world war i: battles & technology eq: how was wwi fought?

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World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

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Page 1: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

World War I: Battles & Technology

EQ: How was WWI fought?

Page 2: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

(Triple Alliance)Central Powers (Triple Entente)Allied Powers

World War IWorld War I

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Ottoman Empire

Bulgaria

Russia

France

Great Britain

Italy

Japan

United States (1917)

COMBATANTS OF WWI

Page 3: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Why was WWI a Stalemate?

• What’s a stalemate?–Neither side can make a move to win

• Both sides of the war threw arms and troops in to win but…………

• Millions die without gaining ground.WHY?

Page 4: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Precursor to Battle of Verdun

• After two years of warfare, Germans realize they can’t break through the Allied lines in France.

• German General Falkenhayn proposes a war of attrition against the French Army.

• A war of attrition is about killing more people than you lose. Example: Can’t take the hill? Then kill as many as you can and one day you will.– Attack a position the French can’t afford to lose– Kill as many French troops as possible

Page 5: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

The Battle of Verdun• February 21, 1916 –

December 18, 1916• One of the most costly

battles of WWI.• Germans attempt to

conquer key French city of Verdun.

• Would have opened Paris up to invasion.

Page 6: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

New Tactics

• Germans attack with flame throwers for the first time.– Flame throwers used to

clear French out of trenches

• German troops begin attack with grenades instead of rifles

• Manage to move forward three miles in a day.

• New types of poison gas introduced by Germans.

Page 7: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Results

• French Casualties– 550000 dead

• German Casualties– 434000 dead

• British begin battle of the Somme to relieve French army at Verdun.

• Neither French or German army gains an advantage.

Page 8: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Significance

• French hold Verdun thanks to forts– Convinced that a system of fixed heavy forts is the best

defense (will not work for the French in WWII… ask me why)

• WWI becomes a war of attrition. Armies fight lengthy battles, with very high casualties.

Page 9: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare – type of fighting during World War I in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbed wire

• Trenches were dug from English Channel to Switzerland

• 6,250 miles• 6 to 8 feet deep• Immobilized both sides for 4 years

Page 10: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

THE TRENCH SYSTEMLayout:

• 1st: No Man’s Land• 2nd: Barbed wire,

mines, etc.• 3rd: Front line• 4th: Communication

trench• 5th: Support

trenches

Page 11: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?
Page 12: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?
Page 13: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

LIFE IN THE TRENCHES

• Elaborate systems of defense– barbed wire– Concrete machine

gun nests– Mortar batteries– Troops lived in holes

underground

• Boredom– Soldiers read to

pass the time– Sarah Bernhardt

came out to the front to read poetry to the soldiers

Page 14: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

“Death is Everywhere”

• “We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.” Death numbed the soldier’s minds.

• Shell shock (mental anguish)• Psychological devastation

• “Never such innocence again”• Bitterness towards aristocratic

officers whose lives were never in danger

Page 15: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

WWI WEAPONRYThe countries fighting grew more and

more desperate to break the stalemate. The war of attrition led to more terrifying ways to kill humans

Page 16: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

What new weapons were used in WWI?

• Machine gun• Poison gas (Mustard gas)

• Carried by the wind• Burned out soldier’s lungs• Deadly in the trenches

where it would sit at the bottom

• Submarine• Airplane• Tank• Hand grenades• Flame Throwers• Why these weapons? Why now?

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!!!

Page 17: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

New Technologies of WWI

• Tanks• Initially used for

breaking through barbed wire between trenches.

• Armed with small guns, and machine guns

Page 18: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Artillery

• Germans produce massive guns for shelling French lines.

• Some fire shells as large as 1000 pounds,

• The “Paris Gun” is able to fire shells over 75 miles.

Page 19: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Poisonous Gas

• Poisonous gasses like mustard gas used by both sides.

• Fired by artillery into opposing lines.

• Hundreds of thousands die due to exposure.

Page 20: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

German submarines, called U-boats, torpedoed enemy ships and neutral ships trading with the enemy.

Page 21: World War I: Battles & Technology EQ: How was WWI fought?

Air Combat

• Airplanes initially used only for observation.

• Enemy airplanes armed with machine guns to shoot down observation planes.

• Eventually planes used to drop bombs on enemy positions.