western culture traced back to ancient greece and rome up to 476 ad very “classic”...

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  • Slide 1
  • Western Culture Traced back to Ancient Greece and Rome Up to 476 AD Very Classic period. Structure, balance, logic, reason.
  • Slide 2
  • Classic vs. Romantic Classic - form, symmetry, balance, emotional detachment. Adoration of the Magi by Botticelli Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David
  • Slide 3
  • Adoration of the Magi by Botticelli
  • Slide 4
  • Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David
  • Slide 5
  • Classic vs. Romantic Romantic - freedom, emotion, drama, individual Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek by Peter Paul Rubens Traveler Looking Over A Sea of Fog by Caspar David
  • Slide 6
  • Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek by Peter Paul Rubens
  • Slide 7
  • Traveler Looking Over A Sea of Fog by Caspar David
  • Slide 8
  • Common Practice Period 1600-1900 Composers use the common language of tonality Music is written using a central key or home sound Can be both Classic and/or Romantic
  • Slide 9
  • Middle Ages 400AD to 1450 Followed fall of the Roman Empire Church was the institution that organized culture. Sacred - all of life revolved around the church
  • Slide 10
  • Sacred Pertaining to the church or religion. Only those associated with the church could read or write. Only written down sacred subject material Does not mean that secular culture didnt exist, it just was not preserved.
  • Slide 11
  • Middle Ages Romantic - not as concerned with the ideal portrayal of life on earth, structure, balance. Artworks are not particularly realistic.
  • Slide 12
  • Middle Ages Gregorian chant. Cant- or Chant- singing / voice Large body of music sung during the worship service and other prescribed times. Named for Pope Gregory (590-604)
  • Slide 13
  • Gregorian Chant Musical features: narrow range, conjunct intervals, little changes in dynamics, nonmetric. Rhythm and melody were based on the natural flow of the Latin text. Not "performance" music. Melodies are not attributed to composers. It was not about the composers, but giving glory to God.
  • Slide 14
  • Gregorian Chant Hundreds of tunes that were appropriate for different times and events of the church calendar. Tunes became very well-known.
  • Slide 15
  • Gregorian Chant Tunes became very well-known. Well-known tunes are perfect for adding new things and trying something new with it
  • Slide 16
  • Gregorian Chant Single melody that is well-known. Add another melody higher or lower, the same melody but at a harmony.
  • Slide 17
  • Gregorian Chant Single melody that is well-known. Add another melody higher or lower, the same melody but at a harmony. Add yet another melody, maybe with some contrasting direction?
  • Slide 18
  • Gregorian Chant Single melody that is well-known. Add another melody higher or lower, the same melody but at a harmony. Add yet another melody, maybe with some contrasting direction? OR distort the original melody, using it as a base for a new melody in higher pitches.
  • Slide 19
  • Organum Single melody that is well-known. Distorted the melody, using it as a base for a new melody with higher pitches. Cantus Firmus Fixed Song. The base of a song is in the chant melody, with a new melody above.
  • Slide 20
  • Organum Single melody that is well-known. Distorted the melody, using it as a base for a new melody with higher pitches. Cantus Firmus Fixed Song. The base of a song is in the chant melody, with a new melody above. Leonin is an early composer of organum.
  • Slide 21
  • Cantus Firmus Fixed Song. The base of a song is in the chant melody, with a new melody above. Composers wrote many new works based on chant melodies. Titles of the new works would include the chant title.
  • Slide 22
  • Cantus Firmus Fixed Song. The base of a song is in the chant melody, with more new melodies added. When more parts are moving together, it is important to have a clear rhythm to keep everyone in time. Perotin is a composer of more complicated organum with more of an emphasis on rhythm.
  • Slide 23
  • Organum The musical considerations of several melodies together were based on if they went together rhythmically. Not as much emphasis on the actual notes used, and the harmony that would result. Sometimes, the different melodies would be in different languages!
  • Slide 24
  • Motet (mot = word) An early example of a structured 3-part vocal work. Bottom part was taken from the chant melodies, and lower voices or instruments held the note values. Middle part was often from religious poetry and in Latin. Top part was sometimes in French and a secular poem!
  • Slide 25
  • Development of Polyphony Chant melody (monophonic) Chant melody is used as basis for new composition (cantus firmus) (homophonic) Several more melodies are added along with rhythm / motet (polyphonic)
  • Slide 26
  • Isorhythmic Motet same rhythm Rhythm and Melody. Different lengths. Overlapped at different times. Compositional device, not a listeners method. Probably cannot hear an Isorhythmic form.
  • Slide 27
  • 14th Century The church was losing power in the 14th century. There were two popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon (France). Avignon more of a secular capital, French composers are more likely to experiment with rhythmic complexity, syncopations, subdividing beats, etc.
  • Slide 28
  • 14th Century The plague hit Europe during this time and wiped out entire towns and cities. For the arts, the 14th century was fantastic. Music increased in energy and realism.
  • Slide 29
  • Ars Nova Recognized division of the beat from the standard 3 to the new 2 Duple meter was now acceptable. Triple meter continues.
  • Slide 30
  • Renaissance Renaissance means the rebirth of Classical Antiquity; a reawakening of the human spirit; the beginnings of a reawakening in Greek culture and Latin literature. Invention of the printing press. This transforms the Western World by improving literacy; more people have the opportunity to read with a better distribution of ideas and preservation. This is the time of Columbus (all the other explorations were occurring at this time too). Celebration of maps. This is also a great age for literature, chivalry, humanism.
  • Slide 31
  • Renaissance In the musical aspects, the instruments were not given, but contemporary performers are interpreting some of the parts as instrumental. We can see in some of the pictures and engravings of the period the secularism...the ability to tap their feet while playing, etc.
  • Slide 32
  • Renaissance 1450-1600 Secular period (not as strongly guided by the church, but rather more worldly pursuits) Looked to Ancient Greece and Rome as the model for society.
  • Slide 33
  • Renaissance Vocal Music Mass - sacred, a cappella vocal work. Text is taken from the Mass (worship service) Motet - sacred, a cappella vocal work. Text is religious, but not from the Mass Madrigal - secular, a cappella vocal work. Text comes from poem or other non-religious source
  • Slide 34
  • Church Music Council of Trent: 1545-1563 (18 years) met in Northern Italy to discuss abuses in church. After that long, the verdict is very general. everything impure or lascivious must be avoided in order that the House of God may rightly be called a house of prayer. No technical points were included (polyphony, secular imitation, etc) in any kind of ban.
  • Slide 35
  • Giovanni da Palestrina 1525-1594 Approached Council of Trent to show that it was not necessary to abolish polyphony, even with 6 voices, the text can still be understood. He became the savior of church music. Wrote Pope Marcellus Mass 1555
  • Slide 36
  • Renaissance Timbre 4 or more voices of similar color. (Medieval) 3 dissimilar lines of contrasting color. Ideal performing medium was unaccompanied vocal ensemble (a cappella). The sound most composers had in mind...it was not always heard in actual performances. Doubling instruments to help out. Bass is gradually given the function of a harmonic foundation. Music became more closely united with words (word painting) and more independent of words. Unity was done in vocal music, independence was gained by focusing on more instrumental works, beautiful in their own right.
  • Slide 37
  • Renaissance vocal music text painting or word painting - illustrating the meaning of words using music. Ex. an ascending scale might be used to illustrate "running up" a hill.
  • Slide 38
  • As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending, she spied a maiden Queen the same ascending, Attended on by all the shepherds' swain, to whom Diana's darlings came running down amain, First two by two, then three by three together, Leaving their goddess all alone hasted thither
  • Slide 39
  • Vesta (cont.) And mingling with the shepherds of her train, with mirthful tunes her presence entertain. Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana, Long live fair Oriana!
  • Slide 40
  • Common Practice Period 1600-1900 in