acne vulgaris by pradeep paudel

28
Pokhara University School of Health and Allied Sciences Acne vulgaris Pradeep Paudel Third Semester, B Pharm Roll no:18 School of Health and Allied Sciences Pokhara University, Dhungepatan, Lekhnath, Kaski , Nepal

Upload: pradeep-paudel

Post on 12-Apr-2017

542 views

Category:

Health & Medicine


3 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Acne vulgaris

Pradeep PaudelThird Semester, B Pharm

Roll no:18

School of Health and Allied SciencesPokhara University, Dhungepatan, Lekhnath, Kaski , Nepal

Page 2: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Topics Under Discussion • Introduction• Causes• Types • Effects• Treatments• Precautions• Conclusion• References

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 2

Page 3: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Introduction• Acne vulgaris is a common human skin disease,

characterized by pimples, comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules, nodules, cysts as a result of obstruction of pilosebaceous gland.

• Hence, acne is a disorder of the pilosebaceous unit caused primarily by increased sebum secretion and follicular plugging.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 3

Page 4: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…• Overproduction of a

normal oil on the skin called sebum increases under the influence of hormones and plugs hair follicle.

• The plugged follicle become inflammed and have increased growth of normal skin and results in acne.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 4

Page 5: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 5

Page 6: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…• Acne can affect people of all age groups but is most

prevalent in adolescence and may persist or become more severe in adulthood.

• Acne most often affects face, but it may also spread to neck, chest, back and sometimes even more extensively all over the body.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 6

Page 7: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 7

Page 8: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

CausesHormonal changeInflammation and infectionGenetics Unhealthy life styleUse of low quality and expired cosmetic productsStressful conditionAbnormal sebum production

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 8

Page 9: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Types of Acne 1. Non-inflammatory lesions Whiteheads or closed comedones Blackheads or open comedones

2. Inflammatory lesions Papules Nodules Cysts

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 9

Page 10: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Comedones :• A comedones is a hair follicle that has become

clogged with oil and dead skin cells.

• Comedones can develop into bumps called whiteheads and blackheads.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 10

Page 11: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Whiteheads :• Comedones that stay closed at the surface of the

skin are called whiteheads.• They are also termed as closed comedones.• This happen when oil and skin cells prevent a clogged

hair follicle from opening.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 11

Page 12: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Blackheads :• Blackheads are comedones that are open at the

surface of the skin. • They are also called as open comedones.• They are filled with excess oil and dead cells.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 12

Page 13: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Papules :• Papules are comedones that become inflammed,

forming small red or pink bumps on the skin.• This type of pimple may be sensitive to the touch.• Picking or squeezing can make the inflammation

worse and may lead to scarring.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 13

Page 14: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Effects of Acne vulgarisPhysical effects:Acne Fulminans i.e acne break and causing scarring

Distortion of face

Inflammation

Pigmentation

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 14

Page 15: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…Psychological effects :Damage one’s self esteem and confidence

Anxity and depression

Social inhibition

Suicidal disposition in extreme cases

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 15

Page 16: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Treatments Treatment for acne depends on the patient’s age and

sex, the extent and the severity of the acne, how long it has been present and response to previous treatments.

Topical (or external) treatments for acne include one or more creams, washes, or gels that include:

• Antibacterial agents and antibiotics such as benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfur, sodium sulfacetamide, and azelaic acid.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 16

Page 17: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd… Oral treatments may include:• Antibiotics such as tetracycline, minocycline,

doxycycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, clindamycin, azithromycin or cephalosporins.

• Oral contraceptives and spironolactone have been found to help regulate hormones.

• Isotretinoin, a strong drug with many side effects, for severe acne unresponsive to the above treatments.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 17

Page 18: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…• Treatment for

moderate acne include acne antibiotics such as benzoyl peroxide tetracyclines or anti-androgens.

• Treatment for severe acne may require a course of oral isotretinoin.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 18

Page 19: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Other treatment methods:Topical antibiotics:• Inflammatory papules are often treated with topical

antibiotics.• Erythromycin and clindamycin are the most

conventional topical antibiotics prescribed.• Clindamycin is prescribed more often than

erythromycin, as it has maintained better efficacy.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 19

Page 20: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…Hormonal treatment:• Hormonal treatment of acne is appropriate for

females only. It is geared toward decreasing androgen levels, the hormone implicated in stimulation of the sebaceous follicle.

• Combination pills with estrogen and progesteron that have low androgenic activity should be choosen.

• Response to hormonal treatment can take 3 to 6 months.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 20

Page 21: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…Acne surgery:• The term "acne surgery" refers to extracting

comedones and draining pustules and cysts.• Comedones can be easily extracted with the use of a

comedone extractor tool or applying pressure around the follicular opening with two cotton-tipped applicators.

• Care must be taken not to cause tissue damage when performing these procedures.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 21

Page 22: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Contd…Laser treatment and phototherapy:• The use of lasers and light therapy for the treatment

of acne is still in the early stages of development. • The long-term safety and efficacy of light-based

treatments is still need to be clarified.• However, these treatments are potentially helpful

for individuals who cannot tolerate other acne regimens or those who have failed conventional therapeutic treatments.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 22

Page 23: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Precautions Do not try to break your pimples as it can make them

more worse. Do not use strong soaps and chemicals on your face. Do not overexpose your skin to the sun. Avoid eating too much of junk food and spicy food. Include food containing vitamins A and E in your diet. Better avoid choclates, fatty food, fried food,

carbonated and caffeinated beverages or foods. Drink plenty of water and fruit juice.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 23

Page 24: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

Conclusion• Acne vulargis is a significant psychological and

financial burden for those affected.• Although mild acne may improve with over-the-

counter treatments, more severe forms should be treated by a dermatologist.

• Oral therapies are often necessary in moderate-to-severe acne cases.

• Patients need to be aware that response to treatment can take several weeks to months.

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 24

Page 25: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

References Walker BR and Ralston SH (2010)Davidson’s

Principles and Practice of Medicine (21st Ed.), Elsevier, Edinburg, pp1267-1268

Medscape. Acne Vulgaris(http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1069804-overview) (Accessed on June27, 2015)

3 May 2023 Acne vulgaris 25

Page 26: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

“DON’T HIDE YOUR FACE, REVEAL YOUR BEAUTY WITH CONFIDENCE !”

May 3, 2023 Acne vulgaris 26

Page 27: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

May 3, 2023 Acne vulgaris 27

Page 28: Acne vulgaris by Pradeep Paudel

Pokhara UniversitySchool of Health and Allied Sciences

May 3, 2023 Acne vulgaris 28