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    1) CONTENTS

    1) Contents......1

    2) Description of the Company.....4

    2.1 Company name..............................................................................................4

    2.2 Company location...........................................................................................4 2.3 Part of the Factory at Which the Summer Practice Done..............................4

    2.4 Organization structure of the company ....4

    2.5 Brief intro uction a!out "#B$"%&'S%() ........4

    2.6 Personal Specifications of "#B$"%&'S%()...................................................*

    2.7 Duties of engineers.........................................................................................+

    2.7.1 Duties of ,echanical )ngineers...............................................................+

    2.7.2 Duties of )lectrical )lectronic )ngineers..................................................- 2.7.3 Duties of ,etallurgical )ngineers.............................................................-

    2.7.4 Duties of $n ustrial )ngineers...................................................................-

    2.7.5 Duties of %erospace )ngineers................................................................-

    3) $ntro uction.............................................................................. ...............................4) ,anufacturing )ngineering ,achineshop.............................................................1/

    4.1 Chip'"ype ,achining Facility.........................................................................1/

    4.1.1 "urning.................................................................................................114.1.2 ,illing..................................................................................................10

    4.1.3 Drilling..................................................................................................14

    4.1.4 Boring...................................................................................................1 4.1.5 "apping................................................................................................1

    4.1.6 Sa2ing.................................................................................................1* 4.1.7 (rin ing...............................................................................................1*

    4.1.8 ,anual De!urring................................................................................1*

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    4.2 Press an Wel ing Facility.....1*

    4.2.1 Ben ing.......1+

    4.2.2 Flo2 Forming..1- 4.2.3 (as ,etal %rc Wel ing.....1- 4.2.4 Spot Wel ing.........................................................................................1 4.2.5 (as "ungsten %rc Wel ing....................................................................3/

    5) ,achines in the ,achineshop...31 5.1 Chip'type ,achining ,achines......31

    5.2 Wel ing ,achines.......33

    5.3 Press ,achines........33

    5.4 on'tra itional ,achining ,achines..30

    5.5 Spinning ,achine.30

    6) Sample Wor5 Pieces...30 6.1 / /'1 /3 3....30

    6.2 $nterface................................................................................................34

    6.3 Con6ulsi6e "ip &ey.......................................................................................34

    6.4 Bac5pusher......................................................................3

    6.5 "ransfer %rm................................................................................................3*

    7) Cost %nalysis........3* 7.1 Con6ulsi6e "ip &ey...3*

    7.2 Bac5pusher ...3+

    8) Conclusion.3-

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    9) %ppen i70/ 9.1 %ppen i7'% Organizational Structure of S%().....................0/ 9.2 %ppen i7'B 8oughly Dra2n Plan of ,achineshop.....01

    9.3 %ppen i7'C "echnical $nformations of the ,achines.. ..01

    9.4 %ppen i7'D Dra2ing of / /'1 /3 3...................0- 9.7 %ppen i7') Dra2ing of $nterface.... ....................................................0 9.8 %ppen i7'F Dra2ing of Con6ulsi6e "ip &ey................................................4/

    9.9 %ppen i7'( Dra2ing of Bac5pusher...............................41 9.10 %ppen i7'9 Dra2ing of "ransfer %rm..........43

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    2) DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY

    2.1 Company Name

    "#B$"%&'S%() :"he Scientific an "echnological 8esearch Council of

    "ur5ey Defense $n ustries 8esearch an De6elopment $nstitute;

    2.2 Company Location

    "#B$"%&'S%() is acti6e in three locationsalahan Site :the part of the company that internship one;

    2.3 Part of the Factory at hich the !"mmer Practice #one,anufacturing )ngineering #nit

    2.4 $r%ani&ationa' !tr"ct"re of the Company (i6en in %ppen i7'%

    2.5 (rief intro "ction a*o"t +,(-+ / !

    Defense $n ustries 8esearch an De6elopment $nstitute ' S%()? 2as esta!lishein 1 +3? an is acti6e in three locations ' ,)"# (ui ance Control >a!oratory?

    %n5ara Su!sonic Win "unnel an >alahan Site 2hich is 0/ 5m. a2ay from the citycenter of %n5ara. "he $nstitute is a part of "#B@"%& ' "he Scientific an

    "echnological 8esearch Council of "ur5ey an specializes in the fiel of efensein ustry.

    "he main function of S%() is to perform research an e6elopment acti6ities forefense systems inclu ing engineering an prototype pro uction? starting 2ith their

    fun amental research an conceptual esign. ,ost of the proAects are performe incoor ination 2ith relate efense institutions.

    S%() !elie6es international cooperation is as important as national partnerships

    an 2ishes to e7change 5no2le ge 2ith 6arious partners from allie countries.

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    "he range of acti6ities that " B@"%& ' S%() performs can !e liste asfollo2s

    ' (ui e an un'gui e ammunition systems su!systemsi!rarianship 1' (ui ance an Psychological Counseling 1

    $ther mp'oyee 89

    N"m*er of +ota' mp'oyee 305

    2.7 #,+- ! $F N -N !

    2.7.1 #"tie of echanica' n%ineer

    Since the main 2or5ing area of the company is relate 2ith the mechanicalengineering? it is easy to see mechanical engineers in many uties in the company anthe num!er of mechanical engineers can !e sho2n as a proof of this statement.,echanical )ngineering starts 2ith esign parts of proAects implying most of the proAectchiefs of the proAects are mostly mechanical engineers. ,echanical )ngineers are alsota5es place in many epartments e7cept specific ones such as electronic epartment.One of the main 2or5ing area of mechanical engineers in the company is manufacturingengineering. ,anufacturing engineering etermines ho2 parts of a pro uct are going to!e ma e. $n a ition? process engineers chec5s the manufactura!ility of the parts.,anufacturing engineers are also responsi!le for initializing the pro ucing process.

    7

    http://www.feas.metu.edu.tr/http://www.feas.metu.edu.tr/
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    2.7.2 #"tie of 'ectrica' an 'ectronic n%ineer

    ,icroelectronics e6ices an electronic circuits are the main 2or5ing area of electrical an electronics engineers. Since electrical an electronics engineers areresponsi!le for the 2hole esign of the microchips an circuits? pro uction planning?selling an purchasing acti6ities can !e accepte as their responsi!ility to increaseeffecti6eness of the circuit an microchip pro uction.

    2.7.3 #"tie of eta''"r%ica' n%ineer

    ,aterial choice an sometimes pro ucing the nee e material for partpro ucing is the main uty of metallurgical engineers in S%(). ,aterial propertiessuch as yiel strength? mo ulus of elasticityetc. an alterations of these properties!y heating or cooling must !e supplie !y metallurgical engineers to esigners of parts. 9eat treatment is another responsi!ility of metallurgical engineers. Since heattreatment can change properties of materials? metallurgical engineers must inform the

    esigners of parts a!out harmful effects of heat treatment.

    2.7.4 #"tie of -n " tria' n%ineer

    $n ustrial engineers mostly ta5e part in none7clusi6e parts in the company anthey 2or5 !y targeting the efficiency increase of S%(). $n ustrial engineers often areresponsi!le for pro ucti6ity impro6ements? supply chain optimization? proAectmanagement? feasi!ility stu ies for ne2 technologies an applications? lean an Aust'in'time implementation? health care management an logistics? an systemsintegration an engineering. 9o2e6er? the ultimate aim is controlling an lo2eringcosts.

    2.7.5 #"tie of ero pace n%ineer

    Because one of the main proAect area of S%() is missiles an roc5ets?contri!ution of aerospace engineering to proAects increases. %erospace engineers

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    mostly stu y on aero ynamics of roc5ets an missiles. %ccor ing to this? aerospaceengineers eci es the outer shapes of roc5ets an missiles.

    3) INTRODUCTION

    "he stan ar of li6ing in any society is etermine ? primarily? !y the goo san the ser6ices that are a6aila!le to its people. $n this respect pro uction ta5es animportant role? 2hich reinforces the importance of goo engineering e ucation. $nor er to impro6e engineering e ucation uality so as to impro6e stan ar s of li6ing ?engineering e ucation must !e enriche !y applications of theoretical 5no2le geon practical ones. $n this respect? ,) 0// Summer Practice is aime to impro6e an reinforce?the practical an theoretical 5no2le ge a!out pro uction techni ues ac uire in ,)3// ,echanical )ngineering Orientation ? ,) 3/3 ,anufacturing "echnologiescourse an ,) 110'114 )ngineering Dra2ing courses. "his summer practice alsohelps to impro6e 5no2le ge a!out material sciences 2hich 2as learne at ,)")

    33+'33-.)ngineering stu ents all gi6en more theoretical 5no2le ge a!out mechanical

    engineering. "he summer practice is ma e to see 2here this theoretical !ac5grounis use in practice. $t aime to gi6e the practical 5no2le ge so that the theory anthe practice can !e put together easier. %lso ? another purpose 2as to help themechanical engineering stu ents to imagine ho2 the machines 2or5 ? ho2 theprograms are 2ritten ? 2here the pro uction techni ues are use shortly ho2 the

    theory is in reality. "herefore? this report 2ill inclu e the pro uction techni ues? technicalinformation a!out the machines? pro uction stages of some components? costanalysis of fe2 parts as an intro uction to engineering economics an engineering

    ra2ings of the components 2hich are at the stage of Aust !efore pro uction. Prior tothese? a !rief information a!out "#B$"%& S%() is presente .

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    4 MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

    MACHINESHOP"his 2or5shop is a 5in of prototype 2or5shop 2here the prototypes of

    mechanic systems that nee e in esign step are manufacture . "he impro6ementof efficiency of these mechanic systems an the necessary e6elopments are oneun er the influence of the tests an e7periments. %lso some repairing processes2hich can not !e one !y relate units ue to lac5 of tools or s5ille la!our or notto interrupt flo2 shop manufacturing? are one in this 2or5shop .

    ,ost of the la!our is highly s5ille ue to nee s of iscontinuity of 2or5 flo2.,anufacturing system of this 2or5shop can !e classifie as Go! Shop,anufacturing. Fe2 num!ers of pro ucts ha6ing a 2i e 6ariety in spectrum aremanufacture in most economical 2ay. 9o2e6er? rarely? some mass pro uction is

    one such that the parts 2hich can not !e foun from outsi e mar5et an nee eimme iately in small uantities for flo2 shop manufacturing units.

    "he manuacturing proce ure is follo2e in these 2ays First of all? the

    unmachine 2or5piece or the ro2 material is gi6en the esire shape in chip'typemachining facility. "hen? if re uire ? to assem!ly the machine 2or5pieces? pressan 2el ing facility ta5es part in manufacturing. %fter all a!o6e one? uality controlfacility comes to 2or5 to chec5 out the esire specialities 2hich are in icate !yengineers on mechanical ra2ings of manufacture parts. For special cases? ualitycontrol facility tests the ro2 materialsH har ness !efore chip'type processes.

    4.1 Chip +ype achinin% Faci'ity

    "his facility emolishes the epen ency of S%() in the meaning of manufacturing !y the help of its mo ernly esigne 2or5ing area an high'techmachines. %ll machining operations< turning? milling? rilling? !oring? tapping?5nurling? sa2ing processes< can !e successi6ely carrie out in chip'type machiningfacility. "he importance of highly's5ille la!or can not !e ignore for this success.

    For metal remo6al processes< there are fi6e lathes? a C C lathe? a uni6ersalmilling machine? three C C milling machines? a ra ial rilling machine? t2o press

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    rilling machines? a grin ing machine? a sa2ing machine an a 2ire electro ischargemachine.

    %ll lathes ha6e numerical control units an all ha6e high pro uction capacity."hree of lathes are use for relati6ely small imensione 2or5 pieces such asscre2s an !olt< the rest of the lathes are esigne for relati6ely large an long 2or5pieces.

    C C milling machines use for relati6ely high precision 2or5 pieces. On theother han uni6ersal milling machine is not use for etaile parts 2hich nee highaccuracy. $t has 2orth to note that only one C C milling machine can create anglesurfaces !y its special mo6ement.

    Press rilling machines are manually controlle . "hese are not use for 2or5pieces that nee high accuracy. For critical parts? ra ial rilling machin is preferre ."he grin ing machine is generally use for sharpening the cutting e ges of thecutting tools.

    %fter a !rief intro uction to chip'type machining facility? etaile informationa!out machining operations is gi6en !elo2.

    4.1.1 +"rnin% "urning is one of the !asic machining processes. $nformation in this

    section is organize accor ing to the su!category lin5s in the menu !ar to the left."urning pro uces soli s of re6olution 2hich can !e tightly tolerance

    !ecause of the specialize nature of the operation. "urning is performe on amachine calle a lathe in 2hich the tool is stationary an the part is rotate . "hefigure !elo2 illustrates an engine lathe. >athes are esigne solely for turningoperations? so that precise control of the cutting results in tight tolerances. "he 2or5piece is mounte on the chuc5?2hich rotates relati6e to the stationary tool.

    11

    http://www.efunda.com/processes/machining/turn_elathe_chucks.cfm#turn_elathe_chucks_three_four_jaw_chuckhttp://www.efunda.com/processes/machining/turn_elathe_chucks.cfm#turn_elathe_chucks_three_four_jaw_chuck
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    "urning refers to cutting as sho2n !elo2.

    "he term IfacingI is use to escri!e remo6al of material from the flat en of acylin rical part? as sho2n !elo2. Facing is often use to impro6e the finish of surfaces that ha6e !een parte .

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    4.1.2 i''in% ,illing is as fun amental as rilling among po2ere metal cuttingprocesses.

    ,illing is 6ersatile for a !asic machining process? !ut !ecause the milling setup has so many egrees of free om? milling is usually less accurate than turning or grin ing unless especially rigi fi7turing is implemente . For manual machining? milling is essential to fa!ricate any o!Aect that is nota7ially symmetric. "here is a 2i e range of ifferent milling machines? ranging frommanual light' uty Bri geportsJ to huge C C machines for milling parts hun re s of feet long. Belo2 is illustrate the process at the cutting area.

    i''in% Co'"mn an /nee an"a' i''

    Below is illustrated a typical column-and-knee type manual mill. Such

    manual mills are common in job shops that specialize in parts that are low

    volume and quickly fabricated. Such job shops are often termed "model shops"

    because of the prototyping nature of the work.

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    "he 5nee mo6es up an o2n the column on gui e2ays in the column. "heta!le can mo6e in 7 an y on the 5nee? an the milling hea can mo6e up an o2n.

    4.1.3 #ri''in% Drille holes are characterize !y their sharp e ge on the entrancesi e an the presence of !urrs on the e7it si e :unless they ha6e !een remo6e ;.

    %lso? the insi e of the hole usually has helical fee mar5s. Drilling may affect themechanical properties of the 2or5piece !y creating lo2 resi ual stresses aroun thehole opening an a 6ery thin layer of highly stresse an istur!e material on thene2ly forme surface. "his causes the 2or5piece to !ecome more suscepti!leto corrosion at the stresse surface.

    For flute rill !its? any chips are remo6e 6ia the flutes. Chips may !e longspirals or small fla5es? epen ing on the material? an process parameters. "he typeof chips forme can !e an in icator of the machina!ility of the material? 2ith longgummy chips re ucing machina!ility.

    Surface finish in rilling may range from 03 to // microinches. Finish cuts 2illgenerate surfaces near 03 microinches? an roughing 2ill !e near // microinches.Cutting flui is commonly use to cool the rill !it? increase tool life? increase spee s

    an fee s? increase the surface finish? an ai in eAecting chips. %pplication of these

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutting_fluidhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutting_fluid
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    flui s is usually one !y floo ing the 2or5piece or !y applying a spray mist. $neci ing 2hich rill:s; to use it is important to consi er the tas5 at han an e6aluate

    2hich rill 2oul !est accomplish the tas5. "here are a 6ariety of rill styles thateach ser6e a ifferent purpose. "he su!lan rill is capa!le of rilling more than one

    iameter. "he spa e rill is use to rill larger hole sizes. "he in e7a!le rill is usefulin managing chips. Center rilling eep hole rilling? gun rilling an trepanning arethe !asic rilling techni ues.

    4.1.4 (orin% Boring al2ays in6ol6es the enlarging of an e7isting hole? 2hich mayha6e !een ma e !y a rill or may !e the result of a core in a casting. Concentricity is

    an important attri!ute of !ore holes. %n so another important purpose of !oring may!e to ma5e the hole concentric 2ith the a7is of rotation of the 2or5 piece an thuscorrect any eccentricity that may ha6e resulte from the rillHs ha6ing rifte off thecenter line.Boring can !e ma e on horizontal? 6ertical or angular machines as long as themachine esign pro6i es the inherent rigi ity an accuracy to pro uce the tolerancesre uire . Consi era!le !oring is one on the 6arious types of lathes an also

    performe on some rilling machines. %pplications of !oring can !e i6i e into hea6ycutting an precision operations. 9ea6y !oring is generally one on large horizontalan 6ertical !oring machines. Precision !oring is performe on machines specially

    esigne for this purpose. "hese machines generally ta5e relati6ely light cuts? maintainclose tolerances an often capa!le of high pro uction rates. Operations oftenperforme 2ith precision !oring in the same cycle inclu e facing? turning an groo6ing.,achines are sometimes arrange for accurate milling operations.

    When !oring is one in a lathe? the 2or5 usually is hel in a chuc5 or on a faceplate.9oles may !e !ore straight? tapere ? or to irregular contours. Boring is essentiallyinternal turning 2hile fee ing the tool parallel to the rotation a7is of the 2or5 piece.

    4.1.5 +appin% $nternal threa s in 2or5 pieces can !e pro uce !y tapping. % tap isa !asically a threa ing tool 2ith multiple cutting teeth. "aps are generally a6aila!le2ith three or four flutes. Chip remo6al can !e a significant pro!lem uring tapping!ecause of the small clearances in6ol6e . $f chips are not remo6e properly? theresulting e7cessi6e forces can !rea5 the tap.

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    4.1.6 !a in% Sa2ing is a cutting operation in 2hich the cutting tool is a !la e ha6inga series of small teeth? 2ith each tooth remo6ing a small amount of material. "hisprocess is use for all metallic an non'metallic materials that are machina!le !y other cutting processes an is capa!le of pro ucing 6arious shapes. Because sections of consi era!le size can !e se6ere from the 2or5 piece 2ith the remo6al of only smallamount of the material in the form of chips? sa2ing is pro!a!ly the most economical of the !asic machining processes 2ith respect to the 2aste of material an po2er consumption? an in many cases 2ith respect to la!our.

    4.1.7 rin in% (rin ing is a chip remo6al process an the cutting tool is an in i6i ual

    a!rasi6e grain. "he maAor ifferences !et2een grain an single'point cutting toolactions are that in i6i ual grains ha6e irregular shapes an are space ran omly alongthe periphery of the 2heel. )ach a!rasi6e grain remo6es a small chip. "hese chips aremuch smaller than those o!taine in metal cutting operations in general. Furthermore?!ecause of eformation? the actual chip 2ill !e shorter an thic5er than the calculate6alues. "he a6erage ra5e angle of the grains is highly negati6e. Because of small

    imensions in6ol6e ? forces in grin ing are much smaller than those in cutting

    operations. (rin ing forces shoul !e 5ept lo2 in or er to a6oi istortion an tomaintain imensional accuracy of the 2or5 piece.

    4.1.8 an"a' #e*"rrin% $t is an operation in 2hich a han le e!urring tool is useor in 2hich a han le part is place against a fi7ture tool. % 6antages of han

    e!urring inclu e the 6ersatility of the process an minimal capital in6estment an sohan e!urring is still use e7tensi6ely e6en though it is slo2? la!or intensi6e an

    costly an often pro6i es less consistent results than esire .

    4.2 Pre an e' in% Faci'ity

    Ben ing? cutting? 2el ing? flo2 forming an press 2or5 operations are carrieout in this facility.

    Ben ing processes in this facility is accomplishe !y a !en ing press an t2omanually controlle !en ing !ra5es.

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    For press 2or5 operations< a pneumatic press machine? a hy raulic pressmachine? a ie sin5ing electro ischarge machine an a flo2 forming machine areuse in this facility. Wi e 6ariety of ie sets are a6aila!le for press 2or5 processes.$n this facility? cutting operations are one !oth !y han an !y the help of machines.For relati6ely thic5er 2or5 pieces plasma cutting machines are use ? 2here hansa2s are use for thinner ones.

    Wel ing processes are fre uently use in this 2or5shop. For connecting or repairing purposes shiel e metal arc 2el ing? gas tungsten arc 2el ing an spot2el ing are use . Spot 2el ing is use especially for connecting sheet metals 2heregas tungsten arc 2el ing is commonly use ue to its high uality 2el ing.

    4.2.1 (en in% Ben ing is the plastic eformation of the metals a!out a linear a7is2ith little or no change in the surface area !y stressing the metal a!o6e its yielstrength !ut not larger than its ultimate tensile stress. When multiple !en s are ma esimultaneously 2ith the use of a ie? the process is sometimes calle forming. "he6arious !en a7es can !e at angles to each other? !ut each a7is must !e linear anin epen ent of the others for the process to !e classifie as a true !en ing

    operation. $f the a7es of eformation are not linear or are not in epen ent? theprocess !ecomes one of ra2ing an or stretching? not !en ing. Characteristic of this process is stretching :tensile elongation; impose on the outer surface ancompression on the inner surface. Since the yiel strength of metals in compressionis some2hat higher than the yiel strength in tension? the metal on the outer si eyiel s first? an the neutral a7is is isplace from the center of the t2o surfaces.

    Concerning the inner si e of the !en ? it is possi!le for the compressi6e

    forces to intro uce upsetting? 2hich 2oul cause the material to !ecome longer inthe irection parallel to the !en a7is. "his effect can !ecome uite pronounce inthe !en ing of thic5? narro2 pieces.

    Still another conse uence of the con ition of com!ine tension ancompression is the ten ency of the metal to un!en some2hat after forming? aphenomenon 5no2n as spring !ac5. "o form a esire angle? metals must !eo6er!ent in such a 2ay that upon spring !ac5? the material assumes the esire

    shape of the pro uct.

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    4.2.2 F'o Formin% Flo2 forming is a chipless col forming metho 2hich is useto manufacture high'precise ?roun seamless components. $n flo2 forming< a hollo2a7is symmetric preform is fitte to man rel. %fter preform an man rel starts torotate? rollers that are controlle !y C C apply compressi6e forces to the outsi e

    iameter of the 2or5 piece. "he material is compresse a!o6e its yiel strength?plastically eforme an ma e to flo2. "he esire geometry of the 2or5piece isachie6e 2hen the outer iameter an the 2all of the 2or5 piece are ecrease anthe a6aila!le material 6olume fle2 o6er the man rel. "he insi e surface of thepro uct has a uality as 2ell as the outsi e surface uality of the man rel. Flo2forming process has t2o typical types.

    First type is forward flow forming 2hich uses 2or5 pieces ha6ing a closesi e. $n for2ar flo2 forming? 2or5piece elongates at the same irection 2ith themo6ement of the rollers an a tailstoc5 is use to fi7 the 2or5piece.

    Secon type of flo2 forming is backward flow forming an it is use to formpreforms 2ith a continuous hole insi e. $n !ac52ar flo2 forming? as the opposite tofor2ar flo2 forming? the preform elongates at the opposite irection to themo6ement of the rollers.

    For precision long flo2 forming operations? three rollers place 2ith 13/K areuse .

    Forward Flow Forming Backward Flow Forming

    4.2.3 a eta' rc e' in% (as metal arc 2el ing :(,%W;? formerly 5no2n as,$( 2el ing :for metal inert'gas;? 2as a logical outgro2th of gas tungsten arc 2el ing."he process is similar? !ut the arc is no2 maintaine !et2een the 2or5 piece an anautomatically fe ? consuma!le 2ire electro e.

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    %rgon? helium? an mi7tures of the t2o can !e use for 2el ing 6irtually anymetal< they are use primarily 2ith the nonferrous metals. $n 2el ing steel? someo7ygen :O3 or car!on io7i e :CO3; is usually a e to impro6e the arc sta!ility anre uce 2el spatter. "he cheaper CO3 can !e use alone in 2el ing steel? pro6i ethat a eo7i izing electro e 2ire is employe .

    (as metal arc 2el ing is fast an economical !ecause there is no fre uentchanging of electro es? as 2ith stic5'type electro es. $n a ition? there is no slagforme o6er the 2el ? the process can !e rea ily automate ? an ? if one manually? the2el ing hea is relati6ely light an compact. % re6erse'polarity DC arc is generallyuse !ecause of its eep penetrate ? spray transfer? an smooth 2el s 2ith gooprofile. Process 6aria!les inclu e type of current? current magnitu e? shiel ing gas?type of metal transfer? electro e iameter? electro e composition? electro e stic5 out:e7tension !eyon the gun;? 2el ing spee ? 2el ing 6oltage? an arc length.

    "he specific shiel ing gases can ha6e consi era!le effect on the nature of metaltransfer from the electro e to the 2or5 an also affect the heat transfer !eha6iour?penetration? an ten ency for un ercutting :2el pool e7ten ing laterally !eneath thesurface of the !ase metal;. Se6eral types of electronic controls can !e use to alter the2a6eform of the current. "his ma5es it possi!le to control the mechanism of metal

    transfer? from rops? to spray? to short'circuiting rops. Some of these 6ariationsinclu e pulse arc 2el ing :(,%W'P;? short'circuiting arc 2el ing :(,%W'S;? anspray transfer 2el ing :(,%W'S";. Burie arc 2el ing :(,%W'B; is another 6ariationin 2hich car!on io7i e'rich gas is use an the arc is !urie in its o2n crater.

    % num!er of in ustrial ro!ots are no2 a6aila!le to perform gas metal arc2el ing. "o function properly? ho2e6er? the computer electronics of these ro!ots must!e shiel e from the high'fre uency interference of the 2el ing process.

    4.2.4 !pot e' in% Spot 2el ing is one of the ol est 2el ing processes. $t has a2i e range of using area !ut especially use for the assem!ly of sheet stee5 6ehicle!o ies. "his is a type of resistance 2el ing 2here the spot 2el s are ma e at regular inter6als on o6erlapping sheets of metals. "he parts that ha6e at most 0 mm thic5nesscan !e 2el e !y this metho . "hic5ness of the parts to !e 2el e shoul !e e ual or has a ratio 0 1 in thic5ness. Spot 2el iameters 6aries !et2een 0'13. mm. "he

    epth an size of the 2el nugget are controlle !y the amperage? time? an type of shiel ing gas.

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    "he material !et2een the electro es iss ueeze together. $t then melts? estroyingthe interface !et2een the parts. "he current iss2itche off an the InuggetI of moltenmaterials soli ifies forming the Aoint.

    4.2.5 a +"n% ten rc e' in% (as tungsten arc 2el ing is an electric arc 2el ingprocess that pro uces an arc !et2een a nonconsuma!le electro e an the 2or5 to !e2el e . "he 2el is shiel e from the atmosphere !y a shiel ing gas that forms anen6elope aroun the 2el area. ("%W is a 6ersatile an can !e use on ferrous annonferrous metals an ? epen ing on the !ase metal? in all 2el ing positions. "heprocess can !e use to 2el thin or thic5 materials 2ith or 2ithout a filler material.When 2el ing thinner materials? e ge Aoints an flange? filler metals are not use . For thic5er materials? an e7ternally fe filler 2ire is generally use . "he type of filler metal

    2ire to !e use is !ase on the chemical analysis of the !ase metal. "he size of thefiller metal 2ire epen s on the thic5ness of the !ase metal? 2hich usually ictates the2el ing current. "he metho s of operation ("%W can !e manual or automatic.Wel ing 6aria!les are selecte after the !ase metal? filler metal? an Aoint configurationha6e !een selecte . "he fi7e 2el ing 6aria!les inclu e the type of filler metal?electro e type an size? the type of current? an the type of shiel ing gas. "hea Austa!le 6aria!les control the shape of the 2el !y affecting things such as !ea

    height? !ea 2i th? penetration? an 2el integrity. "he primary a Austa!le 6aria!les for ("%W are 2el ing current? arc length? an tra6el spee . "he secon ary 6aria!lesinclu e 2or5 an tra6el angle an the istance the electro e e7ten s !eyon the enof the cup. "he material for ("%W is ma e from a tungsten alloy. "ungsten has 041/

    egrees Celsius that is one of the highest melting temperatures of any metal. >arger electro es re uire higher currents to !e use . Smaller iameter electro es may !euse for 2el ing thinner materials.

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    5) MACHINES IN THE MACHINESHOPImportant Not ! $n this section there are only e7planations of machines 2hose

    ta!les clou not !een reache . "a!les of the machines are situate in %ppen i7'C.

    5.1 Chip type achinin% achine

    1) !pinner +C110L C CNC i''in% achine:2007)

    2) +o +rencin Lathe "his Czech pro uct supplies all tlathe operations. $t has itso2n numerical control a Austment system. 9o2e6er? Sage uses it as an or inaryuni6ersal lathe !ecause S%() has more e6elope C C machines. $n a ition ? ithas a uic5change tool post on its carriage.

    3) !cha"*'in 53N ,ni;er a' i''in% achine

    4) 2003)

    7) +"rnin% achine :+"r=ey> 2003) %lthough there is not much reacheinformation a!out this machine? it can !e sai that it is a Ao! shop turning machine.

    %utomatic fee is a6aila!le . Drilling ? !oring? reaming? 5nurling an turning can !eone. %lthough its properties are similar 2ith Schau!lin 13 ? this machine is use for

    more rough 2or5s.

    8) !cha"*'in 125 ?ori&onta' +"rnin% achine

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    9) L" an 01

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    2) (ay=a' C// 1260 (en in% (ra=e "his !en ing !ra5e is one of the ol est ones inthe machineshop. $t is use for uite large parts an it is controlle manually."herefore? it oes not gi6e accurate imensions.3) (ay=a' "i''otine

    5.4 Non tra itiona' machinin% machine

    1) F"r=an /ompa=1 50 #ie !in=in% # "his machine is not commonly usein S%()? !ut it has crucial importance for processes that can not !e one !y anyother process. On this machine? electrically charge electro e ha6ing a specialgeometry on it !urns its geometry into the metal 2or5piece. )ach stri5e causeerosion on the surface of the metal. %s a result? the re uire shape is formenegati6ely in the metal !y a three' imensional electro e.

    2) a';anotechni= 198 rin in% achine

    3) o*ofi' 440!LP ire 'ectro i char%e achine

    4) +e' in nterpri e P'a ma 160 ?F C"ttin% achine

    5.5 !pinnin% achine

    1) ep=on !F F402 F'o Formin% achine

    ") SAMP#E $OR% PIECES

    6.1 050 019252 :not a''o e for name)

    ')ngineers eci e to pro uce it on uni6ersal lathe.'Before machining processes material 2as chosen as S%) 1/3/ steel cylin er !ar?3 mm in iameter an cut !y sa2 1-/ mm in length from long steel !ar.'Since rough esign of the 2or5piece is cylin rical? a turning machine 2as chosenfor machining.'First of all? !ar 2as fi7e to the chuc5 !y Aa2s then lathe 2as s2itche on.'Facing operation 2as applie to circular face.

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    '"he iameter 2as ecrease to 3 ./ mm iameter in steps.' e7t step 2as the rilling operation. $n or er to initialize it? the center 2as mar5e!y center rill. "hen? 1/.0 mm in iameter an 3/ mm in epth a hole 2as opene ."o o!tain esire measurement? the hole 2as enlarge to 1+. mm iameter.'"he 2or5piece 2as tappe until 1 mm insi e of hole .'%s the operations 2hich can !e one !y turning machine 2as finishe ? the2or5piece 2as cut off 1+/ mm in length.'$n or er to create 5ey seat? the 2or5piece 2as fi7e to a milling machinehorizontally. "hen? 5eyseat 2as constitute !y sla!'milling from the si e ha6ing nohole.

    6.2 -nterface

    )ngineers eci e to pro uce it on uni6ersal lathe.

    Before machining processes material 2as chosen as S%)1/4/ steel cylin er !ar?

    + mm in iameter an -/ mm in length.

    Bar 2as fi7e to the chuc5 !y Aa2s then lathe 2as s2itche on.

    'Facing operation 2as applie to circular face.

    '"he iameter 2as ecrease to +/ mm iameter in * steps.' e7t step 2as the rilling operation. $n or er to initialize it? the center 2as mar5e!y center rill. "hen? 3* mm in iameter an 0/ mm in epth a hole 2as opene .'"he 2ro5piece 2as tappe to 3 in epth !y ,0/ tapping machine.'"he part 2as cut off +/ mm in length !y cutter.'$n or er to open other holes? the 2or5piece mar5e from 3 points 2hich are 33.mm far from the central a7is of the cylin er on unprocesse face.'"2o holes opene 13 mm in iameter an 3+ mm in epth.'"he holes are tappe !y ,13 tapping machine.

    6.3 Con;"' i;e +ip /ey

    ')ngineers eice to pro uce it !y C'a7is C C turning machine.

    ' Before machining processes material 2as chosen as ) %W'+/+ %l in 14 mmia. Belo2 operations 2ere ma e !y soft2are of the machine.

    ' Facing operation 2as applie .

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    'Outer surface shape e7cept 5eyseat.

    '&eyseat 2as opene !y c'a7is.: use of turret as milling machine;

    'Outer surface 2as finishe .

    'Center rill 2as opene .

    '4 mm hole 2as opene in 3/ mm in epth

    '$nner surface 2as shape !y hole cutter.

    'Wor5piece 2as cut off 14 mm in length.

    'Cut surface is cleane as facing operation in uni6ersal turning machine.

    '"apping 2as ma e !y han .

    6.4 (ac= P" her ')ngineers eci e to pro uce it !y C C ,illing ,achine.

    ' Before machining processes material 2as chosen as %% + 4 4-70-71* mm cut!loc5.

    '$n or er to fi7 part !y 6ise 2ithout clearance? facing operations are applie to the1*70- mm surfaces.

    'Part is fi7e horizontally to the 6ise s ueezing 4 mm height of the part from the!ottom.

    '"ools 2ere offset !y its offset apparatus.

    '"he processes !elo2 are installe to the L*./ #nigraphics C%, 6ersion of theprogram an operations 2ere ma e !y C C milling machine.

    '8ough machining !y 13 milling cutter.

    'Finishing !y 6 milling cutter.

    ',illing the ra ial surface !y 0 milling cutter.

    'Center rilling.

    ' rilling !y 3.3 rill.

    'Cur6e surfaces 2ere mille !y 0 special cutter.

    '%fter upper surface operations one? part is fi7e to the 6ise in re6erse. "hen?facing 2as ma e as height of the part stays 1/ mm.

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    6.5 +ran fer rm

    ')ngineers eci e to pro uce it in )D, 2ire machine.- Before machining processes material was chosen as S%) 1/4 ? 30/7 /74* mm steel!loc5.'Since the machine is C C controlle ? 3'D s5etch is uploa e to system of themachine.'%fter process 2as one? part is mar5e from 4 points for rilling operation.'4 holes 2ere rille !y mm rill an tappe as ,1/.

    &) COST ANA#YSIS

    "O"%> COS"M OP)8%"O8 COS" N ,%C9$ %8 COS"N,%")8$%>COS"N #%>$" CO "8O>N) ($ ))8$ ( COS":if C%, program is nee e ;

    )ngineering CostM "ime for pro uction 7 Salary per hour)mployee Cost M"ime for pro uction 7 Salary per hour ,aterial Cost M,ass 7 Price per 5ilogram,achinery CostM"ime for pro uction 7 machinery cost per hour

    uality Control CostM $t changes accor ing to machines that use for uality controlso total cost of uality control is gi6en.

    $n S%())ngineering cost per hour 1+. ">Salary per hour of operator 0/ ">,achinery cost per hour 0/ ">

    uality'control cost per hour 3/">

    7.1 Con;"' i;e +ip /ey

    ateria' Co t

    /.-5g of ) %W'+/+ material is use to pro uce 4 con6ulsi6e tip5eys.

    Price per 5gM 3/ ">

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    ,aterial CostM /.-=3/M 1* ">

    achinery Co t

    . hours operator 2or5

    ,aterial CostM . = 0/M 1* ">

    $perator Co t

    . hour operator 2or5

    Operator CostM . =0/M 1* ">

    @"a'ity Contro' Co t

    3 hours for uality control

    uality'Control Cost M 3/= 3M4/ ">

    +ota' Co t

    "otal cost of 4 con6ulsi6e tip 5eysM 1*N1* N1* N4/M0-*

    Cost of one con6ulsi6e tip 5eyM *. ">

    7.2 (ac=p" her

    ateria' Co t

    /. 5g of %% + 4 is use to pro uce 3/ !ac5pushers.

    Price per 5gM 1+.+/ ">

    ,aterial CostM1+.+/ = /. M -.- ">

    n%ineerin% Co t

    3 hours 2ere spent for C%, programming

    )ngineering CostM 1+. = 3 M0 ">

    achinery Co t

    1 hours operator 2or5

    ,achinery CostM 0 = 1 M 4 / ">

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    $perator Co t

    1 hours 2as spent !y operator

    Operator CostM 0/= 1 M 4 / ">

    @"a'ity Contro' Co t

    - hours for uality control

    uality'control CostM -=3// 1*/ ">

    +ota' Co t

    "otal Cost of 3/ !ac5pushersM -.- N 0 N 3 N + /M 44 ">

    Cost of one !ac5pusherM 4+.13">

    ') CONC#USION

    $n ,) 0// summer practice? many e7periences 2ere gaine !y themechanical engineering stu ents for their future engineering career. $mportant of all ? the functions performe !y the engineers an the !eha6iors of the mechanicalengineers 2ere o!ser6e . %lso the relation !et2een a mechanical engineer an atechnician? ho2 they 2or5 together to perform a tas5 an the fiel of their responsi!ilities 2ere o!ser6e . %pplication of the pro uction techni ues? 2hich ha!een learne in ,) 3/3? 2ere practice . "heir similarities an issimilarities?

    a 6antages an isa 6antages 2ere e7amine . "he machines an the machinetools? lu!rication techni ues? an the numerical control units use in these machines2ere stu ie . %lso pro uction stages of 2or5 pieces in milling? turning? rilling?!en ing? 2el ing etc. 2ere closely o!ser6e . >earning ho2 to ra2 a technical

    ra2ing? ho2 an 2hy the tolerances are utilize 2ere the other topics un er thescope of the summer practice. >astly? important aspects of a C C machine 2erestu ie carefully.

    $t is o!6ious that atmosphere an 2or5ing con itions of a factory are 6eryimportant for an engineering stu ent in or er to ha6e an efficient summer practice

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    2hich 2ill impro6e his or her engineering s5ill. $n this respect "#B$"%& S%()stating 8esearch an De6elopment acti6ities as the main principle of the company o of 'ea stoc s 1Spin le :ower 18 49 wSpin le :er 'ea 1

    Bar #apacit 65 mmSpin le >ose = >55026 $8

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    Spin le Spee 4500 rpm#huc Si(e 254 305 mm#ollet ) pe 185D mm;otar $"es # /optional;otar a" $ngle 360 000 egT&&l Changer 1) pe )urret)ool Stations 12=ri.en Stations 6S&uare 20 mm;oun 32 mm;otar 16 mm=ri.en )ool Spee 4000 rpm=ri.en )ool :ower 3 73 w$"is /Stan ar

    )ra.el 230 mm ;api 15 mm min$"is /Stan ar

    )ra.el 640 mm ;api 22 5 mm min

    Tail '&c+ /Stan ar)ailstoc @uill =iameter 80 mm)ailstoc @uill )ra.el 120 mm)ailstoc @uill )aper )E4 )ailstoc Bo )ra.el 475 mm

    15) +a= an + C 500< CNC i''in% achine

    Spin le :ower 10 wS pin le Spee 6000 rpm

    a" ,or piece +ength 550 mmSensiti.it 0 001 mm

    >um*er of )urrets 12

    P !! C?-N !

    a*+al 4uill&'ine

    a" Sheet )hic ness 3 mm,or +ength 1040 mm)a*le =imensions 600"1300 mmSupport 0-600 mm

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    'eight 1500 mm,i th 1000 mm+ength 1300 mm,eight 500 g

    Non tra itiona' achinin% achine

    2) 4alvan&'echni+ M-1 6 4rin"ing Machine

    Suppl !oltage 220-380 !#urrent 3 $:ower 900 ,%re&uenc 50 '(

    a" =iameter 200 m

    3) !&b& il ##0SL8 ire 9le'r&"i charge Machine

    < < )ra.el 550"350"400 ma" ,or piece =imensionsF 1200"700"400 ma" ,or piece ,eight 1500 ga" )aper G45H 400 /stan ar 30H Hmm

    ,ire =iameters $.aila*le 0 1-0 3 m#utting Spee 300 mI min

    in %inishing 0 22 Jm ;a

    easurement ;esolution 0 05 Jm) pe of #># :# ultiprocessors ,in ows

    :< )ouch Screen

    #) Tel in 9n'erpri e 8la %a 1 0 : Cu''ing Machine

    ;e&uire !oltage 380 !a" :ower 25 w

    #urrent 15-180 $

    ;e&uire :ressure 4 5 *ar =imensions 870"590"860 mm#utting #apacit 45 mm,eight 120 g

    !pinnin% achine1) ep=on !F F402 F'o Formin% achine

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    a" =iameter 350 ma" ,or piece )hic ness 9 m

    ;a ial )ra.el / 1< 2 180 m$"ial )ra.el / 1 710 m

    $"ial %orce / 1< ma" 100 >;a ial %orce / 1< 2< ma" 100 >DCector %orce 50 >

    pposing %orce 50 >#11 Spin le :ower 36 ,Dngine :ower / 1 2 3 ,Dngine :ower / 2 2 3 ,Dngine :ower / 1 2 3 ,+ength " ,i th " 'eight 4500"2300"1850 m