wireless control quadcopter

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Project Report on WIRELESS CONTROL QUADCOPTER by Ayush Gautam (1109732032) Mukul Kapoor (1109732067) Prateek Gautam (1109732076) Submitted to the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Instrumentation Under the guidance of Ms. Kriti Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology U.P.T.U April , 2015

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  • Project Report on

    WIRELESS CONTROL QUADCOPTER

    by

    Ayush Gautam (1109732032)

    Mukul Kapoor (1109732067)

    Prateek Gautam (1109732076)

    Submitted to the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of

    Bachelor of Technology

    in

    Electronics and Instrumentation

    Under the guidance of

    Ms. Kriti

    Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology

    U.P.T.U

    April , 2015

  • 2 | P a g e

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CERTIFICATE ............................................................................................................................. 5

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................ 6

    ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... 7

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................... 8

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 9-14

    1.1 Background of the Problem ........................................................................................ 10

    1.2 Objective of the project work ...................................................................................... 11

    1.3 Methodology Adopted for the project ........................................................................ 12

    1.4 Organization of the report ........................................................................................... 14

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 15-18

    2.1 Literature Review For The Project ............................................................................ 15

    2.2 Project scope in existing work ..................................................................................... 18

    CHAPTER 3 QUADCOPTER ............................................................................................. 19-41

    3.1 Block diagram of quad-copter .................................................................................... 20

    3.2 Block diagram of transmitter ...................................................................................... 21

    3.3 Block diagram of Receiver End .................................................................................. 22

    3.4 Components of quad-copter ........................................................................................ 24

    3.5 Flight control ................................................................................................................ 35

    3.6 Application of quad-copter .......................................................................................... 39

  • 3 | P a g e

    3.7 Advantages of Quad-copters ....................................................................................... 40

    CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE .......................................................... 42

    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER .............................................................. 43

    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER ...................................................... 44

    APPENDIX A ACCEPTANCE OF PAPER PUBLISHED .................................................... 45

    APPENDIX B BIOGRAPHY OF STUDENT .......................................................................... 47

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 53

  • 4 | P a g e

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1. Flow Chart of Quad-copter design ................................................................................ 12

    Figure 2. Result of 3-DOF attitude control .................................................................................. 15

    Figure 3. Altitude control of Quad-copter .................................................................................... 16

    Figure 4. de Bothezat helicopter ................................................................................................... 17

    Figure 5. Quad-copter designs ...................................................................................................... 19

    Figure 6. Block diagram of quad-copter ....................................................................................... 20

    Figure 7. Block diagram of transmitter ......................................................................................... 21

    Figure 8. Block diagram of receiver end ...................................................................................... 22

    Figure 9. Flight control mechanism .............................................................................................. 23

    Figure 10. Motor to motor distance .............................................................................................. 25

    Figure 11. Brushless Motor.......................................................................................................... 26

    Figure 12. Motor Used in quad-copter .......................................................................................... 27

    Figure 13. Battery used in our quad-copter .................................................................................. 28

    Figure 14. Electronic speed controller (ESC) ............................................................................... 29

    Figure 15. Propeller ...................................................................................................................... 30

    Figure 16. Radio transmitter and receiver..................................................................................... 31

    Figure 17. Flight controller used in the project............................................................................. 32

    Figure 18. Microcontroller used in project ................................................................................... 35

    Figure 19. Flight control ............................................................................................................... 36

    Figure 20. Different motions of quad-copter ................................................................................ 37

    Figure 21. Applications of quad-copter ........................................................................................ 41

    Figure 22. Circuit Diagram of Microcontroller ............................................................................ 43

  • 5 | P a g e

    CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that Project Report entitled WIRELESS CONTROL QUADCOPTER which

    is submitted by AYUSH GAUTAM, MUKUL KAPOOR and PRATEEK GAUTAM in partial

    fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B. Tech. in Department of Electronics and

    Instrumentation of U.P. Technical University, is a record of the candidate own work carried out

    by him under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been

    submitted for the award of any other degree.

    (Name & signature of Supervisor) (Name & signature of Project Coordinator)

    (Name & signature of Project Incharge) (Name & signature of HOD)

  • 6 | P a g e

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B. Tech Project undertaken during B.

    Tech. Final Year. We owe special debt of gratitude to our supervisor or project guide Ms. KRITI,

    Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Galgotias College of Engineering &

    Technology for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. Her sincerity,

    thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only her cognizant

    efforts that our endeavors have seen light of the day.

    Our deep sense of gratitude is accorded to Associate Professor & Head Dr. Praveen Maduri, Head, and

    Department of EIE for his constant official support, encouragement and motivation for our project work.

    We wish to express our sincere thanks to our Project Incharge Ms Jaspreet Kaur, Mr Hridesh Verma, Mr

    Manjit Singh and Mr Gulshan Kumar Dubey for the enthusiasm they transmitted, for their competence, as

    well as for the richness of their guidelines and invaluable suggestions throughout the project.

    We also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all faculty members and

    lab-Instructors of the department for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of our

    project. Last but not the least, we acknowledge our friends for their contribution in the completion of the

    project.

    Signature with date Signature with date

    [AYUSH GAUTAM, 119732032] [MUKUL KAPOOR, 119732064]

    Signature with date

    [PRATEEK GAUTAM, 119732076]

  • 7 | P a g e

    ABSTRACT

    This research focused on a remotely operated Quad copter system. The Quad copter is controlled

    through graphical user interface (GUI). Communication between GUI and Quad copter is done

    by using wireless communication system. All signals from sensors are processed by PIC

    microcontroller board. Output from PIC microcontroller board used to control Quad copter

    propellers. The experiment shows that Quad copter can hover with maintain its balancing and

    stability. They are called rotorcrafts because unlike a fixed wing aircraft, here lift is generated by

    narrow chord aero foils. They are the mixture of streams of mechanical, electronics and

    especially aviation.

    Keywords- Quad copter, Quad rotor, GUI, Rotorcrafts.

    Quad copters is an aerial vehicle operated to fly independently and is one of the

    representations of a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). They are controlled by pilots on ground

    or simultaneously driven. They are called rotorcrafts because unlike a fixed wing aircraft, here

    lift is generated by a set of revolving narrow-chord aero foils. Control of motion of

    vehicle is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or motor discs, thereby changing

    its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. The use of four rotors in a quad copter allow

    the individual rotors to have a smaller diameter than the equivalent helicopter rotor,

    which allows them to possess less kinetic energy during flight.

    Quad copters have different structures and designs according to the work needed to be

    Done by it. Components like motors, batteries, electronic speed controllers (ESC s) also vary

    according to the power needed and work done by the quad copter.

  • 8 | P a g e

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    PWM Pulse width modulation

    RC Remote Control

    UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    VTOL Vertical takeoff and landing

    DOF Degree of Freedom

  • 9 | P a g e

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    Quad copter, also known as quad rotor, is a helicopter with four rotors. The rotors are directed

    upwards and they are placed in a square formation with equal distance from the center of mass of

    the quad copter. The quad copter is controlled by adjusting the angular velocities of the rotors

    which are spun by electric motors. Quad-copter is a typical design for small unmanned aerial

    vehicles (UAV) because of the simple structure. Quad copters are used in surveillance, search

    and rescue, construction inspections and several other applications the particular interest of the

    research community in the quad-rotors design can be linked to two main advantages over

    comparable vertical take o and landing (VTOL) UAVs, such as helicopters.

    Early in the history of flight, quad-copter (referred to as 'quad-rotor') configurations were seen

    as possible solutions to some of the persistent problems in vertical flight; torque-induced control

    issues (as well as efficiency issues originating from the tail rotor, which generates no useful lift)

    can be eliminated by counter-rotation and the relatively short blades are much easier to construct.

    A number of manned designs appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. These vehicles were among the

    first successful heavier-than-air vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) vehicles.

    The Netra is an Indian, light-weight autonomous UAV for surveillance and reconnaissance

    operations. It has been jointly developed by the DEFENCE RESEARCH AND

    DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION'S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    ESTABLISHMENT (R&DE), and IDEAFORGE, a Mumbai-based private firm. The UAV was

    featured in the hit movie 3 Idiots.

  • 10 | P a g e

    1.1 Background of the Problem

    The idea of quad-copters is due to many problems faced even in day-to-day routine. Some of the

    problems faced are as per below:

    1) Avalanche in the mountains:

    While avalanches are sudden, the warning signs are always there before the snow starts sliding.

    Avalanches kill more than 150 people worldwide each year. Most are snowmobilers, skiers, and

    snowboarders. So quad-copters are used for keeping an eye of sudden avalanche and rescuing the

    humane life.

    2) Surveillance

    Quad-copters have been used as unmanned aerial vehicles for reconnaissance and surveillance by

    several law enforcement agencies and military. Not only that, but their ability to carry decent

    payloads make them ideal choice for recreational fliers, as users can attach cameras for first

    person views or aerial photography. This allows the users to fly these multi-rotors as if they are

    sitting inside the craft like a pilot.

    3) Aerial imagery

    The most common commercial use of quad-rotors is in the field of aerial imagery. Previously,

    full-sized helicopters were used for stationary aerial imagery. However, in recent times quad-

    rotor drones have successfully replaced helicopters due to their huge cost savings and

    autonomous nature. The process of capturing aerial imagery with a quad-rotor is highly simple.

    Therefore, it is used in various commercial environments ranging from industrial systems

    inspection to real estate photography.

  • 11 | P a g e

    1.2 Objective of the project work

    The control system of conventional helicopter is complex as compared to the proposed quad-

    copter control system.

    The objectives of this project are:

    i. To design quad-copter that can control be controlled via remote control (RC)

    ii. To design quad-copter for stable flight control which is controlled by PIC micro-controller

    iii. To create an autonomous system that increases situational awareness of security personnel

    by providing them with a birds-eye view.

    iv. To make a quad rotor assembly that can hover and perform certain pre-defined maneuvers

    and can lift weight up to 1 kg. These maneuvers will be controlled by an onboard

    microcontroller. The microcontroller will drive the motors using Pulse Width Modulation

    (PWM).

    v. The project introduces an alternate and simple rotor assembly system for conventional load

    carrying helicopters.

    vi. Besides, in the proposed design every rotor plays a role in direction control and balance of

    the quad-copter as well as lift, unlike the traditional single rotor helicopter designs in

    which each rotor has a specific task - lift or directional control - but never both.

  • 12 | P a g e

    1.3 Methodology Adopted for the project

    The methodology for the project can be better understood by dividing into two phases. The first

    phase is understanding the quad-copter structure and it basic mathematical modeling. The second

    phase deals with design and construction of the quad-copter. It will be built by splitting the

    design into different component whereby each component will be tested to ensure its working

    properly. This step is to minimize the risk of accidents which will lead to increasing number of

    component cost.

    i. Flow chart

    Designs of quad-copter are divided into two stages that is part design in first stage and full

    interface at second stage. Flow chart of quad-copter design is described in Figure below:

    Figure 1. Flow Chart of Quad-copter design

  • 13 | P a g e

    ii. Quad-copter movement mechanism

    Quad-copter can described as a small vehicle with four propellers attached to rotor located at the

    cross frame. This aim for fixed pitch rotors are used to control the vehicle motion. The speeds of

    these four rotors are independent. By independent, pitch, roll and yaw attitude of the vehicle can

    be control easily.

    iii. Take-off and landing motion mechanism

    Take-off is movement of quad-copter that lift up from ground to hover position and landing

    position is versa of take-off position. Take-off (landing) motion is control by increasing

    (decreasing) speed of four rotors simultaneously which means changing the vertical motion.

    iv. Hovering or static position

    The hovering or static position of quad-copter is done by two pairs of rotors are rotating in

    clockwise and counter-clockwise respectively with same speed. By two rotors rotating in

    clockwise and counter-clockwise position, the total sum of reaction torque is zero and this

    allowed quad-copter in hovering position.

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    1.4 Organization of the report

    The quad-copter report is organized as per below:

    i. The idea behind the development of quad-copter has been described

    ii. The background of the problems faced which lead to development of quad-copter has

    been described

    iii. The purpose and objective of the quad-copter has been defined

    iv. Then, the methodology adopted for the creating the quad-copter has been described

    briefly.

    v. The literature for the development of quad-copter has been researched and review as per

    early developments done in the same field.

    vi. After research of literature and the development of the quad-copter further, scopes left

    in the project are listed.

    vii. Now, the design of quad-copter will be defined using block of transmitter, block

    diagram of receiver and components of quad-copter

    viii. Then flight control process has been described

    ix. In brief the application of quad-copter has been enlisted

    x. Few advantages of quad-copter has been enlisted

    xi. Then conclusion and future scope of quad-copter has been conversed

  • 15 | P a g e

    CHAPTER 2

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.1 Literature Review For The Project

    In order to run Wireless Control Quad-copter with Self Balancing System research, several

    theoretical and techniques needed to be reviewed through previous related research report. The

    review includes the technology development and control method that are used in Quad-copter.

    Park et.al. (2001) studied on the 3-DOF attitude control free-flying vehicle. The characteristic to

    be heavily coupled with inputs and outputs, and the serious nonlinearity appear in the flying

    vehicle and due to this non-linear control, multi variable control or optimal control for the

    attitude control of flying Quad copter. This research result is illustrated in Figure

    Figure 2. Result of 3-DOF attitude control

    Ashfaq Ahmad Mian et.al. (2007) developed of nonlinear model and nonlinear control strategy

    for a 6-DOF Quad copter aerial robot. The nonlinear model of Quad copter aerial robot is based

    on Newton-Euler formalism. Model derivation comprises determining equations of motion of the

    Quad copter in three dimensions and seeking to approximate actuation forces through modelling

  • 16 | P a g e

    of the aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics. The respective of the applied

    control is described in Figure below

    Figure 3. Altitude control of Quad-copter

    The Netra is a lightweight UAV, constructed of carbon fiber composites, that uses quad-

    copters to provide lift and control giving a VTOL capability. It has no moving parts other than

    the rotors, motors and transmissions, and hence it requires very low maintenance. The use of

    carbon-fiber has resulted in a light weight of 1.5 kg (3 lb.), which makes the Netra very

    portable a backpack case allows operators to carry the system to field locations to serve as the

    base station. It also contains the power supply, military-grade controller, hand-held operator

    console and the communication systems.

    Dr. George de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome developed this aircraft, with six bladed rotors at the end

    of an X-shaped structure. Two small propellers with variable pitch were used for thrust and yaw

    control. The vehicle used collective pitch control. Built by the US Air Service, it made its first

    flight in October 1922. About 100 flights were made by the end of 1923. The highest it ever

    reached was about 5 m (16 ft 5 in). Although demonstrating feasibility, it was underpowered,

    unresponsive, mechanically complex and susceptible to reliability problems. Pilot workload was

    too high during hover to attempt lateral motion

  • 17 | P a g e

    Figure 4. de Bothezat helicopter

    Since as early as 1920, multi-copter vehicles have been designed, built, and used to experiment

    with aerial vehicle designs. The quad-rotor or quad-copter design is one example of the many

    prototypes produced. This particular design uses four identical rotors mounted symmetrically;

    the result is a very stable flight platform. The goal of this project is to use the stable aerial Quad-

    copter design for practical uses.

    Etienne Oehmichen experimented with rotorcraft designs in the 1920s. Among the six designs he

    tried, his helicopter No.2 had four rotors and eight propellers, all driven by a single engine. The

    Oehmichen No.2 used a steel-tube frame, with two-bladed rotors at the ends of the four arms.

    The angle of these blades could be varied by warping. Five of the propellers, spinning in the

    horizontal plane, stabilized the machine laterally. Another propeller was mounted at the nose for

    steering. The remaining pair of propellers were for forward propulsion. The aircraft exhibited a

    considerable degree of stability and controllability for its time, and made more than a thousand

    test flights during the middle 1920s. By 1923 it was able to remain airborne for several minutes

    at a time, and on April 14, 1924 it established the first-ever FAI distance record for helicopters of

    360 m (390 yd). It demonstrated the ability to complete a circular course and and later, it

    completed the first 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) closed-circuit flight by a rotorcraft.

  • 18 | P a g e

    2.2 Project scope in existing work

    The quad-copter project aims to make specific advances in three major research areas:

    User-centered Human Machine Interface and Training

    Automation

    Socio-technological assessment.

    The University of Nebraskas NIMBUS Lab has developed unmanned quad-copters that

    can fly around and wirelessly transmit power to devices. Ostensibly these have the rather

    unromantic purpose of recharging remote sensors weather stations, highway

    monitoring/messaging systems, and other similar, unattended electronic devices but it

    also means that, in the future, you might be able to call out a quad-copter to recharge your

    mobile phone.

    Optional components such as GPS (Global Positioning System) modules, cameras,

    ultrasonic sensors, barometers (barometric pressure sensors) etc. can be considered. They

    enhance the performance of the quad-copter, and add value to its uses. GPS modules

    communicate to satellites and retrieve accurate relevant information. This information can

    be used to calculate speed and path. It is very useful for autonomous quad-copters that

    need to know its exact position and which direction to fly.

    An ultrasonic sensor measures the distance to the ground or the altitude. It is of great use if

    the quad-copter has to maintain a certain distance from the ground without adjusting the

    height. Most of these sensors have a range of between 20cm to 7m.It needs to be mounted

    at the bottom of the quad-copter. The barometer measures humidity and pressure and

    works best at high altitudes. The best altitude combination will be to use both an

    Ultrasonic sensor and a Barometric pressure sensor at the same time.

  • 19 | P a g e

    CHAPTER 3

    QUADCOPTER

    Figure 5. Quad-copter designs

    A quad-copter, also called a quad-rotor helicopter or quad-rotor is a multi-rotor helicopter that is

    lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quad-copters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-

    wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a set of rotors (vertically oriented propellers).

    Unlike most helicopters, quad-copters use two sets of identical fixed pitched propellers; two

    clockwise (CW) and two counter-clockwise (CCW). These use variation of RPM to control lift

    and torque. Control of vehicle motion is achieved by altering the rotation rate of one or more

    rotor discs, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics.

  • 20 | P a g e

    3.1 Block diagram of quad-copter

    Figure 6. Block diagram of quad-copter

  • 21 | P a g e

    3.2 Block diagram of transmitter

    Figure 7. Block diagram of transmitter

    keypad RF encoder

    433 MHz RF transmitter

  • 22 | P a g e

    3.3 Block diagram of Receiver End

    Figure 8. Block diagram of receiver end

    433 MH

    RF DECODER

    Motor3

    Motor4

    PIC

    MOTOR DRIVER

    Motor 2 Motor 1

  • 23 | P a g e

    Figure 9. Flight control mechanism

  • 24 | P a g e

    3.4 Components of quad-copter

    The main components used for construction of a quad-copter are the frame, propellers (either

    fixed-pitch or variable-pitch), and the electric motors. For best performance and simplest control

    algorithms, the motors and propellers should be placed equidistant. Recently, carbon fiber

    composites have become popular due to their light weight and structural stiffness. The electrical

    components needed to construct a working quad-copter are similar to those needed for a modern

    RC helicopter, which include the electronic speed control module, on-board computer or

    controller board, and battery.

    The components are elaborately described as follows:

    i. Frame:

    It is the structure that holds or houses all the components together. They are designed to be

    strong and lightweight. To decide the appropriate frame for the copter 3 factors, i.e. weight, size

    and materials used are considered. The frame should be rigid and able to minimize the

    vibrations from the motors. It consists of 2-3 parts which are not necessarily of the same

    material:

    The center plate where the electronics are mounted

    four arms mounted to the center plate

    four motor brackets connecting the motors to the end of the arms

    Strong, light and sensible configuration including a built-in power distribution board (PDB) that

    allows for a clean and easy build is highly recommended. Parts and accessories that are 100%

    compatible and interchangeable are always preferred.

    Frames are usually made of:

    Carbon Fiber

    Carbon fiber is the most rigid and vibration absorbent but it is the most expensive too.

    Aluminum

    Hollow aluminum square rails are the most popular for the arms due to its light weight,

    rigidness and affordability. However aluminum can suffer from motor vibrations, as the

    damping effect is not as good as carbon fiber. In cases of severe vibration problem, it could

    mess up sensor readings.

  • 25 | P a g e

    Wood/ Plywood /MDF (Medium-density fiberboard)

    Wood boards like MDF plates could be used for the arms as they are better at absorbing the

    vibrations than aluminum. Unfortunately the wood is not a very rigid material and can

    break easily if the quad-copter crashes.

    For the center plate, plywood is most commonly used because of its light weight, easy to work

    factor and good vibration absorbing features. As for arm length, motor-to-motor distance is

    sometimes used, meaning the distance between the centers of one motor to that of another motor

    of the same arm. The motor to motor distance usually depends on the diameter of the propellers

    in order to have enough space between the propellers.

    Figure 10. Motor to motor distance

    ii. Rotors or Motors :

    The purpose of motors is to spin the propellers. Brushless DC motors provide the necessary

    thrust to propel the craft. Each rotor needs to be controlled separately by a speed controller.

    They are a bit similar to normal DC motors in the way that coils and magnets are used to drive

    the shaft. Though the brushless motors do not have a brush on the shaft which takes care of

    switching the power direction in the coils, and thats why they are called brushless. Instead the

  • 26 | P a g e

    brushless motors have three coils on the inner (center) of the motor, which is fixed to the

    mounting.

    Figure 11. Brushless Motor

    On the outer side, it contains a number of magnets mounted to a cylinder that is attached to the

    rotating shaft. So the coils are fixed which means wires can go directly to them and therefore

    there is no need for a brush. Brushless motors spin in much higher speed and use less power at

    the same speed than DC motors. Also they dont lose power in the brush-transition like the DC

    motors do, so its more energy efficient. The KV (kilovolts)-rating in a motor indicates how

    many RPMs (Revolutions per minute) the motor will do if provided with x-number of volts. The

    higher the kV rating is, faster the motor spins at a constant voltage. Usually out runners are used

    brushless motors used for model planes and copters.

  • 27 | P a g e

    Figure 12. Motor Used in quad-copter

    Generally brushless motors spin in much higher speed and use less power at the same speed than

    DC motors. Also brushless motors dont lose power in the brush-transition like the DC motors

    do, so its more energy efficient.

    Brushless motors come in many different varieties, where the size and the current consumption

    differ. When selecting your brushless motor you should take care of the weight, the size, which

    kind of propeller you are going to use, so everything matches up with the current

    consumption. When looking for the brushless motors you should notice the specifications,

    especially the Kv-rating.

    The Kv-rating indicates how many RPMs (Revolutions per minute) the motor will do if provided

    with x-number of volts. The RPMs can be calculated in this way: RPM= Kv*U An easy way to

    calculate rating of motor you need.

  • 28 | P a g e

    iii. Battery or power source

    LiPo (Lithium Polymer) batteries are used because it is light. NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) is

    also possible. They are cheaper, butt heavier than LiPo. LiPo batteries also have a C rating and a

    power rating in mAh (which stands for milliamps per hour). The C rating describes the rate at

    which power can be drawn from the battery, and the power rating describes how much power the

    battery can supply. Larger batteries weigh more so there is always a tradeoff between flight

    duration and total weight.

    Figure 13. Battery used in our quad-copter

    A good rule of thumb is that you with four EPP1045 propellers and four Kv=1000 rated motor

    will get the number of minutes of full throttle flight time as the same number of amp-hours in

    your battery capacity. This means that if you have a 4000mAh battery, you will get around 4

    minutes of full throttle flight time though with a 1KG total weight you will get around 16

    minutes of hover.

  • 29 | P a g e

    iv. Electronic Speed controller (ESC)

    The electronic speed controller controls the speed of the motor or tells the motors how fast to

    spin at a given time. For a quad-copter, ESCs are needed, one connected to each motor. The

    ESCs are then connected directly to the battery through either a wiring harness or power

    distribution board. Many ESCs come with a built in battery eliminator circuit (BEC), which

    allows to power things like the flight control board and radio receiver without connecting them

    directly to the battery. Because the motors on a quad-copter must all spin at precise speeds to

    achieve accurate flight, the ESC is very important. This firmware in a ESC changes the refresh

    rate of the ESC so the motors get many more instructions per second from the ESC, thus have

    greater control over the quad-copters behavior. The frequency of the signals also vary a lot, but

    for a quad-copter it is preferred if the controller supports high enough frequency signal, so the

    motor speed can be adjusted quick enough for optimal stability.

    Figure 14. Electronic speed controller (ESC)

  • 30 | P a g e

    v. Propellers

    A quad-copter has four propellers, two normal propellers that spin counterclockwise, and two

    pusher propellers that spin clockwise to avoid body spinning. By making the propeller pairs

    spin in each direction, but also having opposite tilting, all of them will provide lifting thrust

    without spinning in the same direction. This makes it possible for the copter to stabilize the yaw

    rotation, which is the rotation around itself. The propellers come in different diameters and

    pitches (tilting effect). The larger diameter and pitch is, the more thrust the propeller can

    generate. It also requires more power to drive it, but it will be able to lift more weight. When

    using high RPM (Revolutions per minute) motors, the smaller or mid-sized propellers. When

    using low RPM motors the larger propellers can be used as there could be trouble with the small

    ones not being able to lift the quad-copter at low speed.

    Figure 15. Propeller

  • 31 | P a g e

    vi. Radio Transmitter and Receiver :

    The radio transmitter and receiver allows to control the quad-copter. Four channels for a basic

    quad-copter is required .Using a radio with 8 channels, so there is more flexibility is

    recommended. Quad-copters can be programmed and controlled in many different ways but the

    most common ones are by RC transmitter in either Rate (acrobatic) or Stable mode. The

    difference is the way the controller board interprets the orientations feedback together with the

    RC transmitter joysticks. This is useful when the quad-copter is required to do stunts like tilting

    it a bit to the right. The speed of the 4 motors will be adjusted automatically and constantly to

    keep the quad-copter balanced.

    Figure 16. Radio transmitter and receiver

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    vii. Flight controller

    The flight control board is regarded as the brain of the quad-copter. Flight control boards

    range from simple to highly complex. An affordable, easy to set up, having a strong

    functionality controller is always recommended. Such controllers can handle about any type of

    multi-rotor aircraft so if even we want to upgrade to a hex copter or experiment with a tricopter,

    we need not purchase another board.

    Figure 17. Flight controller used in the project

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    viii. Microcontroller

    PIC16F877 belongs to a class of 8-bit microcontrollers of RISC architecture. It has 8kb flash

    memory for storing a written program. Since memory made in FLASH technology can be

    programmed and cleared more than once, it makes this microcontroller suitable for device

    development. IT has data memory that needs to be saved when there is no supply. It is usually

    used for storing important data that must not be lost if power supply suddenly stops. For

    instance, one such data is an assigned temperature in temperature regulators. If during a loss of

    power supply this data was lost, we would have to make the adjustment once again upon return

    of supply.

    RISC architecture

    Only 35 instructions to learn

    All single-cycle instructions except branches

    Operating frequency 0-20 MHz

    Precision internal oscillator

    o Factory calibrated

    o Software selectable frequency range of 8MHz to 31KHz

    Power supply voltage 2.0-5.5V

    o Consumption: 220uA (2.0V, 4MHz), 11uA (2.0 V, 32 KHz) 50nA (stand-by

    mode)

    Power-Saving Sleep Mode

    Brown-out Reset (BOR) with software control option

    35 input/output pins

    o High current source/sink for direct LED drive

    o software and individually programmable pull-up resistor

    o Interrupt-on-Change pin

    8K ROM memory in FLASH technology

    o Chip can be reprogrammed up to 100.000 times

    In-Circuit Serial Programming Option

    o Chip can be programmed even embedded in the target device

    256 bytes EEPROM memory

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    o Data can be written more than 1.000.000 times

    368 bytes RAM memory

    A/D converter:

    o 14-channels

    o 10-bit resolution

    3 independent timers/counters

    Watch-dog timer

    Analogue comparator module with

    o Two analogue comparators

    o Fixed voltage reference (0.6V)

    o Programmable on-chip voltage reference

    PWM output steering control

    Eight level deep hardware stack

    Power-on Reset (POR)

    Power-up Timer (PWRT) and

    Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)

    Programmable code protection

    Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation

    Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes

    Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources)

    Enhanced USART module

    o Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN2.0

    o Auto-Baud Detect

    Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP)

    o supports SPI and I2C mode

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    Figure 18. Microcontroller used in project

    3.5 Flight control

    The flight control in quad-copters work is based on the principle that each rotor produces

    thrust and torque about its center of rotation, as well as a drag opposite to the vehicle's

    direction of flight. If all rotors spin at the same angular velocity, with rotors marked 1 and 3

    rotating clockwise and rotors marked 2 and 4 counterclockwise, the net aerodynamic torque, and

    subsequently the angular acceleration about the yaw axis, is exactly zero, which implies that the

    yaw stabilizing rotor of conventional helicopters is not needed. Yaw is induced by mismatching

    the balance in aerodynamic torques (i.e., by offsetting the cumulative thrust commands between

    the counter-rotating blade pairs).

    The 4 rotors aligned take the shape of a square, two on opposite sides of the square rotate in

    clockwise direction and the other two rotate in the opposite direction. If all rotors turn in the

    same direction, the craft would spin just like the regular helicopter without the tail rotor. Yaw is

    induced by unbalanced aerodynamic torques. The aerodynamic torque of the first rotors pair

    cancelled out with the torque created by the second pair which rotates in the opposite direction.

    Hence if all four rotors apply equal thrust the quad-copter will stay in the same direction.

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    Figure 19. Flight control

    For balance, the quad-copter should continuously take the required measurements from the

    sensors, and make alterations to the speed of each rotor to maintain the body level. These

    adjustments usually are done automatically by a sophisticated control system on the quad copter

    in order to stay perfectly balanced. A quad copter has four controllable degrees of freedom,

    namely: Yaw, Roll, Pitch, and Altitude.

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    Figure 20. Different motions of quad-copter

    For hovering a balance of forces is needed. If we want the quad-copter to hover, SUM(Fi) must

    be equal mg. To move the quad-copter climb/decline the speed of every motor is

    increased/decreased.

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    Figure 20: Hovering motion

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    3.6 Application of quad-copter

    Quad-copters have variety of applications in the field of research, military and many more.

    Quad-copter designs have become a cynosure as to most research fields as they are an important

    concept of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). They use an electronic control system and electronic

    sensors to stabilize the aircraft. Their small size and agile maneuverability prove a great strength

    to these quad-copters and they can be flown indoors as well as outdoors.

    Some of their applications include:

    1) 3-D Mapping

    Small and lightweight drones help in surveying large landscapes with thousands of digital

    images that can be stitched together into a string of 3-D maps. Though military and

    other government satellites produce similar maps, but the stupendous outcomes of UAV

    technology outshines them repeatedly.

    2) Search and Rescue

    Drones are a widespread application to rescue patients during injury or any calamity, manmade

    or natural. Drones have the ability to help assist, locate and save victims, faster with more

    efficiency than any other option. There are campaign missions to provide a string

    product line of Search and Rescue (SAR) drones. Advanced technology is used to create

    drones that can reach people in small spaces and supply food, water and medicine to

    trapped victims. Many advances like water-resistance, high definition GPS tracker and

    cameras in quad-copters prove a great benefactor especially in the search and rescue aim.

    3) Farming

    In agriculture technology helps in great precision to monitor fields, increase yields and also save

    money. Moreover, drones also help precise applications of pesticides, water, or fertilizers by

    identifying exactly where such resources are needed and delivering them there too. Cameras

    in drones are able to spot nitrogen levels (low or high) or watch the growth of a particular

    section. Infrared light cameras inform about plant health by measuring the efficiency of

    photosynthesis in various plants. These infrared cameras also detect which land is suitable for

    appropriate growth of which plant.

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    3.7 Advantages of Quad-copters

    The main merit of quad-copters and similar unmanned aerial vehicles is their small size, due to

    which they could traverse in narrow conditions.

    The use of drones has tremendously grown in a short span of time owing to the long

    flying time in contrast to the manned aircrafts. Without a human pilot, drones can operate for

    significantly longer without fatigue than airplanes. Moreover, drone operators can easily hand

    off controls of a drone without any operational downtime. They are remote controlled, so

    no danger will be there to the crew. They contain a whole lot of widespread applications, in

    day to day lives, domestic purposes and national to international purposes.

    Some more of their advantages include:

    i. Does not require mechanical linkages to change the pitch angle at the blade as it spins.

    ii. Four small rotors have smaller diameter than one large helicopter rotor.

    iii. Takes less damage to rotors.

    iv. No need for a tail rotor which generates no lift.

    v. Easier to build four small blades compared to large one.

    vi. Due to ease in construction and control, they are used in amateur model aircrafts

    project.

    vii. They can traverse through difficult terrains because of their small size and there is less

    risk of damage too.

    viii. They can save lives. They greatly reduce putting military manpower in combat (in

    harm).

    ix. They are significantly cheaper and the cost in fuel and maintenance is way lower than

    regular airplanes.

    x. Quad-copters are smaller and are able to fly lower than traditional airplanes and the risk

    level to military hardware is comparatively low.

    xi. Drones increase surveillance, reconnaissance, and general military intelligence.

    xii. Drones contain more pinpoint precision and accuracy from larger distances, which in

    turn reduce the collateral damage to civilians and infrastructure.

    xiii. Drones are easier and faster to deploy than most alternative

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    Figure 21. Applications of quad-copter

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    CHAPTER 4

    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Drones will soon take on be an imperative existence in the coming future. They will be

    seen taking up larger roles for a variety of jobs including business in the immediate future They

    could become a part of our daily lives, from smallest details like delivering groceries to

    changing the way farmers manage their crops to revolutionizing private security, or

    maybe even aerial advertising. Today, quad copters are capturing news video, recording

    vacation travel logs, filming movies, providing disaster relief, surveying real estate and

    delivering packages.

    They are categorized according to their corresponding uses. Some are for military purposes

    provided with missiles and bombs, some for surveillance and reconnaissance purposes.

    Agriculture is predicted to be the dominant market for UAV operations. In Japan drones

    are flown for the past 20 years. Lot of the farmlands over there are on steep hillsides, and those

    vehicles can treat an acre in five minutes which is very difficult or even impossible to do

    so with a tractor.

    The innumerable advantages of drones lead to their growth in a short span of time.

    They have a few demerits but those can be rectified. Today most drones are controlled by

    either software or other computer programs. The components of a drone also vary based on

    what type of work needs to be done and how much payload needs to be carried.

    Out runners, batteries, electronic speed controllers all come in different ranges according

    to the type of work needed to be done by the Quad copters are a great provisional craft that

    could get in between airplanes and helicopters and are hence easier to fly all the time.

    Beside real-time 3Dflight, such as inverted flight, quad copters give a more acrobatic feel to

    its flyers. Quad copters offers to be a great balance between cost , capability, and

    performance. The only problem is when funds are coupled with highly ambitious projects. A

    solution for this could be to gradually improvise on inventing quad copters with new

    enhancements and new designs. Hence quad copters have an exemplarily bright future.

    The onus lies upon us whether we productively use it or destructively use it.

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    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER

    Figure 22. Circuit Diagram of Microcontroller

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    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER

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    APPENDIX A

    ACCEPTANCE OF PAPER PUBLISHED

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    APPENDIX B

    BIOGRAPHY OF STUDENT

    I am student of Galgoatia College of engineering and technology, pursuing Bachelor of

    technology in Electronics and Instrumentation for the session 2011-2015. My interests include

    reading and exploring new technologies. I am avid follower of new emergencies in the

    technology. I started working on quad-copter project due my inquisitiveness for this subject area.

    There are many areas wherein human interference can be reduced and proper utilization of

    technology can be performed. Also there are many terrains wherein human interference is just

    not possible. For such reasons, a quad copter can be of great help. Along with this I prefer

    travelling and knowing new places and people.

    AYUSH GAUTAM

    Roll No 1109732032

    Session 2011-15

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    RESEARCH PAPER

    WIRELESS CONTROL QUADCOPTER SELF-BALANCING SYSTEM

    Ms.Kriti1, Ayush Gautam2, Prateek Gautam3, Mukul Kapoor4 1Assistant Professor

    2Student

    Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

    Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology, Gr .Noida [email protected]

    [email protected] [email protected]

    ABSTRACT: This research focused on a remotely operated Quad copter system.

    The Quad copter is controlled through

    graphical user interface (GUI).

    Communication between GUI and Quad

    copter is done by using wireless

    communication system. All signals from

    sensors are processed by PIC

    microcontroller board. Output from PIC

    microcontroller board used to control

    Quad copter propellers.

    The experiment shows that Quad copter

    can hover with maintain its balancing and

    stability. They are called rotorcrafts

    because unlike a fixed wing aircraft, here

    lift is generated by narrow chord aero

    foils. They are the mixture of streams of

    mechanical, electronics and especially

    aviation .

    Keywords- Quadcopter, QuadRotor,GUI,

    Rotorcrafts.

    I. INTRODUCTION

    Quad copter, also known as quad rotor, is a

    helicopter with four rotors. The rotors are

    directed upwards and they are placed in a

    square formation with equal distance from

    the center of mass of the quad copter. The

    quad copter is controlled by adjusting the

    angular velocities of the rotors which are

    spun by electric motors. Quadcopter is a

    typical design for small unmanned aerial

    vehicles (UAV) because of the simple

    structure. quad copters are used in

    surveillance, search and rescue, construction

    inspections and several other applications.

    Quadcopter has received considerable

    attention from researchers as the complex

    Phenomena of the quad copter has generated

    several areas of interest. The basic

    dynamical model of the quad copter is the

    starting point for all of the studies but more

    complex aerodynamic properties has been

    introduced as well. Different control

    methods has been researched, including PID

    controllers . Control methods require

    accurate information from the position and

    attitude measurements performed with a

    gyroscope , an accelerometer, and other

    measuring devices, such as GPS, and sonar

    and laser sensors . The purpose of this paper

    is to present the basics of quad copter

    modeling and control as to form a basis for

    further research and development in the

    area. This is pursued with two aims. The

    first aim is to study the mathematical model

    of the quad copter dynamics. The second

    aim is to develop proper methods for

    stabilization and trajectory control of the

    quad copter. The challenge in controlling a

    quad copter is that the quad copter has six

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    degrees of freedom but there are only four

    control inputs.

    II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

    The quad rotor helicopter used in this

    project is a Draganyer X-Pro (X-Pro). It

    differs from traditional helicopters regarding

    the design as it has 4 horizontal rotors and

    no vertical rotors. Traditional helicopters

    can adjust the angle of the rotor blades as

    well in order to control the helicopter, but on

    the X-Pro the blades have a static angle. The

    only variable that can be adjusted in right is

    the rotational speed of the rotors.

    The reason for this is to aid the development

    of a model and controllers for the X-Pro,

    without the risk of flying into the wall. This

    will of course give reduce the movements of

    the X-Pro.

    Fig.1 Whole structure of rotations in quadcopter

    The Design

    The X-Pro consists of a base in the center

    and 4 arms equally spaced in a shape of a

    cross. The motors are mounted on the end of

    the arms and connected to the rotors using 1

    to 10 gearing. The base of the X-Pro is the

    joint between the 4 arms and contains a

    battery and the remote control (R/C)

    electronics. The basic structure of the X-Pro

    can be seen in figure. The X-pro has two

    motors working in the same direction in ths

    case 4 and 2 rotating anticlockwise whereas,

    the other two motors 1 and 3 rotated in

    opposite direction to the other motors that is

    4 and 2 making the X-pro rotates stable and

    vigorous!

    III.TECHNIQUE USED

    A Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Signal is

    a method for generating an analog signal

    using a digital source. A PWM signal

    consists of two main components that define

    its behavior: a duty cycle and a frequency.

    The duty cycle describes the amount of time

    the signal is in a high (on) state as a

    percentage of the total time of it takes to

    complete one cycle. The frequency

    determines how fast the PWM completes a

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    cycle (i.e. 1000 Hz would be 1000 cycles

    per second), and therefore how fast it

    switches between high and low states.

    Technique used in the movement of the

    quad copter is PWM(Pulse Width

    Modulation ) . pulse-duration

    modulation (PWM), it is a technique used

    to encode a message into a pulsing signal. It

    is a type of modulation. Although this

    modulation technique can be used to encode

    information for transmission, its main use is

    to allow the control of the power supplied to

    electrical devices, especially to inertial loads

    such as motors. In addition, PWM is one of

    the two principal algorithms used

    in photovoltaic solar battery chargers, The

    PWM switching frequency has to be much

    higher than what would affect the load (the

    device that uses the power), which is to say

    that the resultant waveform perceived by the

    load must be as smooth as possible .The

    major advantage of using PWM in the

    quadcopter is that power loss in the

    switching devices is very low. When a

    switch is off there is practically no current,

    and when it is on and power is being

    transferred to the load, there is almost no

    voltage drop across the switch. Power loss,

    being the product of voltage and current, is

    thus in both cases close to zero. PWM also

    works well with digital controls, which,

    because of their on/off nature, can easily set

    the needed duty cycle. PWM can be used to

    control the amount of power delivered to a

    load without incurring the losses that would

    result from linear power delivery by

    resistive means.

    IV .CONCLUSION

    While the initial goal of creating an

    autonomous quadcopter capable of sensing

    obstacles was not reached in ten weeks, our

    group still learned a substantial amount

    about robot design, fabrication, control, and

    arduino programming. We used the spring

    test rig to determine the motor and propeller

    thrust for various PWM signals. We used

    this information for quadcopter frame down

    selection and control. We learned important

    soldering and electric system fabrication

    skills including making a power harness and

    digital to analog motor control. Our group

    all became proficient arduino programmers

    by necessity as it was the most complex part

    and required a group effort. In these ten

    weeks we succeeded in stabilizing the

    quadcopter in two degrees of freedom. The

    end of the project is bittersweet. We are

    proud of our accomplishments, but wish that

    there were more time to improve the

    quadcopter. With another ten weeks we

    would further fine tune the stability and add

    code to handle yaw and translation in the

    XYZ-axes

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    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER USED

    IN THE QUAD COPTER

    The circuit shows how the PIC microcontroller is used to control the electronic speed

    controllers(ESCs) which control the speed of the motor which in turn controls speed of the

    propellers of the quad copter.

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    CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF THE WIRELESS

    CONTROLLER

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    REFERENCES

    References & websites were used as a medium to obtain information for this project:

    1. http://blog.oscarliang.net/types-of-multicopter/ - Posted on Oct. 25 2013.

    2. http://blog.oscarliang.net/build-a-quadcopter-beginners-tutorial-1/- Posted on June 25

    2013.

    3. http://blog.tkjelectronics.dk/2012/03/quadcopters-how-to-get started/#battery Posted on

    March 27 2012.

    4. http://www.fox42kptm.com/story/27451289/imagination-tv-partners-withdrones-to-the-

    rescue-to-provide-emergency-situation-relief - Posted on November 21 2014.

    5. www.slideshare.net

    6. http://www.philforhumanity.com/Drones.html

    7. www.farmingdrones.com

    8. www.abcnews.com

    9. G. M. Hoffmann, H. Huang, S. L. Waslander, and C. J. Tomlin, Quadrotor helicopter

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    10. H. Huang, G. M. Hoffmann, S. L. Waslander, and C. J. Tomlin, Aerodynamics and

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    13. I. C. Dikmen, A. Arsoy, and H. Temeltas, Attitude control of a quadrotor, 4th

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    IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 32553260,

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    17. K. M. Zemalache, L. Beji, and H. Marref, Control of an under-actuated system:

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