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Wren & Rembrandt. Architecture & Art of the Protestant North. Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) . Taught astronomy at Oxford Member of the Royal Society Great Fire in 1666 destroyed most of London. Charles II made Wren surveyor to his court. New Saint Paul’s Cathedral. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Wren & RembrandtArchitecture & Artof the Protestant North1Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) Taught astronomy at OxfordMember of the Royal SocietyGreat Fire in 1666 destroyed most of London. Charles II made Wren surveyor to his court.

2Sir Christopher Wren (b. Wiltshire, England 1632; d. London, England 1723) Christopher Wren was born in Wiltshire, England in 1632. He attended Wadham College, Oxford in 1649 as a Gentleman Commoner. At Oxford he joined a group of brilliant scholars, who later formed the core of the Royal Society. As assistant to an eminent anatomist, Wren developed skills as an experimental, scientific thinker. With astronomy as his initial course of study, Wren developed skills in working models, diagrams and charting that proved useful when he entered architecture. Wren became the Gresham Professor of Astronomy in London in 1657, at the age of twenty-five. Four years later he became the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford. In 1663, Wren's uncle, the Bishop of Ely, asked him to design a new chapel for Pembroke College, Cambridge. This, his first foray into architecture, was quickly followed by more commissions. London's Great Fire of 1666 gave Wren a chance to present a scheme to rebuild the city. Utopian in concept, it was only partially realized. In 1669 Charles II appointed Wren Surveyor General of the King's Works. As Surveyor General he supervised all work on the royal palaces. In 1673 Wren resigned his Oxford professorship because of the work load. He was also knighted in 1673. Wren died in London in 1723.

New Saint Pauls CathedralMath and engineering genius Won Isaac Newtons praise. Built over the remains of the old Gothic Church

"St. Paul's, the largest cathedral in England, is Wren's masterpiece. With it, he brought a repertoire of new forms (the dome, for example) and architectural combinations into English architecture. The building is something of an encyclopedia of Wren's impressions of the architecture of the continent... Wren fashioned the facade of St. Paul's with two tiers of paired Corinthian columns like those of the Louvre and framed them between towers inspired by those of Borromini's Roman church of S. Agnese. Above the two-story base rises a tremendous peripteral dome that reinterprets Bramante's Tempietto of 1502. Pietro da Cortona's projecting curved porches of Santa Maria della Pace have become St. Paul's transept porches." Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p380-81

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5Wren Library Cambridge

The Wren Library is the library of Trinity College in Cambridge. It was designed by Christopher Wren in 1676 and completed in 1684. It is credited as being one of the first libraries to be built with large windows to give comfortable light levels to aid readers.The library is a single large room built over an open colonnade on the ground floor of Nevile's Court. The floor of the library proper within the upper storey lies several feet below the external division between the two storeys, reconciling the demands of use with the harmony of architectural proportion. This device prefigures the inner, middle and outer domes at St Paul's Cathedral.6

Royal Observatory GreenwichFlamsteed House, the original part of the Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren probably with the assistance of Robert Hooke and was the first purpose-built scientific research facility in Britain. It was built for a cost of 520 (20 over budget) out of largely recycled materials on the foundations of Duke Humphrey's Tower, which resulted in the alignment being 13 degrees away from true North, somewhat to Flamsteed's chagrin.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was at one time based on the time observations made at Greenwich (until 1954). To help others synchronize their clocks to GMT, a time ball was installed by Astronomer Royal John Pond in 1833. It still drops daily to mark the exact moment of 1 p.m. (13:00) year round (GMT during winter and BST during summer).[2] 7Rembrandt van Rijn1606 - 1669The greatest Dutch painter of his eraHe was skilled in all subjects.Portraits, still lifes, historic and religious subjects, and landscapes.Great psychological insight in his works.Self PortraitsMore than 60 Great wealth by 30s, but broke by 50s.Loss of first wife while she was young, then friend and finally his son.8

Self-Portrait.c. 1629.Oil on canvas. Mauritshuis Museum, The Hague, Holland.9The Amsterdam Merchant Nicolaes Ruts. 1631.Oil on panel. The Frick Collection, New York, USA.

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Nicolas Ruts furrier JP Morgan buys it. Best picture of a business man. Confident, pink in eyes as if stayed up late for good of company11

Blinding of SampsonDiagonals point to eyeCircles in a few places draw attentionLight enters and highlights his face and the eye that is being cut out12

Portrait of Saskia. 1633. Oil on canvas. Alte Meister Gallerie, Dresden, Germany.Saska niece of partner. Wealthy. Rem spends her money on EVERYTHING.13

Self-Portrait. 1640. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

Deep admoration for Italian art, although he never travelled there. He still saw plenty of Italian art since Amesterdam was the largest art clearing house in the world.

Copied from Raphaels Castiligone & Man with a Blue Sleeve by Titian. Both up for auction and Rembrandt saw them in Amsterdam14

The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild (The Staalmeesters). 1662. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Highly unusual group portraitMen are looking up at us since we just interrupted their meeting.A man rises to address and speak with us.Light sources are from high left and straight on.Table is foreshortening and extends into our space15

The Night Watch1642. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.16Group portraits were common, but often seated.Only duties of militias at this time only had one duty, patrolling streets at night.Chiarascuro is used in a manner equal to CaravagioSaskia gets TB and dies. Already had buried 3 of their kids, only Titus a son had survived. Little girls face is a womans and is similar to his wife, Saskia.Painting has been cut down to a smaller size to fit in a new location.

Details of The Night Watch

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The Mill. c. 1650. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.Largest and probably most famous landscapePainted this after the death of his wifeExpresses an overpowering feeling of solitude and loneliness.This feeling is traced to the solitary windmill outlined dramatically against the fading sunset.The great sweep of the sky seems to overwhelm the windmill, further emphasizing its isolation.

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Hendrickje Bathing in a River. 1654. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.Woman in Bath, sensual, sleeping with her. Falls out of favor and files for bankruptcy. 19

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Self-Portrait. 1658. Oil on canvas. The Frick Collection, New York, USA.Rembrandt, looking worn. Doesnt care about finish. 1658, hes broke, so paints himself as a king. Puts it in frame of mirror, only item he had after sale.21

Self-Portrait. c. 1668. Oil on canvas. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne, Germany.22