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  1. 1. Non-Lethal Weapons Opportunities for R&D Harold Stocker, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Dick Directorate of Science and Technology Policy Defence R&D Canada Gilles Berub Defence R&D Canada Valcartier Defence R&D Canada TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM DRDC-TM-2004-006 December 2004
  2. 2. Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 DEC 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defence R&D Canada -Ottawa,3701 Carling Ave,Ottawa Ontario,CA,K1A 0Z4 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITORS REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT The aim of this overview study is to recommend the Non-Lethal Weapon (NLW) research and development that Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) could conduct over the next decade (and possibly beyond) in response to emerging defence and security NLW requirements. It summarizes the DRDC perspective of NLW technologies, which includes non-lethal applications of electro-magnetic and acoustic directed energy. The study shows that by channeling existing expertise and effort, DRDC could, over time, provide the Canadian Forces with science and technology knowledge on the effects, operational effectiveness and counter-measures of selected, emerging NLW technologies. La prsente tude densemble a pour objet de recommander les travaux de recherche et dveloppement sur les armes non ltales (ANL) que Recherche et dveloppement pour la dfense Canada (RDDC) pourrait effectuer au cours des dix prochaines annes (et peut tre au del) pour satisfaire aux nouveaux besoins dANL en vue dassurer la dfense et la scurit. Elle rsume la perspective de RDDC sur les technologies dANL, notamment les applications non ltales de lnergie lectromagntique et acoustique dirige. Ltude montre que si elle canalise lexpertise et le travail actuels, RDDC pourrait, au fil du temps, fournir aux Forces canadiennes des connaissances scientifiques et technologiques sur les effets, lefficacit oprationnelle et les contre-mesures lies certaines technologies nouvelles en matire dANL. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 165 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified
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  4. 4. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D Harold Stocker DRDC Lieutenant-Colonel John Dick DRDC Gilles Berub DRDC Valcartier Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Defence R&D Canada Technical Memorandum DRDC TM 2004-006 December 2004
  5. 5. Author Harold Stocker, Ph. D. Directorate Science and Technology Policy Approved by Ingar Moen, Ph. D. Director S&T Policy Approved for release by Ingar Moen, Ph. D. Chair Document Review Panel Her Majesty the Queen as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2004 Sa majest la reine, reprsente par le ministre de la Dfense nationale, 2004
  6. 6. Abstract The aim of this overview study is to recommend the Non-Lethal Weapon (NLW) research and development that Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) could conduct over the next decade (and possibly beyond) in response to emerging defence and security NLW requirements. It summarizes the DRDC perspective of NLW technologies, which includes non-lethal applications of electro-magnetic and acoustic directed energy. The study shows that by channeling existing expertise and effort, DRDC could, over time, provide the Canadian Forces with science and technology knowledge on the effects, operational effectiveness and counter-measures of selected, emerging NLW technologies. Rsum La prsente tude densemble a pour objet de recommander les travaux de recherche et dveloppement sur les armes non ltales (ANL) que Recherche et dveloppement pour la dfense Canada (RDDC) pourrait effectuer au cours des dix prochaines annes (et peut-tre au-del) pour satisfaire aux nouveaux besoins dANL en vue dassurer la dfense et la scurit. Elle rsume la perspective de RDDC sur les technologies dANL, notamment les applications non ltales de lnergie lectromagntique et acoustique dirige. Ltude montre que si elle canalise lexpertise et le travail actuels, RDDC pourrait, au fil du temps, fournir aux Forces canadiennes des connaissances scientifiques et technologiques sur les effets, lefficacit oprationnelle et les contre-mesures lies certaines technologies nouvelles en matire dANL. DRDC 2004-006 i
  7. 7. This page intentionally left blank. DRDC 2004-006 ii
  8. 8. Executive summary Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) comprise a strategic objective in the Technology Investment Strategy that guides the Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) research and development (R&D) program. For the past decade, DRDC has conducted a technology watch as its main NLW activity. The rise in Peace Support Operations and non-state terrorism has increased the need for non-lethal military options and called into question the appropriateness of DRDC continuing only a NLW technology watch. Consequently, DRDC commissioned the study Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D to recommend R&D that DRDC could conduct over the next decade (and possibly beyond) in response to emerging defence and security NLW requirements. The study consists of an overview of Canadian Forces (CF) NLW policy, doctrine and requirements and a number of technical papers describing the non-lethal applications and potential areas of R&D for the major areas of the non-lethal technology taxonomy or classification, which includes non-lethal applications of electro-magnetic and acoustic directed energy. The study recognizes that NLWs is a new and evolving capability that is faced with many difficult military, scientific, legal and ethical issues. R&D alone cannot resolve these issues, but can inform the debate by providing sound scientific data on NLW effects. NLW science and technology (S&T) is evolving rapidly. Meaningful information on NLW effects is difficult to obtain from allies unless data of comparable scientific value is exchanged in return, for which a national NLW R&D program is usually required. It is therefore, in the CF interest to conduct NLW R&D. The DRDC technology watch indicates the key S&T challenges facing NLW R&D are as follows: First, there is a scarcity of well-documented human and materiel target response data on the various NLW technologies. While there are many references to NLW effects, the scientific value of these observations and conclusions is difficult to validate. Moreover, the development and potential application of non-lethal and directed energy technologies is outpacing the understanding of their effects. In particular, the human physiological and psychological effects of many NLW technologies, in both the short term and long term, are not well understood. Secondly, the lack of standardization in data collection and in research protocols, both of which are considered essential, complicates collaboration and transfer of existing data both within and between nations. Thirdly, even when the effects of NLW technologies are known, modeling and simulation (M&S) tools are needed to assess NLW operational effectiveness in realistic employment scenarios and to analyze the cost/benefit ratio of the R&D investment for the CF. These tools are difficult to develop, in part because the effects data needed to populate and exercise them have not been collected. DRDC 2004-006 iii
  9. 9. Lastly, the right to self-defence is never denied and counter-measures against non- lethal attacks may become an important force protection measure. The requirement may be particularly acute when the opposing forces NLW inventory is more extensive or advanced than that of the CF and where the adversary uses chemical and biological NLWs that other states may consider illegal or prohibited. DRDC possesses the skills and expertise to move from a technology watch to active NLW R&D. The knowledge gained in blunt trauma, operational medicine, directed energy and the human response to chemical hazards can be leveraged for NLW applications. Some scientific skills are more transferable than others, and time will always be needed to become familiar with the technological issues and barriers facing NLW R&D. Nevertheless, the R&D focus should be on the key technical challenges of gathering effects data, defining data requirements, assessing operational effectiveness and developing counter-measures. The actual non-lethal application should be assessed on its scientific value, enhanced operational effec