water scenario in punjab (india)

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    Judicious use of Water in

    Agriculture

    Rajan Bhatt,

    Assistant professor (SoilScience),

    Krishi Vigyan Kendra,

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    66% of the humanbody is made up ofwater.

    At just 2% dehydrationyour performancedecreases by around

    20%.

    We should drink atleast 1 litres ofwater a day.

    Water to drink

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    Two thirds of ourplanet is covered bywater.

    97.5% of the water issaltwater.

    The majority offreshwater is beyondour reach, locked intopolar snow and ice.

    Water World

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    World Water Uses

    22%

    8%

    70%

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Agriculture Domestic Industry

    Water uses

    %

    oftotalwate

    rused

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    The UNestimates

    that by 2025,75% of theworldpopulation

    wont havereliable, cleanwater.

    Water Future

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    Punjabs Share in World andIndia

    S.No.

    Particulars Worlds ( % ) India ( % )

    1 Punjabs Land area 0.33 1.6

    2 Punjabs Rice contribution 1 42

    3 Punjabs wheat contribution 2 55

    4 Punjabs cottoncontribution

    2 24

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    Water scenario in Punjab

    Land of five rivers.

    Before 150 years ago

    After 150 years .

    6head works

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    Punjab-agricultural Scenario Punjab (1960)

    Punjab (Now) Crops Changed area (%)

    Wheat 27% 78 %

    Rice 6% 60 %

    Pulses 24% 1.3 %

    Gram 22% 0.4%

    Tubewells 1 lakh 11,90000

    *Centrifugal pumps replaced bysubmersible um s

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    Crop water requirements(cm)

    Crop Water requirement

    1. Rice 180 cm

    2. Cotton 45 cm

    3. Maize 40 cm

    4. Groundnut 25 cm

    This is the reason why rice assume asthe main culprit of falling groundwater level.

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    Water Required

    Total Water required 43 lakh ha-m/year

    Water (in our pocket) 30 lakh ha-m/

    year

    Rainfall------------------------ 15.5 lakh ha-

    m/ yearSeepage----------------------- 14.5 lakh

    ha-m/ year

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    Dark zone increased

    Out of total 141 blocks of Punjab weHave 112

    Blocks in the dark zone.

    Farmers of Rajasthan-----All they havebut not water, so there is a need touse water judiciously in agriculture.

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    Ways to use water

    judiciously in agriculture1.Diversification

    2.Laser levelling

    3.Crop varieties

    4.Date of transplanting

    5.Under ground pipelines

    6.Tensiometer.

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    Diversification

    Rice cultivation in almost 26 lakh habut there is a need to decreasearound 10 lakh ha area from paddyto other oilseed and pulse crop.

    To encourage this:1.There is a project of FLDs

    2.National Horticulture Mission

    3.Dairy department4.Fishery department*Instead of this there are a no. of

    schemes to divert the farmers from

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    Laser leveling

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    Working of laser leveler

    l t itt

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    laser transmitterLaser receiver

    Hydraulic control system

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    Working of laser leveler

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    Crop varieties

    Use medium duration PunjabAgricultural Universityrecommended varieties

    PR-111

    PR-120

    PAU-201

    Prefer basmati as its transplantingstarts from 10th of July.

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    Date of transplanting

    It is proposed and now by law thatPaddy transplanting must startsfrom 10th of June as

    A.At that time Monsoon arrives and theevaporation losses decrease to amuch extent.

    B.Time interval in between twoirrigations increased.

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    Under Ground pipe lines

    vStops water loss from the source tothe field.

    vIncrease 10 Marlas from 1 acre.

    vIncreased the total yield of crop.

    vDecrease the problem of weeds.

    v

    Easy movement of farm machinerysuch as tractor, combines etc.

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    Tensiometer

    A new technique for schedulingirrigation.

    Parts of tensiometer

    Ceramic cup Silicon cork

    Two acrylic pipes

    *Inner pipe directly linked with the cupwhereas outer is just to provide thesupport. Water saved tghrough

    tensiometer around 25-30%.

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    Sprinklers and drip system

    Best for the orchards and vegetables Decrease water requirement to

    manyfolds.

    Minimizes the chances of spreadingthe disease from the infected plantto the healthy ones.

    Improve the fruit quality andstandard.

    *To encourage this system farmers are

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    D i I i tiDrip Irrigation

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    Drip IrrigationDrip Irrigationcomponentscomponents

    1.1.Water SourceWater Source(Tubewell and Pump or(Tubewell and Pump or

    water tank)water tank)

    1.1.Filter and fertilizer tankFilter and fertilizer tank

    2.2.Main / submainMain / submain

    3.3.LateralsLaterals

    4.4.EmitterEmitter

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    Gravity fed drip irrigation in plateauGravity fed drip irrigation in plateau

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    Conclusions Need more impact assessment of irrigation and

    more econometric studies of performance.

    Irrigation crucial to productivity-some systemsare not sustainable because of over pumping

    Irrigation technologies and improvement invarieties are another sources of improvedwater productivity in agriculture.

    Water management is a major challenge-costbenefit needed to improve investment choiceand integrate agriculture and environmentand urban water use. Main challenge isefficient irrigation at the regional level.

    Farmers must follow the recommendations ofthe University like Tensiometer, Under ground

    pipelines etc.

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    Thanks