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E_English Grammar Course E_English Grammar Course Chapter VIII Coordination, Ellipsis, & Apposition

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E_English Grammar Course E_English Grammar Course

Chapter VIII

Coordination, Ellipsis, & Apposition

1. Coordination

+ Phrasal

+ Clausal

2. Ellipsis

+ Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

3. Apposition

+ Non-restrictive

+ Restrictive

IssuesIssues

Coordination 1.1

CoordinationCoordination = the combination of two or more equal units,

namely, phrases or clauses

E.g.: My friend and I went there together.

We went there and returned immediately.

I told him this, but he didn't believe me.

1/1

See more in 9.7 - 9.8

Coordination 1.1

CoordinationCoordination = can be referred to by some grammarians as syndetic

(with the presence of coordinators) and asyndetic

(with the absence of coordinators)

E.g.: Slowly and stealthily, he crept towards his victim. (syndetic)

Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victim. (asyndetic)

2/1

Coordination 1.1

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

= coordination of phrase of equal status

= coordination of clause of equal status

3/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordinated NPs (in different syntactic functions)

E.g.: Peter and Tom were here.

She is afraid of snakes and cockroaches.

Old and young men were invited.

He has secretaries from Ireland and auditors from France here.

These and those chairs are wooden.

4/1

See more in 9.31 - 9.43

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordinated Adverbial phrases (with dependent

clauses)

E.g.: You can wash it manually or by using a machine.

They can call this week or whenever they wish.

I want to know by whom and for whom it was

ordered.

5/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordinated Adjective phrases

E.g.: She is young and beautiful.

His clear and forceful delivery impressed the

audience.

These jewels were very cheap and gaudy.

6/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordinated Prepositional phrases

E.g.: The attacks in June and in July failed

He climbed up the wall and over the wall.

John complained to Mary and to Peter.

7/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordination of identical items

E.g.: He felt more and more bored.

They talked on and on and on.

There are teachers and teachers.

8/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• Order in phrasal coordination:

+ a tendency for the shorter word to come first

E.g.: big and ugly

cup and saucer

+ in virtually irreversible order

E.g.: bread and butter

law and order

knife, folk, and spoon

by hook or by crook

9/1

Phrasal Coordination 1.2

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• can be segregatory (possibly paraphrased into 2 or

more coordinated clauses)

E.g.: John and Mary have a cold

(John has a cold and Mary has a cold.)

• can be combinatory (impossibly paraphrased into

coordinated clauses)

E.g.: John and Mary make a good couple

(no analogous paraphrase)

He painted his car black and white.

(a combined process)

10/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CoordinationCoordination

PhrasalPhrasal

ClausalClausal

• including:

+ coordinated independent clauses

E.g.: She didn't want their help, but she had to accept it.

+ coordinated subordinate clauses

E.g.: I want to know for whom it was ordered and by

whom (it was ordered)

She desired to know where he had gone but not

why he had gone.

11/1

See more in 9.9 - 9.20

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

12/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: John plays the guitar, and his sister plays the piano.

13/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: They are living in England, or they are spending a vacation there.

14/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: precede conjunctionsCoordinators: precede conjunctions

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: He was unhappy about it, and yet he did as he was told.

15/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: They love him and believe in him.

I may see you tomorrow or may phone later in the day.

16/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: I wonder whether you should speak to him personally or whether

it is better to write to him.

17/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Syntactic features of CoordinatorsSyntactic features of Coordinators

Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position

Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed

Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction

Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link clause constituents

Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link subordinate clauses

Coordinators: link more than two clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses

E.g.: The battery may be disconnected, or the connection may be

loose, or the bulb may be faulty.

18/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CoordinatorsCoordinators

AND AND

OR OR

BUTBUT

19/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

20/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: He heard an explosion and he (therefore) phoned the police.

21/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: I washed the dishes and (then) I dried them.

22/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: Robert is secretive and (in contrast) David is candid.

23/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: They disliked John - and that's not surprising.

24/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: Give me some money and (then) I'll help escape.

25/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: A trade agreement should be no problem, and

(similarly) a cultural exchange could be arranged.

26/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: He has long hair and (also) he often wears jeans.

27/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “AND” Semantic implications of “AND”

Addition of consequence or result Addition of consequence or result

Addition of chronological sequence Addition of chronological sequence

Contrast Contrast

2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st

1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd

2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st

2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st

2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st

E.g.: She tried hard and (yet) she failed.

28/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “OR” Semantic implications of “OR”

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Exclusive choice Exclusive choice

Inclusive choice Inclusive choice

Negative condition Negative condition

If one of the individual

conjoins is true, then the

whole sentence is true.

29/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “OR” Semantic implications of “OR”

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Exclusive choice Exclusive choice

Inclusive choice Inclusive choice

Negative condition Negative condition

E.g.: You can go there by car or you can walk there.

30/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “OR” Semantic implications of “OR”

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Exclusive choice Exclusive choice

Inclusive choice Inclusive choice

Negative condition Negative condition

E.g.: You can boil an egg, or you can make some

cheese sandwiches, or you can do both.

31/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “OR” Semantic implications of “OR”

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Exclusive choice Exclusive choice

Inclusive choice Inclusive choice

Negative condition Negative condition

E.g.: He began his educational career, or, in other

words, he started to attend the local kindergarten.

32/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “OR” Semantic implications of “OR”

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea

Exclusive choice Exclusive choice

Inclusive choice Inclusive choice

Negative condition Negative condition

E.g.: Give me some money or I'll shoot.

33/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “BUT” Semantic implications of “BUT”

Unexpected contrast

Unexpected contrast

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

34/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “BUT” Semantic implications of “BUT”

Unexpected contrast

Unexpected contrast

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

E.g.: John is poor, but he's happy.

He didn't want their help, but he had to accept it.

35/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Semantic implications of “BUT” Semantic implications of “BUT”

Unexpected contrast

Unexpected contrast

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative)

E.g.: John didn't waste his time in the week before the

exam, but studied hard every evening.

36/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CorrelativesCorrelatives

both…and both…and

either…or either…or

neither…norneither…nor

othersothers

37/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CorrelativesCorrelatives

both…and both…and

either…or either…or

neither…norneither…nor

othersothers

• with anticipated addition

E.g.: He both has long hair and wears jeans.

38/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CorrelativesCorrelatives

both…and both…and

either…or either…or

neither…norneither…nor

othersothers

• with anticipated alternation

E.g.: He either has long hair or wears jeans.

39/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CorrelativesCorrelatives

both…and both…and

either…or either…or

neither…norneither…nor

othersothers

• with anticipated additional negation

E.g.: He neither has long hair nor wears jeans.

40/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

CorrelativesCorrelatives

both…and both…and

either…or either…or

neither…norneither…nor

othersothers

• “nor/neither” - correlated with actual or

implied negative in the previous clause

E.g.: He did not want to ask them for help;

(but) nor could he do without their help.

• “not only ... but (also)”

E.g.: They not only broke into his office and

stole his book, but they (also) tore up his

manuscripts.

41/1

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Quasi-coordinatorsQuasi-coordinators

as well asas well as

as much asas much as

rather thanrather than

more thanmore than

E.g.: He publishes as well as prints his books.

She was pitied rather than disliked. • these coordinators can have a prepositional

or subordinating role

E.g.: As well as printing his books, he

publishes them.

Rather than cause trouble, I’m going to

forget the whole affair.

John, as much as (= with) his brother,

was responsible for the loss.

42/1

See more in 9.44

Clausal Coordination 1.3

Non-restrictive relative clausesNon-restrictive relative clauses

• semantically considered as equivalent to coordinate clauses

E.g.: John didn’t go to the show, which is a pity.

= John didn’t go to the show, and that is a pity.

43/1

Ellipsis 2.1

EllipsisEllipsis • described as “grammatical omission” of elements

which are precisely recoverable from the

linguistic or situational context

E.g.: Have you spoken to him?

(I have) Not yet (spoken to him).

1/2

See more in 9.1 - 9.6

Ellipsis 2.1

EllipsisEllipsis • normally occurs in coordinated clauses, comparative

clauses, question-answer sentences, and other context

where adjacent clauses are related in form & meaning

E.g.: I thought they were on the seat, but they’re not (on the seat).

She looks older than her mother (does).

When’s he coming back? – (He’s coming back) Next Friday.

2/2

Ellipsis 2.1

EllipsisEllipsis• occurs in 3 positions: initial, medial, and final

E.g.: He squeezed her hand out but (he) met with no excuse.

He and his mate both jumped out, he (jumped out) to go to the women, his

mate (jumped out) to stop other traffic on the bridge.

Perhaps, as the review gathers steam, this can now change. It needs to (change).

3/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

4/2

See more in 9.21 - 9.30

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

• identical subjects of coordinated clauses are ellipted

E.g.: Peter ate a cheese sandwich and (Peter/he) drank a glass of beer.

• sometimes, ellipsis of both S and auxiliary occurs

E.g.: Mary has washed the dishes, (she has) dried them, and (she has)

put them in the cupboard.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

5/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

E.g.: John should clean the shed and Peter (should) move the lawn.

John must have been playing football and Mary (must have been)

doing her homework.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

6/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only

Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S)

Ellipsis of lexical V + OdEllipsis of lexical V + Od

Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

7/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only

Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S)

Ellipsis of lexical V + OdEllipsis of lexical V + Od

Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication

E.g.: Yesterday John was given a railway set, and Sue (was given) a doll.

I work in a factory and my wife (works) on a farm.

Nam will work today and (he) may (work) the day after tomorrow.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

8/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only

Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S)

Ellipsis of lexical V + OdEllipsis of lexical V + Od

Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication

E.g.: John was the winner in 1971 and Bob (was the winner) 10 years later.

The milk turned sour not only today but (the milk turned sour) yesterday too.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

9/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only

Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S)

Ellipsis of lexical V + OdEllipsis of lexical V + Od

Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication

E.g:.

E.g.: Peter plays football for his school and Paul (plays football) for his club.

Joan will cook the meals today and Barbara may (cook the meals) tomorrow.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

10/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only

Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S)

Ellipsis of lexical V + OdEllipsis of lexical V + Od

Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication

E.g.: We met last year, but we haven't (met) since.

They can (pay the full fee) and (they) should pay the full fee, but (they) won't

(pay the full fee).

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

11/2

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

E.g.: George opened (the door), but Mary closed, the door.

Bob seemed angry, and George certainly was (angry).

12/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

E.g.: To my surprise, they didn't appoint him, and they (to my surprise)

didn't even interview him.

Theoretically, I have no objections to his proposal and (theoretically)

neither have any of my colleagues.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

13/2

2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

E.g.: We wanted fried fish, but they gave us boiled (fish).

She wore the black dress, but the blue (dress) suits her better.

Bob is bored with (music), but Peter enjoys music.

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

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2.2

Ellipsis in coordinated clausesEllipsis in coordinated clauses

Ellipsis of subjectEllipsis of subject

Ellipsis of auxiliary onlyEllipsis of auxiliary only

Ellipsis of predicate/predicationEllipsis of predicate/predication

Ellipsis of Od/Cs onlyEllipsis of Od/Cs only

Ellipsis of AEllipsis of A

Ellipsis of Head-noun/CprepEllipsis of Head-noun/Cprep

Semantically, the effect of

ellipsis is to indicate that

there is a combined process

rather than two separate

processes

E.g.: Did Peter tell lies, and

did he hurt his friends?

(Peter's telling lies and his

hurting his friends are

regarded as two separate

processes, hence two

separate questions.)

Ellipsis in coordinated clauses

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HomeworkHomework

Exercises 148 - 157 Workbook

Apposition 3

AppositionApposition • resembles co-ordination in linking units

having grammatical affinity (referring to the

same entity)

E.g.: A neighbor, Freed Smith, is on the telephone.

Mr. Campbell, the lawyer, was here last night.

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See more in 9.45 - 9.58

3

Realization of AppositionRealization of Apposition

NPsNPs

Non-finite clauseNon-finite clause

Finite clauseFinite clause

E.g.: His novel Great Expectations is truly thrilling (NPs) The soldiers, some of them being natives, are friendly (Non-finite cls) His hope, to become a doctor, was realised at last (Non-finite cls) This supports his argument that things are getting worse than before. (Finite cls) He didn't answer my question, why he hadn't come to the meeting. (Finite cls). His account of what he had done that year didn’t satisfy his colleague. (Finite cls)

Apposition

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Apposition 3

Indicators of AppositionIndicators of Apposition

= that is to say, that is, i.e, namely, viz., in other words, or, or rather, and, as follows, for example, for instance, e.g., say, including, such, as, particularly, chiefly, mainly, mostly, etc.

E.g.: The passenger plane of the 1980s, namely the supersonic jet, have somewhat

transformed relations between people of the world.

The President of the USA, in other words Bill Clinton, was on television last night.

I didn't meet any people, including my sister.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

• providing the additionally descriptive information

for the entity with no function of identifying the entity

• different information unit

• in speech: separate tone

• in writing: commas/weighty punctuation like “( )”

E.g.: The passenger plane of the 1980s, namely the supersonic jet, have somewhat

transformed relations between people of the world.

The President of the USA, in other words Bill Clinton, was on television last night.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

AppellationAppellation

DesignationDesignation

IdentificationIdentification

ReformulationReformulation

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

AppellationAppellation

DesignationDesignation

IntensificationIntensification

ReformulationReformulation

• Indicators: that is, namely, in other words,

who/which + BE , etc. E.g.: The company commander, (who was) Captain Madison, assembled his men and announced their mission. He told them the good news: taxes are to be reduced.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

AppellationAppellation

DesignationDesignation

IntensificationIntensification

ReformulationReformulation

• 2nd appositive being less specific than the 1st

E.g.: Captain Madison, (that is to say) the

company commander, took the lead.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

AppellationAppellation

DesignationDesignation

IdentificationIdentification

ReformulationReformulation• 2nd appositive being more specific than the 1st

E.g.: A literary critic, Mr. Paul Jones, wrote this

article.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

AppellationAppellation

DesignationDesignation

IntensificationIntensification

ReformulationReformulation

• 2nd appositive being reworded

E.g.: He drew a pentagonal, or five-sided, figure.

We are studying sound units of the

language, technically phonemes.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion• Indicators: who/which + BE• Involving predication rather than equivalence• The 2nd appositive: commonly an indefinite NPE.g.: The house, an imposing building, dominated the street. • But the NP here can be definite or non-articledE.g.: Many soldiers, the cream of the battalion, died in the attack. Robinson, leader of the Democratic group on the committee, refused to answer questions.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

ExemplificationExemplification

ParticularizationParticularization

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

ExemplificationExemplification

ParticularizationParticularization• Indicators: for example, for instance, say, etc.

E.g.: His excuses, say the break down of his car,

never seemed plausible.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

EquivalenceEquivalence

AttributionAttribution

InclusionInclusion

ExemplificationExemplification

ParticularizationParticularization

• Indicators: particularly, especially, etc.E.g.: The children liked the animals, particularly the monkeys. The soldiers, some drunk, started fighting each other.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

• providing the information to identify the entity

• same information unit

E.g.: Which Mr. Smith do you mean?

Mr. Smith the architect or Mr. Smith the electrician?

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

• Strict restrictive apposition of NPs can take three

forms (the 1st form: the most common)

1. The 1st apposition is the more general expression

preceded by a definite determiner (and possibly

pre-modifier)

E.g.: That famous critic Paul Jones came here last night.

I haven't seen my good friend Bob for a forthright.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

2. The second appositive is preceded by a determiner

and is more general than the first.

E.g.: Paul Jones the critic didn't attend the last seminar. Bill Clinton the president of the U.S.A ended his working visit to Japan.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

3. This type is like (1) but with omission of the

determiner.

E.g.: Critic Paul Jones was completely against the plan.

They talked with Democratic leader Robison for half an hour.

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Apposition 3

AppositionApposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

Non-restrictive Apposition

RestrictiveAppositionRestrictiveApposition

• Besides, restrictive apposition is common with such NPs

as the fact, the idea, the view, the question, etc.

E.g.: I don't agree with the view that there is no

advantage in being patient.

The questions whether to confess or not troubled him.

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HomeworkHomework

Exercises 158 - 171 Workbook