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    Basic Photography

    i

    2014 by the author of this book, Je!Curto, who retains sole copyright

    to the contents of this book. All photographs, text and graphics are the

    original productions of the author and may not be reproduced or reused in

    any way without express permission.

    For more by Je!Curto, see:

    www.je!curto.com - Je!s personal website

    Camera Position Podcast- About the creative side of photography

    History of Photography Podcast- Learn about the origins of the medium

    Italy Photography Workshops- Hone your photography skills in Italy

    Autumn leaves reflect in a stream in Michigans Upper Peninsula

    http://www.photographitaly.com/http://www.photographitaly.com/http://photohistory.jeffcurto.com/http://photohistory.jeffcurto.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://www.jeffcurto.com/http://www.jeffcurto.com/
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    About the Author

    ii

    Photographer Je!Curto is Professor Emeritus of Photography at College of

    DuPage in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, where he has taught from 1984 to 2014.

    He was awarded a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Illinois WesleyanUniversity in 1981 and a Master of Fine Arts degree from Bennington College

    in Vermont in 1983. Additionally, he attended Ansel Adams last workshop in

    Carmel, California in 1983.

    He was named an Apple Distinguished Educator in 2013, becoming part of a

    global community of 2000 education leaders recognized for exploring new

    ideas, seeking new paths, and embracing new opportunities.

    Curto hosts two popular podcasts about photography, one that records his

    History of Photographyclass sessions from College of DuPage and another,

    Camera Position, that discusses photographys creative aspects.

    In his early career, Curto worked as a photographer, specializing in event and

    public relations photography, architectural interiors and exteriors, portrait

    and product photography. His fine art photographs, which can be seen at

    www.je!curto.comare held in numerous private and corporate collections.

    Since retiring from College of DuPage, Curto teaches photography

    workshops in Italy. See www.photographitaly.comfor more information.

    http://www.jeffcurto.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://www.photographitaly.com/http://www.photographitaly.com/http://www.jeffcurto.com/http://www.jeffcurto.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://www.cameraposition.com/http://photohistory.jeffcurto.com/http://photohistory.jeffcurto.com/
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    Chapter 1

    Welcome

    Photography is everywhere.

    Photography has become the worlds most

    pervasive method of recording who we are, what we

    value and what our environment looks like. Millions

    of people now carry cameras in their pockets every

    minute of every day.

    Yet, even though photography is so omnipresent,

    mastering its intricacies can consume a lifetime of

    learning. This book is an introduction to those basic

    qualities of photography.

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    Preface

    iv

    This books primary audience is students entering the photography program at College of

    DuPage, but should prove useful to anyone wanting to learn the basic technical and visual

    qualities of photography. Though the book concentrates on digital photography, the essential

    concepts can be easily transferred to film photography as well.

    Starting with a basic overview of what makes up a camera, well move on to how an exposure

    happens in the camera, looking at volume of light, length of time of exposure, light sensitivity

    and more.

    Then, well look at the eye of the camera; the lens. Well see how using di!erent lenses can

    change how the camera sees the world. Combined with that, well examine focus and how

    controlling focus or lack of focus can dramatically alter the way our images communicate.

    Once you have those technical considerations in hand, well look at the visual qualities of

    photography and see how what goes into the frameis of critical importance by covering

    elements of composition and visual literacy.

    Lastly, well provide a few resources for you as you progress farther into photography;

    organizations and websites where you can learn more about a medium that is at once so

    simple and so complex.

    As you go through this book, it would be a good idea to have both your camera and your

    camera owners manual nearby, so you can see how the general concepts presented in this

    book apply to your specific situation.

    The camera is an instrument that teaches people how to see without a camera.

    Dorothea Lange, photographer

    http://www.cod.edu/photohttp://www.cod.edu/photohttp://www.cod.edu/photohttp://www.cod.edu/photo
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    Chapter 2

    The Camera

    Cameras come in many forms and many types, butno matter whether the camera is costly or

    inexpensive, uses film or digital sensors, has one

    lens or can use many lenses, all cameras have the

    same basic characteristics.

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    A camera is actually a very simple device. Or, at least, it can be. To make acamera, all thats really required is a light-tight box, a lens that can focus light rays

    through one side of the box, something to regulate the volume of light that comes

    into the box (a variable aperture), something to regulate how long the light is

    allowed to come into the box (a shutter) and something to record what the

    projected light is showing. Thats it; its really pretty simple.

    Section 1

    THE BASICS

    1. A light-tight box

    2. A lens

    3. A shutter to regulate time of exposure

    4. An aperture to regulate volume of light

    5. A place to put light-sensitive material

    6. A viewfinder to see what the camera willmake a photograph of.

    Anatomy of a Camera

    6

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    In fact, it can be even more simple; a small hole in the side of a light-tight box will project an image of whatever is outside the box onto

    the inside of the box. The hole is the aperture; all you need is a shutter to regulate the time of light and something to record the image and

    you have a camera.

    Of course, modern cameras have made a simple machine more complex by adding a wide variety

    of features to control the cameras functions. But, no matter how sophisticated the camera is,

    no matter how much it costs and no matter what style or type of camera it is, every camera

    in the world has the same basic simple characteristics. Use the interactive graphics on

    the next two pages to help familiarize yourself with the parts of a DSLRcameras

    inner and outer workings.

    7

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    8

    Path of Light

    Lens

    Mirror Focusing Screen PentaprismViewfinder

    Sensor

    Shutter

    Aperture

    Illustration 2.1

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    DSLR - The InsideUse the interactive graphic below to help familiarize yourself with the inside elements of a typical DSLR camera.

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    Zoom Ring

    Focus Ring & Scale

    Finger Wheel

    Shutter Release Button

    LCD Data Screen

    Jog Wheel

    Back LCD Panel

    Mode Button

    Hot Shoe

    Illustration 2.2

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    Use the interactive graphic below to help familiarize yourself with the outside elements of a typical DSLR camera.

    DSLR - The Outside

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    Section 2

    THE BASICS

    1. Point-and-shoot

    2. Mirrorless

    3. Single-lens reflex

    4. Medium format

    5. Large Format

    6. Camera Phones

    Types of Cameras

    10

    We can crop a section out of the image, but we would have to accept a smaller image to print, as there arentenough pixels to make a very large image

    Gallery 2.1

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    All cameras are more or less the same; they need the elements you just read about in the previous section. No matter how much the

    camera costs or what its features are, it has the same basic elements of light-tight box, lens, shutter, aperture, etc.

    So, if every camera is the same, then why are there di!erent types of cameras? The answer is similar to why there are di!erent types of

    cars; there are di!erent things we want cameras to do, and their design changes to accommodate di!erent needs. Small cameras are

    great for their portability and their ability to be unobtrusive. Larger cameras are typically able to record greater detail because of their

    larger sensors or because of their higher quality lenses or both.

    As technologies have evolved, di!erent camera types and styles have been created to take advantage of new ways of making

    photographs so photographers can have the right tool for the job. Tap the presentation at right to see a few of the di!erent types of

    cameras that photographers use.

    Pixels & Megapixels

    Pixels are the building blocks of the digital image world. They are they tinypicture elements (hence "pixel") that make up the image. The

    more of them you have, the greater the potential you have for detail in a picture. Think of a mosaic picture; the more tiles there are in the

    picture, the more detail it can contain.

    Camera pixel sensors come in an x-y grid that record the amount and color of the light in a scene. We can count the number of pixels

    horizontally and vertically on that grid and come up with the total number of pixels a camera has by multiplying one number by the other.

    So, a camera that has 3072 pixels by 2304 pixels would have 7,077,888 total pixels, or, rounding up, 7.1 megapixels. Mega means

    "million" and the term megapixel has become the standard that is used to measure the relative resolution of cameras. The greater the

    number of pixels a camera has the more its images can be enlarged before pixels can be seen.

    One thing to keep in mind when thinking about pixel count is the concept of "cropping" a photograph. When a photograph is cropped to

    improve its composition or to zero in on the image information that's most important to the viewer, parts of the image are removed. When

    you crop your digital photographs, you are removing pixels, so the total pixel count of your image goes down, reducing its resolution and

    therefore the size to which it can be enlarged.

    11

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    Chapter 3

    Photographic

    Exposure

    Photography is all about light.

    Controlling how much light gets into the camera

    and how it gets there is one of the most important

    parts of learning photography.

    Getting the correct exposure for a given scene is

    important for the highest quality photographs, but

    thats only part of the story, as exposure is also acreative tool, allowing you to make your pictures

    look the way you want them to.

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    Like the iris in your eye, your cameras aperture is a hole in the lens that changessize, regulating the volume of light that enters the camera. As the aperture opens

    to a larger hole, it lets more light into the camera. Conversely, a smaller hole will

    let less light into the camera. Though the termapertureis most often used, you will

    sometimes see apertures referred to as f-stops, often with an italicized and a

    slash, as in /8. The terms aperture and -stop are interchangeable.

    In addition to its function of controlling the volume of light that enters the camera,

    the aperture can also alter the amount of things that are in focus in yourphotographs. A smaller aperture hole will have more things in focus near-to-far in a

    scene, while a larger aperture hole will allow you to focus on one spot

    in your scene and blur things that are closer to or farther from the

    camera. This is called depth of fieldor sometimes depth of

    focus. So, the aperture is both a technical and a creative

    control.

    In order to predict and repeat a certain volume of lightentering the camera, a particular apertures hole size is

    expressed by a number. So, a very small aperture hole is

    /22, a large hole is /4. These numbers can be a bit

    confusing at first because they seem contrary. If you can

    just remember that a small aperture hole is expressed by a

    Section 1

    THE BASICS

    1. The aperture controls the volume of light

    that enters the camera by adjusting the

    size of a hole in the cameras lens

    2. A large hole lets in lots of light and is

    defined by a small number (ex: /4)

    3. A small hole lets in a small amount of light

    and is defined by a large number (ex: /16)

    4. The smaller the apertures hole, the more

    things are in focus near-to-far in a scene;

    when the aperture hole is large, fewer

    things are in focus near-to-far

    5. The aperture value is either set by the

    camera in one of the automatic shooting

    modes, or set by the photographer in

    manual mode

    Aperture

    13

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    big number and a large aperture hole is expressed by a small

    number, youll be fine.

    The largest aperture (remember, smaller number) available on a

    lens varies depending on the type of lens, the lens design and the

    cost of the lens, but most lenses start with aperture numbers

    around /2.8, /3.5 or /4. The bigger the maximum aperture on a

    lens, the faster that lens is said to be, as it lets more light into

    the camera. The smallest aperture (remember, bigger number) on

    a given lens also varies, but most lenses have /16 or /22 as

    their smallest aperture.

    Apertures have a standard set of numbers that are whole aper-

    tures or whole stops. Moving from one aperture setting to the

    next whole aperture setting either doubles the exposure by letting

    twice as much light into the camera or cuts the exposure in half

    by letting in half as much light in. Photographers refer to this as

    changing the exposure by a stop. The traditional sequence of

    aperture settings starts at the largest aperture available and pro-

    gresses like this:

    /4 /5.6 /8 /11 /16 /22

    So, going from /4 to /5.6 is thought of as one stop less

    exposure (because the volume of light gets cut in half). Going

    from /16 to /8 is two stops more exposure (because the

    volume of light has been doubled by two whole apertures.

    With the digital controls on modern cameras, you have the ability

    to change by smaller increments of volume, cutting those twice

    and half pieces into one-third less and one-third more. This

    is great, because it gives you finer control over the volume of light

    that is let into your camera. So, your camera can set aperture

    settings in a 1/3-stop sequence like:

    /5.6 /6.3 /7.1 /8 /9 /10 /11

    Aside from its function of letting a prescribed volume of light into

    the camera, aperture can also dramatically alter the way focus

    occurs in images. The smaller the aperture (like 16 or /22), the

    more things are in focus near-to-far in your photographs. The

    larger the aperture, (like /2.8 or /4) the fewer things are in focus

    near-to-far in your photographs.

    14

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    /2.8 /4 /5.6 /8 /11 /16 /22

    Illustration 3.1

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Apertures

    15

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    Whether the goal is stopping fast action or creating a blur, the shutter is the setting

    that allows you to control the length of time light enters the camera. The shutter is

    actually one of the most creative controls that there is in photography, allowing

    you to express the element of time in your images. Sometimes, youll want to stop

    the action of a quickly moving subject with a fast shutter speed. Other times, youll

    want to blur the subjects motion with a slow shutter speed.

    For most of your photographs, you will use shutter speeds that are fractions of a

    second, like 1/125 of a second. Because of that, shutter speed settings on thecamera can be a bit confusing at first because many camera settings leave o!the

    top part of the fraction that they are expressing, so a small number (1/250) looks

    like a big one (250). The key is to remember that the numbers are fractions so

    500 is actually a shorter amount of time than 250.

    Action in your scene can be stopped by using a fast shutter speed like 1/250,

    1/500 or 1/1000 of a second. Conversely, if you want to blur the motion in a scene,

    you can use a slow shutter speed like 1/30, 1/15 or 1/8 of a second.

    Not long ago in photography, most cameras had a prescribed set of shutter

    speeds that were the same on nearly every camera. Moving from one shutter

    speed to the speed next to it on the camera either doubled the exposure or cut it

    in half by letting the shutter stay open for either twice as much or half as much

    time. The traditional sequence of shutter speeds started at 1 second, then moved

    Section 2

    THE BASICS

    1. The shutter controls the length of time that

    light has to enter the camera

    2. Shutter speeds are expressed in fractions

    of seconds (ex: 1/250 of a second, usually

    just 1/250 or even just 250)

    3. A long shutter speed lets in lots of light and

    is defined by a large number (ex: 1/2 or 1/8)

    4. A short shutter speed lets in a small

    amount of light and is defined by a small

    number (ex: 1/500 or 1/1000)

    5. The shorter the shutter speed, the more the

    camera can stop motion in the frame; the

    longer the shutter speed, the more motion

    in the frame will be blurred

    6. The shutter speed is either set by the

    camera in one of the automatic shootingmodes, or set by the photographer in

    manual mode

    Shutter Speed

    17

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    to 1/2 a second, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500

    and 1/1000 of a second. Note that there are a couple of fudge

    factors where the numbers arent exactly half or double to make

    the numbers more even as the sequence progresses.

    Just like with aperture, photographers refer to changing the

    exposure by doubling or cutting it in half as changing the

    exposure by a stop. So, going from 1/15 of a second to 1/30 of

    a second is thought of as one stop less exposure (because the

    shutter speed gets cut in half). Going from 1/250 of a second to

    1/60 of a second is two stops more exposure because the

    shutter has been slowed by two whole shutter speeds.

    Now, with electronic controls on our cameras, most cameras

    have the ability to change by smaller increments of time, cutting

    those twice and half pieces into one-third less and one-

    third more. This is great, because it gives you finer-grained

    control over how motion is stopped or blurred in your

    photographs.

    When using slower shutter speeds, you may need to have the

    camera on a tripod or some other steady support so the camera

    is stationary and the subjects movement can be recorded. A rule

    of thumb is that most people can hand-hold a camera without a

    tripod and without creating camera shake at shutter speeds that

    are 1/60 of a second and shorter. This changes as you change

    the focal length on your cameras lens as telephotoor long

    lenses will tend to magnify camera shake and wide-angleor

    short lenses will tend to minimize it.

    To minimize camera shake,

    practice maintaining a

    steady stance while making

    photographs and using a

    gentlesqueeze on the

    shutter release button

    rather than stabbing it. As

    youre photographing, you

    may also want to look

    around you for places that

    you can lean against, sit on

    or prop your camera on to

    help keep you and your

    camera steady.

    18

    Sh tter Speeds in Whole and Thir Stops

    Whole Shutter Speeds 30 60 125 250 500

    One-Third Shutter Speeds 40 50 80 100 160 200 320 400

    Tap the image to learn more

    about tripods

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    The aperture and shutter speed of your camera control the amount of light that

    enters the camera, but there is another control that is equally important and thats

    the sensitivity of the cameras digital sensorto the light that falls on it. Like the

    numbers that are used to describe aperture and shutter speed, camera sensitivity

    settings are standardized internationally by the International Standards

    Organization (ISO). So, photographers refer to a cameras sensitivity to light by

    talking about its ISO setting.

    High ISO numbers (like3200, 6400, etc) mean that

    the camera can make

    photographs in very low

    light levels because the

    sensors amplifier is turned

    up high, making it very

    sensitive to light. Lower ISO

    numbers (like 200, 400 or

    even 800) are better choices

    for making photographs in

    normal lighting levels.

    Film cameras are limited

    THE BASICS

    1. Film cameras can only change ISO values

    by changing the film in the camera; digital

    cameras can change the ISO at any time

    with a camera setting

    2. A digital cameras ISO changes via

    electronics; an amplifier turns up the

    volume of light sensitivity for high ISO

    and turns it down for low ISO

    3. The higher the ISO number, the more

    sensitive to light the camera will be; the

    lower the ISO number, the lower the

    cameras light sensitivity will be

    4. Lower ISO numbers generally will result in

    sharper, better-quality photographs; higher

    ISO numbers generally result in

    photographs that have increased grain or

    noise

    5. As ISO values change, they change by

    whole or third stops

    21

    Though my ISO setting was 12,800, I got a picture of

    Jim that I couldnt have gotten otherwise. Tap to see

    full screen.

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    with regard to ISO settings. Thats because the only way a film

    camera can change its ISO setting is to change the film thats in

    the camera. Digital cameras, on the other hand can change their

    ISO setting by the press of a button. In fact, digital cameras are

    able to have very high ISO settings; far beyond the capabilities of

    film, allowing photography in very low light levels.

    There is a tradeo!, however. The higher the ISO setting, the more

    likely the cameras sensor will generate digital noiseduring the

    exposure. This is because setting a higher ISO setting on a digital

    camera simply turns up an amplifier for the light signal. The more

    the amplification, the more noise is generated. Noise usually

    shows up in the darker areas of a photograph more than it does

    in the lighter areas, but with high-ISO images, the grainy look ofnoise is everywhere.

    Most digital cameras have an option for using automatic ISO.

    This sets the ISO sensitivity for you, depending on the amount of

    light in the scene. While this can be useful for shooting on the fly

    when lighting conditions are changing dramatically, its probably

    not the best choice for the highest quality photography. Making

    sure you know what ISO your camera has set is your best bet forhaving the best, most noise-free images.

    Just like aperture and shutter speed numbers that have a 1:2

    relationship (twice as much light, half as much light), ISO settings

    also represent one-half or two-times the amount of sensitivity. So,

    400 ISO is exactly one stop more sensitive to light than is ISO

    200. Also just like aperture and shutter speeds, you may see ISO

    numbers that arent half and twice on your camera.

    Depending on how you have your cameras menu system set, you

    may find that your ISO numbers appear in one-third-stop

    increments. For practical purposes, a whole-stop (twice as much,

    half as much) setting is adequate and you should be able tochange your camera to whole-stop ISO jumps . Look at this set of

    images below to see the e!ects of ISO settings.

    22

    This photograph was made in fairly low light levels with thecamera on a tripod

    Gallery 3.1

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    Have you ever noticed that when you leave a movie theater and go out into the

    bright daylight that after the initial shock of the change in illumination, you get

    used to the tremendous di!erence in the amount of light? This is because the

    human eye and brain have a great exposure mechanism built in and most people

    can see well in both low light levels and on the brightest of days.

    The camera, though, isnt as instantly flexible as our eyes and brain are and

    photographers need to control the amount of light that enters the camera in order

    to get a correct rendition of the scene. Now that you have an understanding of the

    three basic controls for photographic exposure of aperture, shutter speed and ISO,

    lets put them together and see how they interact in what we can refer to as the

    Exposure Triangle.

    For any given scene, there is an ideal exposure; an ideal for the total amount of

    light entering the camera. But, since you know that exposure is controlled by

    several variables, there can be a number of di!erent combinations of aperture,

    shutter speed and ISO to create that given amount of light that should enter thecamera.

    One of the keys to that interaction is that relationship of 1:2 or twice as much, half

    as much that governs each of these controls. Remembering that moving one

    whole shutter speed, one whole aperture or one whole ISO number either doubles

    Section 4

    THE BASICS

    1. Exposure is controlled by Aperture, Shutter

    Speed and ISO setting

    2. Each exposure control has a relationship of

    1:2 or one stop of di!erence

    3. An in-camera light meter reads light in

    scene and helps set the aperture, shutter

    speed and (sometimes) the ISO

    4. The meter bases its exposure suggestions

    on an average amount of light reflecting

    from objects in the scene

    5. This average light is based on a middle

    gray reflectance

    6. There is a correct exposure (total amount

    of light) for every scene, but the

    combination of aperture, shutter and ISO

    can be di!erent

    Exposure: How Much Light?

    23

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    the amount of light or cuts it in half is an important part of

    understanding total camera exposure.

    The exposure for a given scene is calculated by a light meter.

    Nearly every camera thats made has an light meter, which is

    designed to measure the amount of light reflecting o!of the

    objects in the scene. Once it reads the amount of reflected light, it

    works with the cameras settings and often your input to

    determine the correct aperture, shutter speed and ISO

    combination for a correct exposure.

    The light meter is designed to look at the elements of the scene

    and average the reflectance of everything in the frame, with the

    idea that most scenes have some very bright things, some very

    dark things and many things that are of middle reflectance. In

    fact, the light meter makes an assumption that whatever it sees

    should average out to a middle gray value. In technical

    photographic terms, this is 18% gray. In most instances, this

    averaging works quite well, as the majority of scenes in the world

    have mostly middle reflectance, so the light meter gives an

    accurate suggestion of a combination of aperture, shutter speed

    and ISO.

    Once you have the meters reading of the scenes reflected light,

    you can choose the shutter speed, the aperture and the ISO. In

    practical terms, you are likely to set an ISO first, because you

    want to control the amount of noise in your images. If you are in

    normal bright lighting conditions, you will likely choose an ISO of

    200, 400 or 800. Then, you can choose the aperture that will give

    you the depth of field that you want and the shutter speed that

    stops or blurs motion the way you want.

    Remember, though, that since aperture and shutter speeds are

    interdependent, you may not be able to choosebotha small

    apertureand a fast shutter speed, as this may not produce the

    required total volume of light entering the camera. So, how do

    you know which combination of aperture and shutter speed? This

    is where the creative elements of photography start to come into

    play, giving you control over the final result of your photographs.

    24

    S i 5

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    In most cameras, determining and setting the correct exposure depends on the

    exposure mode that you have set on the camera. Nearly all cameras can be

    controlled by di!erent exposure modes, or ways of letting you control the cameras

    settings. These modes primarily di!er in the way they prioritize the three elements

    of the exposure triangle.

    Most cameras have several exposure modes.

    Automatic modeand Program modeapply

    large amounts of automation to the exposure for

    your photograph, giving you limited or no control

    over what settings the camera uses.Aperture

    Priorityand Shutter Prioritymodes allow for

    partially automatic control over the cameras

    settings; you set one part of the exposure triangle

    and the camera sets the other. Manualmode

    gives you complete manual control over your

    exposure; you set everything on the camera.

    Which mode you select depends on what youre

    most interested in capturing in your photograph.

    Your cameras manual can help you learn which

    modes you have and how they can be set on

    your camera.

    Section 5

    THE BASICS

    1. Exposure modes control how the light

    meters readings are interpreted by the

    camera

    2. Di!erent modes prioritize di!erent parts of

    the Exposure Triangle

    3. Some exposure modes automate the

    cameras settings

    4. Other exposure modes give the

    photographer control over the cameras

    settings

    Camera Exposure Modes

    25

    Aperture Priority was selected for this

    image so that /22 could be set to

    allow for maximum depth of field. The

    camera chose the shutter speed.

    (tap image for full screen)

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    Use this interactive graphic to explore the exposure modes common to most cameras. The generic graphic you see here will likely di!er

    from what you find on your camera, but your camera will be similar. Every mode has its purpose and no one mode is better or worse

    than any other.

    26

    Manual ModeShutter Priority Mode

    Aperture Priority Mode

    Program Mode

    Automatic Mode

    Scene Modes

    Illustration 3.2

    1 2 3 4 5 6

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    As long as the reflectance of subjects in the scene isaverage all of the exposure

    modes work very well to deliver accurate exposure for your photographs. But what

    happens when there is something in the scene that is much brighter or much darker

    than the rest of the objects in the frame? The exposure system can get confused

    because it doesnt know that the bright thing is anything other than very light and it

    will create an exposure that is too dark for what you envision. You need to adjust the

    exposure so that the photograph you make isnt too light or too dark.

    This is where Exposure Compensationcomes in. Exposure compensation is a tool

    found on all contemporary cameras and it allows you to override the settings that

    any of the program modes set. Most cameras have a dial or a set of buttons that

    allow you to adjust your exposure up to 2 stops (sometimes more) in 1/3-stop

    increments up or down the exposure scale to give you the exposure you want. In

    most cameras, you can see the exposure compensation setting in the camerasviewfinder.

    27

    2 211 +0

    If your photograph

    is too light

    (overexposed)

    DecreaseExposure Compensation

    (give less light)

    If your photograph

    is too dark

    (underexposed)

    IncreaseExposure Compensation

    (give more light)

    Because there was so much white tone in the scene, exposure

    compensation was used. In order to get the white building to show

    as white, the exposure compensation dial was adjusted to +1 or

    one stop more exposure.

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    Chapter 4

    Lenses

    Its likely that your camera came with a zoom lens.

    Often called a kit lens, its a great starter lens,

    allowing you to do a variety of things with a fairly

    wide variety of subjects.

    There are, however, other lenses out there for your

    camera that can expand your range of things you

    can do. Other zooms and single-focal-length lenses

    (often called prime lenses) are tools that you maywant to add to your photographic arsenal as you

    progress towards mastery of the medium.

    Section 1

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    The ability to change the focal length of the lens is one of the most wonderfully

    creative and interesting aspects of photography. Lens focal lengths are usually

    referred to in millimeters (mm) and dont refer to the actual physical length of the

    lens, but rather to the distance that the lens needs to focus inside the camera from

    the point where the light rays converge to the digital sensor or film at the back of

    the camera.

    The focal length of a lens is an indication of how wide or narrow your cameras

    field of view is or how much you see in the scene in front of you. It also indicates

    the magnification of the scene or how large or how small individual objects in your

    photograph will be. So, by changing the focal length of the cameras lens, you can

    change how much of a scene you see in the frame, allowing you to concentrate

    the viewers attention on more of the overall scene with a wide lens or a small

    section of your selected subject with a long or telephoto lens.

    In addition to changing the field of view, changing your lens focal length can also

    help you controlhow your subject in the final photograph. With a wide angle lens,

    you can exaggerate the di!erence in distance between nearby subjects and ones

    that are farther away. This is due to the fact that wide angle lenses, with their wide

    field of view, make everything in the frame look smaller. Because they are smaller,

    you are likely to move closer to your subject, altering the proportion of distance

    between the nearest objects and the farthest ones.

    Section 1

    THE BASICS

    1. Focal length is expressed in millimeters; i.e.

    a 50mm lens

    2. Focal length determines how wide or

    narrow your field of view is

    3. Telephoto or long lenses have a narrow

    field of view and magnify the subject

    4. Wide angle or short lenses have a wide

    field of view and make the subject appearsmaller

    5. Most cameras come with a kit lens that is

    a zoom lens; allowing many focal lengths in

    one lens

    6. The other basic type of lens is a prime

    lens; its focal length is fixed at one field of

    view

    Lens Focal Length

    29

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    Conversely, a long or telephoto lens can give

    the illusion of compressing the space in the

    cameras field of view. This is due to the fact

    that telephoto lenses, with their narrow field of

    view, make everything in the frame look bigger.

    Because the subject is bigger, you are likely to

    move farther from your subject, again altering

    the proportion of distance between the nearest

    objects and the farthest ones, but in this case,

    making those objects appear to be closer in

    size to each other.

    30

    This photograph was made with a wide angle lens. The photographers position was chosen tokeep the foreground flower pot about the same size as in other photograph in this gallery. Notehow the di#erence in distance from the camera changes the sense of space in the scene.

    Gallery 4.1

    Section 2

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    One of the many choices that you have as a photographer is whether to choose a

    zoom lens or a fixed-focal-length or prime lens for your photography. Its likely

    that your camera, whether a film or digital model, came with a zoom lens when

    you purchased it, yet you may find other photographers extolling the virtues of

    prime lenses. What are the di!erences between zooms and primes?

    Zoom Lenses

    A zoom lens has a variable focal length. When you turn the zoom ring on the lens,

    you move glass elements inside the lens to achieve a di!erent angle of view. So,

    you can start out looking at your subject with a wide angle of view and, by turning

    the zoom ring, change to a narrow angle of view, all with one lens. Because of the

    complex optical elements inside a zoom lens, they are often large and heavy, but

    they make up for their bulk by being versatile.

    Zoom lenses have some specifications which can tell you about the characteristics

    of a given lens. For example, a lens might be referred to as 18mm to 55mm (or

    just 18 to 55), which means that the lens can be set for any focal length between

    18mm and 55mm.

    Additionally, many zoom lenses (especially inexpensive, consumer-grade zooms)

    might also have variable aperture ranges, so you might see something like f/

    3.5-5.6. This means that the larger aperture is available at the wider-angle focal

    THE BASICS

    1. Zoom lenses allow you to change the focal

    length of a single lens

    2. Prime lenses are a single focal length for a

    given lens

    3. Zoom lenses are versatile, but often heavyand usually dont have a large maximum

    aperture

    4. Prime lenses are usually lighter and often

    have a large maximum aperture

    31

    Zoom Lenses and Prime Lenses

    Section 2

    l th b t th l it h t th li htl ll t i l i d b h t h d lit t

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    lengths but the lens switches to the slightly smaller aperture

    number as its largest aperture at the longer focal lengths.

    Stepping up to a (more expensive!) professional-level zoom lens

    will give you a consistent (and usually larger) aperture value

    throughout the lens zoom range.

    Prime LensesIn contrast to a zoom lens, a prime lens is a lens with a fixed focal

    length, so its angle of view is always the same and cannot be

    changed. The only way you can make your subject appear larger

    or smaller is to move yourself closer to or farther from the subject.

    Given that zoom lenses can cover many focal lengths in just one

    lens, the question might arise as to why anyone would want a

    fixed focal length lens. There are essentially four reasons that

    prime lenses are prized by photographers: speed, quality, cost,

    and size.

    First on the list is speed. The maximum aperture opening on

    prime lenses is usually much bigger than on zoom lenses,

    especially relative to cost. So, its easier to find a prime lens with

    a maximum opening of /1.8 or even /1.4 than it is to find a

    zoom lens with that capability. This means the ability to

    photograph in lower light levels and to create very shallow depth

    of field. A lens with a large maximum aperture is said to be a

    fast lens.

    A second benefit for prime lenses is their image quality. Despite

    the advances in modern zoom lenses, prime lenses often produce

    sharper, higher-quality images than their zoom counterparts.

    Many photographers love the sharpness and contrast that prime

    lenses provide.

    Thirdly, prime lenses are usually cost-e!ective. Many modern

    prime lenses are inexpensive, especially for their quality and

    zoom lenses, especially the best-quality ones, are usually quite

    costly. A set of three fast prime lenses that cover the range of

    focal lengths that a zoom might handle can be less expensive

    than a single high-quality zoom lens. So, regardless of your

    budget, you can experience world-class optics at a fraction of a

    cost of an expensive zoom.

    32

    A 28-135mm Zoom Lens (left) and a 50mm Prime lens (right). The zoom

    has a variable aperture of /3.5 for wide settings and /5.6 for the

    telephoto settings, while the prime lens has an /1.8 opening.

    L tl i l l t l h ll d h Z With Y F t

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    Lastly, prime lenses are almost always much smaller and much

    lighter than zoom lenses. This means that youre lugging around

    less weight with a camera body and a couple of prime lenses

    than a camera body and a single zoom.

    Most photographers find that a mix of prime and zoom lenses is a

    good option for their needs. If you purchased a camera with an

    inexpensive kit zoom lens, you may want to consider upgrading

    to a faster zoom with a consistent aperture range at some future

    point. For prime lenses, a good choice might be a 50mm /1.8, a

    reasonably priced lens available from most manufacturers.

    Zoom With Your Feet

    Whether you have a single zoom, a set of prime lenses or a

    combination of both, there is a strategy that can really help you

    use your lenses e!ectively that I like to call zoom with your feet.

    This involves choosing your camera position first, making choices

    about how near or far you would like to be, how one part of the

    subject lines up with the others, etc, zooming with your feet to

    get to the right spot for the composition you want.

    Then, when camera position has been established, choose the

    appropriate focal length of lens to fill the frame with what

    information you want to show a short or wide angle of view

    lens will show more of your subject, a long or narrow angle of

    view lens will show less.

    This concept applies to zoom lenses, too; choose camera

    position first, then zoom to frame the area you want to see.

    Essentially, you can think of the range of your zoom lens as being

    a set of prime lenses; create your composition, then choose a

    focal length for how much or how little you want to show.

    Using this strategy helps you avoid falling into the trap ofstanding in one place and just zooming randomly to find a good

    photograph. Remember that the position of the camera dictates

    subject interrelationships and the feeling of distance or proximity

    to your subject. The lens focal length will determine how much of

    the scene will appear on your film or digital sensor.

    33

    Choose your camera position first, then choose the focal length that

    frames the scene the way you want it.

    Section 3

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    Focus is the degree of sharpness in your photograph; whether an image is clear or

    blurred. A lens is only capable of focusing on a single plane in a scene but you can

    use can use depth of field to bring more of the objects in front of or behind that

    plane into focus. Elements inside the lens move to correctly focus the light rays at

    the back of the camera.

    In most modern cameras, there are

    sophisticated auto-focus systems that use a

    variety of strategies to figure out where to place

    the plane of focus. You can read about the

    various methods of autofocus that your camera

    employs in your owners manual.

    In addition to autofocus, most cameras have the

    ability to allow you to focus the camera

    manually. Manual focus is a very, very useful tool

    to have, as it allows you to exactly define where

    the plane of focus falls in your photographs.

    Make sure you know how to find the switch that

    switches between manual and autofocus on your

    camera and use manual focus when the camera

    doesnt focus correctly for your needs.

    THE BASICS

    1. Focus defines what is sharp in your

    photographs

    2. Most cameras have both autofocus and

    manual focus options

    3. Autofocus works well most of the time, but

    manual focus gives you more control

    Focus

    34

    In this photograph, the camera's

    autofocus system wasn't sure

    whether to focus on the fenceposts

    in the background or the foreground.

    A flip of a switch brought me intomanual focus mode so I could get

    the objects I wanted to have sharp

    in my photograph into focus.

    Tap for a larger image

    Section 4

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    Previously, you learned about at how the aperture setting on your lens controls

    depth of field (near-to-far focus) in your photographs. While the aperture is

    considered the primary method of controlling depth of field, there are two other

    elements at play, each of them working hand-in-hand with the other two to control

    whats in focus in your pictures and what is blurred.

    A second element that controls depth of field is the cameras plane of focusor

    the place in your scene where the camera is focused, near-to-far. The closer the

    plane of focus is to the camera, the more shallow the depth of field will be.

    Conversely, the farther away the plane of focus is from the camera, the more

    things will be in focus near-to-far.

    So, when you are very close to the subject and you need more depth of field,

    backing up will help you get more things in focus, near-to-far. Or, if you would like

    to have shallow depth of field, (blurring the background in a portrait, for example)

    moving in closer can help make that happen.

    The depth of field behind the focal plane is always greater than the depth of field in

    front of the focal plane. So, to obtain the greatest depth of field possible in a given

    scene, focus your camera about 1/3 of the way into the scene and use a smaller

    aperture (/11 or /16) to bring the foreground and background into focus.

    THE BASICS

    1. The aperture setting is the primary control

    for depth of field

    2. The plane of focus is another element in

    controlling depth of field

    3. Lens focal length is a third element that

    a!ects apparent depth of field

    Depth of Field

    35

    A third element that at least appears to a!ect depth of field is the focal length of the lens The simple way to remember this is that the

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    A third element that at leastappearsto a!ect depth of field is the focal lengthof the lens. The simple way to remember this is that the

    longer the focal length, the more shallow the depth of field. Shorter focal lengths (like 20mm) will appear to have much greater depth of

    field than a longer lens (like 200mm).

    In actuality, while the focal length of the lens appears to have a significant impact on depth of field, if the subject is about the same size in

    the frame, the depth of field will remain about the same regardless of the focal length of the lens. Of course, to keep the subject about the

    same size in the frame, you would have to move closer with a short (wide angle) lens or farther away with a long (or telephoto) lens.

    36

    A combination of a wide lens, a small aperture (/22) and careful placement of the plane offocus to obtain maximum depth of field.

    Gallery 4.2

    Chapter 5

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    Chapter 5

    Composition

    Composition is the art of arranging the elements in

    the frame so they make sense to the viewer and thephotograph can be understood.

    A good composition in a photograph is the best

    way of describing that subject in that situation.

    The basics of composition only take a few minutes

    to learn but they can take a lifetime to master.

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    The basic concepts of composition in visual images

    are as old as the ancient Greeks. They understood the

    ideas of harmony, balance, and symmetry. These next

    few pages show explore the guidelines of The

    Essential Elements of Photographic Composition.

    Simplify reduce the elements in the image

    $ Pare the subject down to its essentials.

    $ Eliminate the extraneous.

    $ Swipe through the images here to see simple

    compositions in action (tap for full-screen).

    38

    A day at the beach, using a low camera angle to eliminate everything but the sky, the sandand a happy bucket.

    Gallery 5.1

    Rule of Thirds impose an imaginary grid on your image

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    Rule of Thirds impose an imaginary grid on your image

    $ Line intersections suggest places of center of interest.

    $ Horizontal lines suggest horizon

    placement.

    $ Vertical lines suggest placement for

    vertical elements

    $ Swipe over the image at right to

    see how the rule of thirds can act

    as a guide to where to place

    subjects in your photographs (tap

    for full-screen).

    39

    Swipe to see this image with and without a rule of thirds grid over it

    Gallery 5.2

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    Lines create a path for the eye

    $ Can draw eye across the frame.

    $ S curves can create a serene feeling.

    $ Diagonals are more active elements.

    $ Foreground to background lines lead the

    viewer deeper into the picture.

    $ Swipe through the images at right to see

    how lines can guide the eye through

    photographs (tap for full-screen).

    40

    A snow-covered branch creates a tracery of lines.

    Gallery 5.3

    Balance the weight of image

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    41

    g g

    $ Symmetricalequal weight on both sides creates a

    feeling of solidity.

    $Asymmetricalone side more weighted than the other

    creates a bit more tension because its more visually

    challenging to look at.

    Symmetrical Balance

    Asymmetrical Balance

    Framing The use of foreground objects

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    42

    or elements in your images can add

    emphasis and depth

    " Look for elements in the scene that can

    frame your subject

    " You may need to change camera position or

    focal length to use framing elements

    Mergers when foreground and background collide

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    $ Learn to look at the 3-D world as if it is 2-D because the camera does

    $ Changing camera position usually solves a merger problem

    The last guideline: ignore the guidelines and break the rules

    Often the best images come from breaking the rules but learning the rules first helps you to understand when to break them.

    43

    The signs behind the subjects head are

    distracting, but moving a few steps to the

    left eliminates the merger and creates a

    more pleasing image.

    Chapter 6

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    Resources

    In todays environment, new ideas and technologies

    appear on an almost daily basis and you have to

    stay up to date with how photography is evolving.

    Fortunately, the internet has some amazing

    resources to help you continue to learn and grow as

    a photographer.

    Additionally, organizations exist to support

    photographers of all types, from formal professional

    groups to more casual groups of like-minded

    photography enthusiasts.

    Look here for some of the best and most useful

    resources for your continuing journey as a

    photographer.

    College of DuPage Resources:

    C ll f D P Ad i i

    http://www.cod.edu/admission/index.aspx
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    $ College of DuPage Admissions

    $ College of DuPage Photography Program

    $ Collegeof DuPage Photography Course Catalog

    Photography Professional Organizations$ American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP)

    $ Professional Photographers of America (PPA)

    $ Editorial Photographers (EP/APA)

    $ National Press Photographers Association (NPPA)

    $ Wedding and Portrait Photographers International (WPPI)

    $ Societyfor Photographic Education (SPE)

    Other Photography Resources

    $ Zone Zero

    $ Lens Culture

    $ FlakPhoto

    $ PetaPixel

    $ Lenscratch

    $ Conscientious

    $ New York Times Lens Blog

    $ Photo District News Online

    $ Marketing Photos with Mary Virginia Swanson

    45

    Aperture

    http://mvswanson.com/category/mvs-marketing-bloghttp://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/http://jmcolberg.com/weblog/http://lenscratch.com/http://petapixel.com/http://flakphoto.com/http://www.lensculture.com/http://zonezero.com/http://www.wppionline.com/index.shtmlhttps://nppa.org/http://www.editorialphoto.com/http://www.ppa.com/http://asmp.org/http://asmp.org/http://www.cod.edu/catalog/current/courses/photography/index.aspxhttp://www.cod.edu/catalog/current/courses/photography/index.aspxhttp://mvswanson.com/category/mvs-marketing-bloghttp://mvswanson.com/category/mvs-marketing-bloghttp://www.pdn-pix.com/http://www.pdn-pix.com/http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/http://jmcolberg.com/weblog/http://jmcolberg.com/weblog/http://lenscratch.com/http://lenscratch.com/http://petapixel.com/http://petapixel.com/http://flakphoto.com/http://flakphoto.com/http://www.lensculture.com/http://www.lensculture.com/http://zonezero.com/http://zonezero.com/http://www.spenational.org/http://www.spenational.org/http://www.wppionline.com/index.shtmlhttp://www.wppionline.com/index.shtmlhttps://nppa.org/https://nppa.org/http://www.editorialphoto.com/http://www.editorialphoto.com/http://www.ppa.com/http://www.ppa.com/http://asmp.org/http://asmp.org/http://www.cod.edu/catalog/current/courses/photography/index.aspxhttp://www.cod.edu/catalog/current/courses/photography/index.aspxhttp://www.cod.edu/photo/http://www.cod.edu/photo/http://www.cod.edu/admission/index.aspxhttp://www.cod.edu/admission/index.aspx
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    The adjustable diaphragm in the cameras lens that controls the volume of light that enters

    the camera. Sometimes called f-stop, it also controls the depth of field or depth of focus.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Anatomy of a Camera

    Automatic mode, Camera, Depth of field, Exposure, Focus, Plane of focus, Program mode,

    Stop

    Aperture Priority

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    One of several camera exposure modes, aperture priority mode allows the photographer to

    set the aperture and the cameras metering system sets the shutter speed.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Drag related terms here

    Automatic mode

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    One of several camera exposure modes, automatic mode uses the light meter reading to

    set the ISO, the aperture and the shutter speed on the camera. The photographer cannot

    control any of the exposure triangle elements.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Camera Exposure Modes

    Aperture, Exposure Triangle, Light meter, Shutter

    Camera

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    A light-tight box that has a lens, a shutter, an aperture and something to record the image

    like film or a digital sensor.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 1 - Preface

    Aperture, DSLR, Exposure, Lens, Shutter

    Cropping

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    Removing parts of an image to improve the composition or to focus the viewers attention

    on the most important parts of the image.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Types of Cameras

    Megapixels, Pixel

    Depth of field

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    The amount of a subject that is in focus, near-to-far.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Aperture

    Aperture, Focus, Plane of focus

    Digital noise

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    Non-picture information that is generated by setting a high ISO speed on the camera.

    Sometimes called grain.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - ISO: Sensitivity to Light

    Grain, ISO, Noise

    DSLR

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    a Digital Single Lens Reflex camera is one where the lens that takes the photograph is also

    the lens that is used to view and compose the picture prior to exposure.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Anatomy of a Camera

    Camera, Sensor

    Exposure

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    The total amount of light that enters the camera through the lens. Controlled by aperture,

    shutter speed and ISO.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 1 - Preface

    Aperture, Camera, Exposure Compensation, Exposure Triangle, ISO, Lens, Light meter,

    Manual mode, Shutter, Stop

    Exposure Compensation

    A f i d h ll h b dj d d

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    A function on most modern cameras that allows the exposure to be adjusted up or down

    from what the cameras light meter sets on the camera.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Camera Exposure Modes

    Exposure, Light meter

    Exposure Triangle

    Th bi ti f t h tt d d ISO k th t i l ith

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    The combination of aperture, shutter speed and ISO make up the exposure triangle, with

    each one contributing to the overall total exposure for a given photograph.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Exposure: How Much Light?

    Automatic mode, Exposure

    Focal length

    Focal length usually represented in millimeters (mm) is the basic description of a lens The

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    Focal length, usually represented in millimeters (mm), is the basic description of a lens. The

    focal length tells us the angle of view. The longer the focal length, the narrower the angle of

    view and the higher the magnification. The shorter the focal length, the wider the angle of

    view and the lower the magnification.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 4 - Depth of Field

    Drag related terms here

    Focus

    The relative sharpness or blur of a lens based image

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    The relative sharpness or blur of a lens-based image.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 1 - Preface

    Aperture, Depth of field, Lens, Plane of focus

    Frame

    The boundaries of the photograph

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    The boundaries of the photograph.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 1 - Preface

    Drag related terms here

    Grain

    Non-picture information that is generated by setting a high ISO speed on the camera.

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    Non picture information that is generated by setting a high ISO speed on the camera.

    Sometimes called noise.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - ISO: Sensitivity to Light

    Digital noise, Noise

    ISO

    The sensitivity of the cameras film or digital sensor. The numerical value of an ISO is

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    y g

    standardized by the International Standards Organization.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - ISO: Sensitivity to Light

    Digital noise, Exposure, Program mode, Stop

    Lens

    The part of the camera that focuses light onto the film or sensor.

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    p g

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 1 - Preface

    Camera, Exposure, Focus, Telephoto, Wide-angle

    Light meter

    A measuring device that determines the amount of light in a scene and helps determine the

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    proper exposure.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Exposure: How Much Light?

    Automatic mode, Exposure, Exposure Compensation

    Manual mode

    One of several camera exposure modes, manual mode allows the photographer complete

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    control over aperture, shutter speed and ISO

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Aperture

    Chapter 3 - Shutter Speed

    Exposure

    Megapixels

    The total number of pixels that a cameras sensor can produce. Obtained by multiplying the

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    x-axis of the pixel sensor grid by the y-axis of that same grid. So, a camera sensor that has

    4,000 pixels by 3,000 pixels is a 12 Megapixel sensor.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Types of Cameras

    Cropping, Pixel, Sensor

    Noise

    Non-picture information that is generated by setting a high ISO speed on the camera.

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    Sometimes called grain.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - ISO: Sensitivity to Light

    Digital noise, Grain

    Panning

    A technique for shooting action photographs that employs a slow shutter speed. The

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    camera is moved in the direction of the motion of the subject, keeping the subject in focus

    as the background becomes blurred.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Shutter Speed

    Shutter

    Pixel

    A single element on a digital cameras sensor. Pixel stands for PictureElement.

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    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Types of Cameras

    Cropping, Megapixels, Sensor

    Plane of focus

    An imaginary flat surface in space where a camera is focused, rendering it sharp. Depth of

    field can be sed to create foc s in front of or behind that plane

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    field can be used to create focus in front of or behind that plane.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 4 - Depth of Field

    Aperture, Depth of field, Focus

    Program mode

    One of several camera exposure modes, program mode uses the light meter reading to set

    both the aperture and the shutter speed on the camera The photographer can set the ISO

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    both the aperture and the shutter speed on the camera. The photographer can set the ISO

    independently.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Camera Exposure Modes

    Aperture, ISO, Shutter

    Sensor

    The light-sensitive component of a digital camera.

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    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - ISO: Sensitivity to Light

    DSLR, Megapixels, Pixel

    Shutter

    The shutter controls the length of time that the cameras lens is open. The shutters speed

    determines whether moving objects in the photograph are shown as frozen in motion or

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    determines whether moving objects in the photograph are shown as frozen in motion or

    blurred.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 2 - Anatomy of a Camera

    Automatic mode, Camera, Exposure, Panning, Program mode, Stop

    Shutter Priority

    One of several camera exposure modes, shutter priority mode allows the photographer to

    set the shutter speed and the cameras metering system sets the aperture.

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    set the shutter speed and the camera s metering system sets the aperture.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Camera Exposure Modes

    Drag related terms here

    Stop

    A unit of measurement in photography, a stop refers to doubling or cutting in half the

    amount of light entering the camera. It can be used interchangeably with aperture, ISO and

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    g g g y p ,

    shutter speed. Example: I need to give my photograph one stop more exposure.

    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Aperture

    Aperture, Exposure, ISO, Shutter

    Telephoto

    A lens that magnifies everything in the frame, thus making it look larger and therefore closer

    to the camera.

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    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Shutter Speed

    Lens

    Wide-angle

    A lens that makes everything in the frame appear smaller by taking in a wide field of view.

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    Related Glossary Terms

    Index

    Chapter 3 - Shutter Speed

    Lens