingbirds

Wet to Very Wet Full Sun to Partial Sun

12. Siberian Iris

Iris siberica

Small perennial with blue flowers

2 ft. Insect pollinators Moderately Wet to Very Wet

Full Sun to Partial Shade

Page 21: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

19

Mint Springs Sample Rain Garden Plant ListPlant Species Description Height Wildlife Value Moisture Tolerance Light Needs

1. Stella Dora Lily

Hemerocallis

Dwarf yellow daylily, green soft-stemmed

plant

12-17 in. Pollinators Moderately Wet Full Sun to Partial Shade

2. Ink Berry Holly

Ilex glabra

Evergreen woody shrub 4-8 ft. Birds Moderately Wet to Very Wet

Full Sun to Partial Shade

3. Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium maculata

Perennial with lavender flat flowers

4-6 ft. Insect pollinators, particularly butterflies, and

songbirds

Wet to Moderately Dry Full Sun to Partial Shade

4. Red Twig Dogwood

Cornus sericea

Woody, red-stemmed shrub with white flowers

and berries

10 ft. Pollinators, birds and small mammals

Very Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

5. Sweetbay Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana

Small tree with large white fragrant flowers,

red seed

10-20 ft. Pollinators and seed for large birds/small mammals

Moderately Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

6. Varigated Liriope

Liriope platphylla

Large perennial with snowy flowers - variety

of colors

3-5 ft. Pollinators particularly hummingbirds

Slightly Wet to Dry Full Sun

7. Siberian Iris

Iris siberica

Small perennial with green fleshy leaves and

deep blue flowers

2 ft. Insect pollinators Moderately Wet to Very Wet

Full Sun to Partial Shade

All shrubs should be spaced 3 to 5 ft. apart.

All perennial plants should be spaced 12 to 15 in. apart.

Page 22: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

20

Solomon Sample Rain Garden Plant List

Plant Species Description Height Wildlife Value Moisture Tolerance Light Needs

1. Red Twig Dogwood

Cornus sericea

Woody, red-stemmed shrub with white flowers

and berries

10 ft. Pollinators, birds and small mammals

Very Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

2. Daylilies

Hemerocallis sp.

Spike foliage with orange flowers, leafy

green plant

2-3 ft. Pollinators Moderately Wet to Dry Full Sun to Shade

3. Royal Fern

Osmunda regalis

Tall fronds, delicate structure, leafy green

plant

2 ft. Shelter for amphibians and insects

Very Wet Partial Shade to Shade

4. Cinnamon Fern

Osmunda cinnamomea

Tall leathery fronds, leafy green plant

3 ft. Shelter for amphibians and insects

Very Wet Full Sun to Shade

5. Hibiscus moscheutos Large flowers in multiple colors, strong green

stem

3-5 ft. Hummingbirds, butterflies and other insects

Very Wet Full Sun to Partial Shade

6. Cardinal Flower

Lobelia cardinalis

Perennial with red flowers on spike

3-4 ft. Pollinators including hummingbirds

Moderately Wet to Very Wet

Full Sun to Partial Shade

7. Pickerelweed

Pontederia cordata

Purple spike flowers, green heart-shaped

leaves

2-3 ft. Pollinators and shelter for amphibians and insects

Very Wet Full Sun

All shrubs should be spaced 3 to 5 ft. apart.

All perennial plants should be spaced 12 to 15 in. apart.

Page 23: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

21

GlossaryAmend - to change for the better; to improve; to add to

Berm - a bank of earth

Bio-retention - a depressional area created to filter contaminants/pollutants from storm water

Compaction - the process of hardening under pressure

Depression - a lower position than surrounding area

Drip Line - line where the water drips from the outside edge of the tree canopy

Elevation - the rise of the land over a horizontal distance

Excavate - to dig out and remove

First Flush - the first rush of water carrying the most pollutants off impervious surfaces

Herbaceous Plants - plants with soft green stems that die to the ground each year

Impervious - a hard material, such as asphalt or rooftops, that stops water from soaking into the surface

Infiltration - the amount of water that can move through the soil pores from the soil surface

Native Plants - belonging in, or associated with, a particular geographic area

Percolation - to pass or trickle through a surface

Perennial Plants - plants that continue growth every year

Pollution - to make impure or unclean

Runoff - is the water that runs across surfaces during rain/snow events

Sheet flow - water flowing horizontally across the landscape

Storm water - water that results from heavy precipitation

Survey - to determine a position by taking measurements

Swale - a heavily vegetated low area in the landscape

Topography - feature of the landscape relative to position and height

Transect - a line crossed by other lines

Tree Canopy - the total area of the leaves and branches

Water Table - the surface where ground water meets the lower soil layer that is confining it

Woody Plants - plants that have a hard fibrous stem, such as shrubs and trees

Page 24: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

22

Additional Resources

Potomac Watershed Partnershiphttp://www.potomacwatershed.net/

Virginia Department of Forestryhttp://www.dof.virginia.gov/

Chesapeake Bay Foundationhttp://www.cbf.org/

Virginia Native Plant SocietyHas a list of nurseries that carry native plants.http://www.vnps.org/

Department of Conservation and Recreation “Native Plants for Conservation, Restoration and Landscaping”http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/nativeplants.shtml

Prince George's County Bioretention http://www.co.pg.md.us/DER/ESD/Bioretention/Bioretention.asp

Blue Ridge Community College http://www1.brcc.edu/murray/research/Rain_Garden/default.htm

Virginia Tech Soil Sampling Laboratoryhttp://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/compost/452-129/452-129.html#tochttp://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/waterquality/426-043/426-043.html

Virginia Cooperative Extensionhttp://www.ext.vt.edu/resources/

EPA Native Landscapinghttp://www.epa.gov/greenacres/

Additional Rain Garden Web siteshttp://www.urbanwaterquality.org/RainGardens/rgindex1.htm

International Society for Arboriculturehttp://www.isa-arbor.com/

Page 25: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

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Appendix A

Water Quality Protection TipsWays To Improve Water Quality For Everyone's Benefit

Protect ground water and surface water Properly dispose of unwanted engine oils, chemicals and hazardous fluids at participating

recycling centers.

Select landscape plants wisely Select native plants that need less water and fertilizer. Use mulches to help retain the

moisture in those dry months. If watering is necessary, then water only in the early morning or late evening.

Routinely maintain septic systems For the system to function properly, a septic system should be inspected and maintained

every 3-5 years.

Integrate storm water management features into your home and yard Create a Rain Garden, install a rain barrel or divert your downspouts to your lawn so that you

may use the storm water runoff for your benefit.

Test soils prior to maintaining the yard Improper use of fertilizers is a major source of nutrient pollution that clogs our waterways

each year. Test the soils to identify the amount of fertilizer that is needed. Better yet, leave the clippings on the lawn and let the lawn fertilize itself. Compost also works great as a lawn and garden fertilizer.

Promote natural revegetation Leave an unmowed buffer along the edge of the woods or along a waterway. This will

provide additional habitat while improving water quality.

Dispose of animal waste properly Pet waste contributes greatly to nutrient pollution. Scoop the waste and dispose in the proper

receptacles.

Do not litter Litter that is thrown on the ground or ditch ends up in our rivers, bays and oceans. Dispose

of waste properly.

Plant a tree Trees provide many natural benefits, such as cycling nutrients in water and air, providing

wind and sun blocks, food for wildlife, erosion control and energy conservation.

Page 26: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

24

Appendix B

provides food, water, and shelter for a variety of native wildlife species; incorporates the use of native plants in the landscape plan, and takes into account that plants and animals are interrelated in a complex food web.

You can create or improve a HABITAT AT HOME© by incorporating these main “ingredients”….

SHRUBS AND TREES that provide food and cover.

Shrubs: chokeberry (Aronia); chokecherry (Prunus); winterberry and inkberry (Ilex); bayberry and wax myrtle (Myrica); blackberry (Rubus); Viburnums (e.g. arrowood, blackhaw, cranberry bush) Trees: black cherry (Prunus serotina); dogwoods (Cornus); hollies (Ilex); oaks (Quercus); eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana); blackgum (Nyssa); eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Select deciduous shrubs for their flowering and fruiting quality and persistence. Group your plant material in clusters to provide maximum shelter for nesting birds. Be sure the overall composition includes evergreens that provide important protection from winter’s cold and summer’s heat. “Layer” the vegetation so that your habitat contains a variety of plant heights.

WATER SOURCES, such as shallow pools for amphibians and small mammals, and pedestal baths for songbirds. In small water features, you can avoid a mosquito problem by adding a “mosquito dunk,” available at local home garden centers. Mosquito dunks are slow-release, pest-control disks which contain the active ingredient Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), a form of bacteria that kills mosquito- and black fly larvae but is non-toxic to other species. In larger water gardens, use a pump to circulate water, which discourages mosquitoes from laying eggs. Clean bird baths every few days with

several quick swipes of a scrub brush and fresh water. Clean with bleach if algae has built up around the rim.

NECTAR SOURCES for butterflies, hummingbirds, and other vital pollinators. Examples include flowering shrubs like azalea (Rhododendron), pepperbush (Clethra), sweetspire (Itea), and buttonbush (Cephalanthus).

Consider flower beds that favor native perennials, such as Asters, milkweeds (Asclepias), cardinal flower (Lobelia), coneflower (Echinacea), black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia), goldenrod (Solidago), bergamot and bee balm (Monarda).

BIRD FEEDERS. There are numerous styles and designs of feeders on the market. A platform feeder holds millet and other

seed in an uncovered tray that sits on four legs about 10 inches off the ground; it is useful for mourning doves. A hopper feeder, good for cardinals and other birds which prefer sunflowers, is a box that dispenses seed from the sides, and it can be mounted on a pole or suspended from a tree. A thistle feeder is a vertical tube with tiny slits in the side, designed for finches, and a suet feeder is a screened square or mesh bag through which a woodpecker or nuthatch can peck. Try to hang your feeder out of reach of squirrels, or use a baffle to protect it. Avoid feeding old bread and other kitchen scraps, as these items attract starlings and crows. Do not encourage mammals like deer and raccoons to feed on

corn, apples, etc., in your yard—these species can become a neighborhood nuisance. NEST BOXES. If possible, leave a dead tree or a trunk standing in your yard, where woodpeckers can make holes, which will in turn provide places for other wildlife to nest and raise their young. If there are no dead trees nearby, put up a bird house for cavity-nesting species such as the chickadee, nuthatch, wren and bluebird. The bird house should have some vent holes at the top and drainage holes on the bottom; it does not need a perch on the front. A bat box may be used by a small colony of little brown bats—important nighttime insect eaters.

BRUSH PILES OR ROCK PILES. Small animals such as chipmunks, rabbits, lizards and toads require suitable

places to hide from predators. A small rock pile or brush pile constructed of medium-sized branches might be sited in an out-of-the-way place in your yard. Try hiding the pile with a native vine like Virginia creeper.

**An effective HABITAT AT HOME© functions as a small food web for many species.**

Contact the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries for more information, at [email protected]

A Good Habitat...

Page 27: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

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Appendix C

APPENDIX C

Conversion Chart

Time 1 hour = 60 minutes = 3,600 seconds

1 day = 8.64 x 104 seconds 1 year = 365 days = 3.15 x 107 seconds

Area 1 sq. in. = 6.4516 sq. cm 1 acre = 43,560 sq. ft.

1 sq. yd. = 9 sq. ft.

Volume 1 cu. ft. = 1,728 cu. in. = 28.231liters

1 US gallon = 3.786 liters 1 liter = 3.531 x 10-2 cu. ft.

1,000 liters = 1 cu. m. 27 cu. ft. = 1 cu. yd.

Length 1 ft. = 12 in. = 30.48 cm.

1 in. = 2.54 cm. 1 yd = 3 ft. = 91.44 cm.

1 m = 3.281 ft. = 39.37 in. 1 mile = 5280 ft. = 1760 yd.

Temperature 20° C = 293 K = 68° F

° C = 273 + K ° C = (° F-32) / 1.8

Mass 1 kg = 1,000 grams 1 kg = 2.2046 lbs.

1 US ton = 2,000 lbs.

Conversion Chart

Page 28: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

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Appendix D

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Page 29: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

27

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Page 30: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

28

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is v

irgin

iana

Witc

h ha

zel

XX

XX

XX

Yello

w fa

ll flo

wer

Hib

iscu

s ac

ulea

tus

Hib

iscu

sX

XX

XLa

rge

flow

er/m

any

colo

rs/p

ollin

ator

s

Hib

iscu

s m

ilita

risH

ibis

cus

XX

XX

Larg

e pi

nk fl

ower

/pol

linat

ors

Hib

iscu

s m

osch

euto

sM

arsh

mal

low

XX

XX

XLa

rge

whi

te fl

ower

/pol

linat

ors

Ilex

coria

cea

Sw

eet g

allb

erry

XX

XX

Dul

l red

dru

pe b

erry

/bird

s in

spr

ing

Ilex

deci

dua

Pos

sum

haw

XX

XX

XX

XO

rang

e to

sca

rlet f

ruit

Ilex

glab

raIn

kber

ry h

olly

XX

XX

XX

XX

Blu

e-bl

ack

berr

ies/

ever

gree

n

Ilex

verti

cilla

taW

inte

rber

ry h

olly

XX

XX

XX

XX

XR

ed b

errie

s/de

cidu

ous

Ilex

vom

itoria

Yaup

on h

olly

XX

XX

XX

Sca

rlet d

rupe

/eve

rgre

en

Itea

virg

inic

aVi

rgin

ia s

wee

tspi

reX

XX

XX

XX

Sca

rlet f

all c

olor

Leuc

otht

hoe

race

mos

aS

wee

tbel

lsX

XX

XX

XX

XR

ed fa

ll co

lor/w

hite

bel

l flow

er

Lind

era

benz

oin

Spi

ce b

ush

XX

XX

XX

XX

XS

picy

sce

nt/re

d fru

it

Lyon

ia lu

cida

Fette

rbus

hX

XX

XX

Pin

k-w

hite

flow

er/e

verg

reen

Lyon

ia li

gust

rina

Mal

e be

rry

XX

XX

Whi

te fl

ower

/eve

rgre

en

Mag

nolia

virg

inia

naS

wee

tbay

mag

nolia

XX

XX

XX

XX

Sw

eet-s

cent

ed w

hite

flow

er/s

emi-e

verg

reen

Mor

ella

cer

ifera

Sou

th. w

ax m

yrtle

XX

XX

XX

XX

Spi

cy s

cent

/wax

y ev

ergr

een

leaf

Mor

ella

pen

sylv

anic

aB

aybe

rry

XX

XX

XX

XX

Spi

cy s

cent

/sem

i-eve

rgre

en

Ost

rya

virg

inia

naE

ast.

hoph

ornb

eam

XX

XX

XX

Nut

let a

nd c

atki

ns/s

ongb

irds

Phy

soca

rpus

opu

lifol

ius

Com

mon

nin

ebar

kX

XX

XX

XP

eelin

g ba

rk/la

rge

whi

te fl

ower

/red

fruit

Rho

dode

ndro

n vi

scos

umS

wam

p az

alea

XX

XX

XX

XW

hite

flow

er/c

love

sce

nt

Rub

us a

llegh

enie

nsis

Alle

ghen

y bl

.ber

ryX

XX

XX

XS

hiny

blu

e be

rry/

thor

ns/b

irds

and

smal

l mam

mal

s

Sal

ix d

isco

lor

Pus

sy w

illow

XX

XX

XX

Larg

e so

ft gr

ay c

atki

n

Sal

ix n

igra

Bla

ck w

illow

XX

XX

XX

Cat

kins

/son

gbird

s

Sal

ix c

otte

ttii

Ban

kers

will

owX

XX

XX

XC

atki

ns/s

ongb

irds

Sam

bucu

s ca

nade

nsis

Eld

erbe

rry

XX

XX

XX

XFl

at w

hite

flow

er/p

urpl

e ed

ible

frui

t

Vacc

iniu

m c

oryb

osum

Hig

hbus

h bl

uebe

rry

XX

XX

XX

Whi

te fl

ower

/edi

ble

blue

ber

ry

Vibu

rnum

cas

sino

ides

With

er R

odM

ulti-

colo

red

fruit/

bron

ze le

af c

olor

Vibu

rnum

den

tatu

mA

rrow

woo

dX

XX

XX

XX

XX

Dar

k bl

ue d

rupe

/bird

s

Vibu

rnum

nud

umP

osso

mha

wX

XX

XX

XX

XX

Lust

erou

s re

d fa

ll co

lor

RE

GIO

N: M

=Mou

ntai

n P

=Pie

dmon

t C

=Coa

stal

MO

ISTU

RE

ZO

NE

: 1=V

ery

Wet

2=M

oder

atel

y W

et 3

=Mod

erat

ely

Dry

4=D

ry

Page 31: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

29

Scie

ntifi

c na

me

Com

mon

nam

e

Reg

ion

Ligh

tM

oist

ure

Zone

Inte

rest

ing

Feat

ures

MP

CSu

nPa

rt. S

hade

Shad

e1

23

4M

EDIU

M T

O L

AR

GE

TREE

S

Ace

r rub

rum

Red

map

leX

XX

XX

X

X

XX

Red

leav

es a

nd tw

igs,

red

flow

ers

in s

prin

g

Bet

ula

nigr

aR

iver

birc

hX

XX

XX

XX

XX

Ta

n pe

elin

g ba

rk

Bet

ula

lent

aS

wee

t/Bla

ck b

irch

XX

XX

XX

Cin

nam

on re

d ba

rk

Car

ya c

ordi

form

isB

itter

nut h

icko

ryX

XX

XX

XX

Larg

e sh

ade

tree

Dio

spyr

os v

irgin

iana

Per

sim

mon

XX

XX

XX

XX

Dis

tinct

ive

scal

ey b

ark

Frax

inus

am

eric

ana

Whi

te a

shX

XX

XX

XX

Larg

e sh

ade

tree,

yel

low

to m

aroo

n fa

ll co

lor

Frax

inus

pen

sylv

anic

aG

reen

ash

XX

XX

XX

XX

Larg

e sh

ade

tree,

yel

low

to o

rang

e fa

ll co

lor

Gle

dits

ia a

quat

ica

Wat

er lo

cust

XX

XX

XFr

agra

nt y

ello

w fl

ower

s

Jugl

ans

nigr

aB

lack

wal

nut

XX

XX

XX

XX

Gro

wn

for n

uts,

woo

d an

d w

ildlif

e

Juni

peru

s vi

rgin

iana

Eas

tern

red

ceda

rX

XX

XX

XX

XG

ood

scre

enin

g sp

ecim

en, g

row

n fo

r wild

life

Liqu

idam

bar s

tyra

ciflu

aS

wee

tgum

XX

XX

XX

XX

Fall

colo

r/yel

low

/pur

ple

Lirio

dend

ron

tulip

ifera

Yello

w p

opla

rX

XX

XX

XX

XYe

llow

fall

colo

r, la

rge

yello

w a

nd g

reen

flow

ers

Nys

sa a

quat

ica

Wat

er tu

pelo

XX

XX

XR

ed fa

ll co

lor

Nys

sa s

ylva

tica

Bla

ck g

umX

XX

XX

XX

XR

ed fa

ll co

lor

Oxy

dend

rum

arb

oreu

m

Sou

rwoo

dX

XX

XX

XX

XX

Spr

ing

bloo

ms,

fall

colo

r

Pin

us ta

eda

Lobl

olly

pin

eX

XX

XX

XW

ood,

hab

itat a

nd s

cree

ning

Pla

tanu

s oc

cide

ntal

isS

ycam

ore

XX

XX

XX

XX

XM

ottle

d w

hite

bar

k

Pop

ulus

del

toid

esC

otto

nwoo

d po

plar

XX

XX

XX

Sm

all s

eed/

song

bird

s, s

hort-

lived

Que

rcus

bic

olor

Sw

amp

whi

te o

akX

XX

XX

XX

Aco

rns/

deer

/turk

ey/s

quirr

els

Que

rcus

coc

cine

aS

carle

t Oak

XX

XX

XX

XA

corn

s/de

er/tu

rkey

/squ

irrel

s, re

d fa

ll co

lor

Que

rcus

laur

ifolia

Sw

amp

laur

elX

XX

XX

Aco

rns/

deer

/turk

ey/s

quirr

els

Que

rcus

lyra

taO

verc

up o

akX

XX

XX

XX

Aco

rns/

deer

/turk

ey/s

quirr

els

Que

rcus

mic

haux

iiS

wam

p ch

estn

ut o

akX

XX

XX

XX

XA

corn

s/de

er/tu

rkey

/squ

irrel

s

Que

rcus

nig

raW

ater

oak

XX

XX

XX

Aco

rns/

deer

/turk

ey/s

quirr

els

Que

rcus

pal

ustri

sP

in o

akX

XX

XX

XA

corn

s/de

er/tu

rkey

/squ

irrel

s

Que

rcus

phe

llos

Will

ow o

akX

XX

XX

XX

Aco

rns/

deer

/turk

ey/s

quirr

els

RE

GIO

N: M

=Mou

ntai

n P

=Pie

dmon

t C

=Coa

stal

MO

ISTU

RE

ZO

NE

: 1=V

ery

Wet

2=M

oder

atel

y W

et 3

=Mod

erat

ely

Dry

4=D

ry

Page 32: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

30

Scie

ntifi

c na

me

Com

mon

nam

e

Reg

ion

Ligh

tM

oist

ure

Zone

Inte

rest

ing

Feat

ures

MP

CSu

nPa

rt. S

hade

Shad

e1

23

4M

EDIU

M T

O L

AR

GE

TREE

S, c

ontin

ued

Que

rcus

shu

mar

dii

Shu

mar

d oa

kX

XX

XX

XA

corn

s/de

er/tu

rkey

/squ

irrel

s

Rob

inia

pse

udoa

ccac

iaB

lack

locu

stX

XX

XX

XFr

agra

nt fl

ower

s

Taxo

dium

dis

tichu

mB

ald

cypr

ess

XX

XX

XX

XX

Dec

iduo

us n

eedl

es

Tsug

a ca

nade

nsis

Eas

tern

hem

lock

XX

XX

XX

Pen

dulu

s br

anch

es

Ulm

us ru

bra

Slip

pery

elm

XX

XX

XX

XS

mal

l rou

nd s

eed/

bird

s

RE

GIO

N: M

=Mou

ntai

n P

=Pie

dmon

t C

=Coa

stal

MO

ISTU

RE

ZO

NE

: 1=V

ery

Wet

2=M

oder

atel

y W

et 3

=Mod

erat

ely

Dry

4=D

ry

Page 33: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

31

Notes

Page 34: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

32

Notes

Page 35: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

33

Notes

Page 36: Virginia Rain Gardens Technical Guide

VirginiaDepartment of Forestry

Central Office900 Natural Resources Drive, Suite 800

Charlottesville, Virginia 22903www.dof.virginia.gov

Phone: (434) 977-6555Fax: (434) 296-2369

VDOF P00127; 05/2008

VI RGI NIA