what did putin really say? speech presentation in a news story on the bbc news website

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What did Putin really say? Speech presentation in a news story on the BBC News website.

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  • Slide 1
  • What did Putin really say? Speech presentation in a news story on the BBC News website.
  • Slide 2
  • The structure of the talk Data Framework Analysis
  • Slide 3
  • The Data
  • Slide 4
  • Vladimir Putin interview with Russian state television (24/0 2/2015) http://www.bbc.c o.uk/news/world- europe-31596634
  • Slide 5
  • The Data Web news story consists of: Short video clip of interview with translation Summary of the interview with some background Analysis by Sarah Rainsford
  • Slide 6
  • Data Also drawing on translations / transcriptions of interview provided by: Kremlin - http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/47730 http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/47730 Kristina Russ - http://fortruss.blogspot.co.uk/ http://fortruss.blogspot.co.uk/ Fort Russ is a team blog of dedicated volunteer translators and analysts, who bring you Russian, as well as Polish, German, French, Greek and Italian translations of the best news, analysis, bloggers and social media pertaining to Russia, Ukraine, former USSR and geopolitical balance in the world today.
  • Slide 7
  • Focus Interested in how the news article presents what Putin said in the interview. Speech presentation Discourse presentation
  • Slide 8
  • What is discourse presentation? Prototypically, discourse presentation refers to the presentation of speech, writing or thought from an anterior discourse in a posterior discourse.
  • Slide 9
  • What is discourse presentation? I love Stylistics! Brian said I love Stylistics! Anterior discourse Posterior discourse Coming before in time; earlier Coming after in time; later
  • Slide 10
  • What is discourse presentation? Brian thought I love Stylistics! Anterior discourse Posterior discourse Coming before in time; earlier Coming after in time; later I love Stylistics!
  • Slide 11
  • What is discourse presentation? Brian wrote I love Stylistics! Anterior discourse Posterior discourse Coming before in time; earlier Coming after in time; later Dear diary, I love Stylistics!
  • Slide 12
  • What is discourse presentation? A person can present the speech and/or writing and/or thoughts of a third party or themselves. However, there is not necessarily always an anterior discourse.
  • Slide 13
  • What is discourse presentation? I love Stylistics! Brian said that he loves Stylistics! At any moment, Brian is going to say that he loves Stylistics. I love Stylistics!
  • Slide 14
  • What is discourse presentation? A speaker might project a future hypothetical discourse. If she keeps asking for a lift to work Im going to say OK, but how about chipping in for the petrol. In this instance the speech presentation is hypothetical there is no anterior discourse.
  • Slide 15
  • What is discourse presentation? Fiction Prototypical narration tells of events that supposedly happened at some time in the past These past events usually involve characters talking to one another So, a narrator tells the narratee / reader not only about the event but also what was said, thought or written by the characters
  • Slide 16
  • What is discourse presentation? But there is no anterior discourse Its all made up! But this is news report and there is an anterior discourse situation.
  • Slide 17
  • What is discourse presentation? A person can present the (hypothetical and fictional) speech and/or writing and/or thoughts of a third party or themselves They can use a variety of different forms. Create different (interesting) effects
  • Slide 18
  • Discourse presentation model The development of a model of speech and thought presentation first developed in relation to literary fiction (see Leech and Short 1981). Some other text types have now also been investigated (e.g. newspaper report) The model has been developed with a view to making as complete a model as possible of how we quote others in English texts.
  • Slide 19
  • Discourse presentation What are the different forms of discourse presentation? (focus on speech)
  • Slide 20
  • Discourse presentation model I love corpus linguistics! expresses the exact words of the original utterance first person pronouns, present tense verbs and proximal deictics. I love corpus linguistics! he said. includes the exact words plus a reporting clause indicating the presence of a narrator, first person pronouns, present tense verbs and proximal deictics.
  • Slide 21
  • Discourse presentation model He said that he loved corpus linguistics. presents the original utterance in an indirect form, with the original speakers words contained within a subordinate clause, includes a reporting clause (he said) present tense verbs changed to past, first person pronouns change to third person and proximal deictics changed to distal ones
  • Slide 22
  • Discourse presentation model He loved corpus linguistics! is a free indirect rendering that blends aspects of a narratorial report with a flavour of the original speakers utterance (in this case, the exclamation mark) tense, pronouns and deixis similar to IS
  • Slide 23
  • Discourse presentation model He exclaimed his feelings. reports only the speech act of the original speaker (apologise, deny, etc.) none of the propositional content of the original utterance can be reconstructed possibly followed by some indication of the subject-matter of the speech act.
  • Slide 24
  • Discourse presentation model He spoke loudly. reports only the fact that speech occurred. possibly followed by a prepositional phrase or noun phrase giving the subject-matter of the verbiage.
  • Slide 25
  • Discourse presentation Table 1. Discourse presentation Model after Short (2007)
  • Slide 26
  • Cline of narrator interference You should shut up! [FDS] You should shut up!, she said. [DS] He should shut up! [FIS] She said that he should shut up. [IS] She commanded him. [NRSA] She shouted at him. [NV] Original speakers words Narrators words
  • Slide 27
  • Cline of narrator interference You should shut up! [FDS] You should shut up!, she said. [DS] He should shut up! [FIS] She said that he should shut up. [IS] She commanded him. [NRSA] She shouted at him. [NV] Most faithful to original Least faithful to original
  • Slide 28
  • Cline of narrator interference You should shut up! [FDS] You should shut up!, she said. [DS] He should shut up! [FIS] She said that he should shut up. [IS] She commanded him. [NRSA] She shouted at him. [NV] Greatest claim to faithfulness Least claim to faithfulness
  • Slide 29
  • Consequences for ideology Opportunity for narrator to interpret the actual speech allowing for misrepresentation Readers/listeners are aware of the intervention of a narrator and will find direct speech and writing more believable than other modes. (probably not the case with thought indirect forms more believable)
  • Slide 30
  • Analysis
  • Slide 31
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has said war with neighbouring Ukraine is "unlikely", in an interview for Russian television. Mr Putin also stressed his support for the recent Minsk ceasefire deal as the best way to stabilise eastern Ukraine. Ukraine says Russian troops have been fighting in Ukraine. Mr Putin repeated denials that this was the case. [...] In his interview - his first extended comments since the ceasefire deal was agreed on 12 February - Mr Putin was asked if there was a real threat of war, given the situation in eastern Ukraine. "I think that such an apocalyptic scenario is unlikely and I hope this will never happen," he said. Mr Putin said that if the Minsk agreement was implemented, eastern Ukraine would "gradually stabilise". "Europe is just as interested in that as Russia. No one wants conflict on the edge of Europe, especially armed conflict," he said.
  • Slide 32
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has said war with neighbouring Ukraine is "unlikely", in an interview for Russian television. Mr Putin also stressed his support for the recent Minsk ceasefire deal as the best way to stabilise eastern Ukraine. Ukraine says Russian troops have been fighting in Ukraine. Mr Putin repeated denials that this was the case. [...] In his interview - his first extended comments since the ceasefire deal was agreed on 12 February - Mr Putin was asked if there was a real threat of war, given the situation in eastern Ukraine. "I think that such an apocalyptic scenario is unlikely and I hope this will never happen," he said. Mr Putin said that if the Minsk agreement was implemented, eastern Ukraine would "gradually stabilise". "Europe is just as interested in that as Russia. No one wants conflict on the edge of Europe, especially armed conflict," he said.
  • Slide 33
  • Analysis Russian President Vladimir Putin has said war with neighbouring Ukraine is "unlikely", in an interview for Russian television. "I think that such an apocalyptic scenario is unlikely and I hope this will never happen," he said. Indirect speech with apparent direct speech and an apparent claim to faithfulness. Direct speech
  • Slide 34
  • I believe that such an apocalyptic scenario is hardly possible and I hope that it will never come to this. As regards the return of some territories these are things of a revanchist nature and it is not about returning territories to someone. The point is that in my view the leadership of such a large European country as Ukraine should first of all bring the country back to normal life and restore the economy and the social sphere, get the relations with the south east of the country on the right track in a civilised way, and ensure the lawful rights and the interests of the people who live say in Donbass. If the Minsk agreements are implemented then I am sure that this is what will be done. BBC
  • Slide 35
  • I think that this apocalyptic scenario is highly unlikely, and I hope it never comes to that. As for returning any territories, that is revanchist talk and its not about returning territories anywhere. In my opinion and I do not want to give any advice, but still the current leadership of a large European nation such as Ukraine should first return the country to normal life: fix the economy, the social sector, its relations with the southeast region of the country in a civilised manner, and ensure the lawful rights and interests of the people living in Donbass. If the Minsk agreements are implemented, I am certain that this will be done. Kremlin
  • Slide 36
  • I think that such apocalyptic scenario is hardly possible, I hope that it will never get to that point. As far as returning of some territories, such things are of a revanchist character, and this is not about returning some territories somewhere. The thing is, in my view, and I dont want to give any advice, but the leadership of such a big European country, as Ukraine, should first of all return the country to a normal life, fix the economy, the social sphere, fix their relationship with South-Eastern Ukraine in a civilized manner, provide legal rights and interests of the people, who reside in Donbass. If Minsk agreements will be realized, I am convinced that it will be done. Kristina Russ
  • Slide 37
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has said war with neighbouring Ukraine is "unlikely", in an interview for Russian television. Mr Putin also stressed his support for the recent Minsk ceasefire deal as the best way to stabilise eastern Ukraine. Ukraine says Russian troops have been fighting in Ukraine. Mr Putin repeated denials that this was the case. [...] In his interview - his first extended comments since the ceasefire deal was agreed on 12 February - Mr Putin was asked if there was a real threat of war, given the situation in eastern Ukraine. "I think that such an apocalyptic scenario is unlikely and I hope this will never happen," he said. Mr Putin said that if the Minsk agreement was implemented, eastern Ukraine would "gradually stabilise". "Europe is just as interested in that as Russia. No one wants conflict on the edge of Europe, especially armed conflict," he said.
  • Slide 38
  • Analysis Mr Putin also stressed his support for the recent Minsk ceasefire deal as the best way to stabilise eastern Ukraine. NRSA with topic Allows BBC reporter to choose speech act verb stressed.
  • Slide 39
  • I believe that such an apocalyptic scenario is hardly possible and I hope that it will never come to this. As regards the return of some territories these are things of a revanchist nature and it is not about returning territories to someone. The point is that in my view the leadership of such a large European country as Ukraine should first of all bring the country back to normal life and restore the economy and the social sphere, get the relations with the south east of the country on the right track in a civilised way, and ensure the lawful rights and the interests of the people who live say in Donbass. If the Minsk agreements are implemented then I am sure that this is what will be done. BBC
  • Slide 40
  • Analysis Does this amount to stressing? Looking at the transcriptions from the Kremlin and fortruss.....
  • Slide 41
  • If the Minsk agreements are implemented, I am certain that this will be done. [...] If again, Ive said it before and Ill repeat it if the Minsk agreements are implemented, I am confident that the situation will gradually return to normal. (Kremlin) If Minsk agreements will be realized, I am convinced that it will be done. [...] I have said it before, and will say it again, if the Minsk agreements will be followed, I am convinced that the situation will gradually normalize. (fortruss)
  • Slide 42
  • Analysis Mr Putin said that if the Minsk agreement was implemented, eastern Ukraine would "gradually stabilise". IS but with some DS. Apparent claim to faithfulness. I am confident that the situation will gradually return to normal. I am convinced that the situation will gradually normalize.
  • Slide 43
  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has said war with neighbouring Ukraine is "unlikely", in an interview for Russian television. Mr Putin also stressed his support for the recent Minsk ceasefire deal as the best way to stabilise eastern Ukraine. Ukraine says Russian troops have been fighting in Ukraine. Mr Putin repeated denials that this was the case. [...] In his interview - his first extended comments since the ceasefire deal was agreed on 12 February - Mr Putin was asked if there was a real threat of war, given the situation in eastern Ukraine. "I think that such an apocalyptic scenario is unlikely and I hope this will never happen," he said. Mr Putin said that if the Minsk agreement was implemented, eastern Ukraine would "gradually stabilise". "Europe is just as interested in that as Russia. No one wants conflict on the edge of Europe, especially armed conflict," he said.
  • Slide 44
  • Analysis Ukraine says Russian troops have been fighting in Ukraine. Mr Putin repeated denials that this was the case. DP category? Form suggests IS Issues to do with propositional content What would the original look like? NRSA + topic?
  • Slide 45
  • Solovyov: We say that a civil war is underway. Ukraine says, No, this is a direct intervention by Russia. Why doesnt the world see the truth?
  • Slide 46
  • Putin: It doesnt want to. First of all, the world is complex and diverse; some people see it, while others dont want to see it and do not notice it. World media monopoly of our opponents allows them to behave as they do. Moreover, I suppose that my somewhat careless comment during my visit to Hungary had some effect, when I said that it is disappointing to lose to yesterdays miners and tractor drivers. It is unpleasant to lose to Russia as well, but its less humiliating somehow. At the same time, we are aware of the statements made by Ukraines top officials, including high-ranking officials in the Ukrainian army. As the head of the General Staff said, We are not fighting against the Russian army. What else do you need? But in general, all this is very bad: the attempts to justify defeat and attempts to blame it on Russia. The bad thing is that this is fanning the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, or an attempt to fan that conflict.(Kremlin)
  • Slide 47
  • Analysis "Europe is just as interested in that as Russia. No one wants conflict on the edge of Europe, especially armed conflict," he said. And I imagine that Europe is just as interested in implementing the Minsk agreements as Russia. Nobody needs a conflict on the periphery of Europe, especially an armed conflict. And Europe is interested in the implementation of the Minsk agreements, no less then Russia, because no one needs a military conflict on the periphery of the EU.
  • Slide 48
  • Sarah Rainsford This was a confident Vladimir Putin, fielding soft questions on the Ukraine conflict with ease, even smiles. Russia's president said that in his eyes, the way to peace in Ukraine is clear - the deal struck in Minsk has to be implemented. What category of DP?
  • Slide 49
  • Sarah Rainsford As for Russia invading Ukraine, President Putin once again shrugged off evidence that he's deployed troops to help the rebels. He said Kiev was claiming that to hide its humiliation at being defeated by former miners and tractor drivers. Moreover, I suppose that my somewhat careless comment during my visit to Hungary had some effect, when I said that it is disappointing to lose to yesterdays miners and tractor drivers. It is unpleasant to lose to Russia as well, but its less humiliating somehow.
  • Slide 50
  • Sarah Rainsford He was just as scathing on the issue of Crimea, which Russia annexed last year, advising Ukraine's president to concentrate on saving his country's collapsing economy, instead of vowing to take back that land. DP category? NRSA with topic ?
  • Slide 51
  • I believe that such an apocalyptic scenario is hardly possible and I hope that it will never come to this. As regards the return of some territories these are things of a revanchist nature and it is not about returning territories to someone. The point is that in my view the leadership of such a large European country as Ukraine should first of all bring the country back to normal life and restore the economy and the social sphere, get the relations with the south east of the country on the right track in a civilised way, and ensure the lawful rights and the interests of the people who live say in Donbass. If the Minsk agreements are implemented then I am sure that this is what will be done. BBC
  • Slide 52
  • Conclusions
  • Slide 53
  • Presenting speech Viewpoint of the participants who are discussed in texts Words and thoughts are mediated by the narrating voice of the text. Supposedly neutral voice of, say, the BBC. Explicit and personal voice. A bit of both.
  • Slide 54
  • Mediated speech and thought Always a gap between original and reported form Even if trying to be faithful to original Faithfulness not always clear cut
  • Slide 55
  • What did Putin say?
  • Slide 56
  • Further reading Leech and Short (1981 [2007]) - perhaps the most comprehensive model of discourse presentation. Developed over a number of years through research projects at Lancaster University (see Semino and Short 2004).