biology kingdom plantae

KINGDOM PLANTAE aryanne jade m. lombres

Upload: rosanna-lombres

Post on 24-Oct-2015




0 download


KINGDOM PLANTAEaryanne jade m. lombres



Bryophyta (mosses)

Bryophyta (mosses)

• Mosses are small plants requiring stereoscopes and compound microscopes for routine examination.

• Moss colonies are a very important element in many ecosystems, from the tundra to the tropical rain forest, reducing soil erosion, capturing water and nutrients, providing shelter for microfauna, and nurseries for seedlings in succession or regeneration processes.

Hepaticophyta (Liverworts)

Frullania pycnantha

Conocephalum conicum

Hepaticophyta (Liverworts)

• Liverworts are covered with cuticle. Some species have pores that allow gas exchange; in species that lack pores, the cuticle is very thin.

• Liverworts got their name because some species native to Europe

• have liver-shaped leaves.

Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)

Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)• Most species are small and

unassuming greasy blue-green patches, but some tropical species can cover large areas of soil or the sides of trees.

• Hornworts are a very unusual group of plants.

• Hornworts are a problematic group for evolutionary biologists.



Common Name: Black-Stick Maiden Hair 

Scientific Name: Adiantum tenerum 

Description: This fern is found throughout tropical

America. It likes plenty of light and prefers growing on limestone or in limestone

derived soil. 

Common Name: Bird’s Nest Fern

Scientific Name: Asplenium nidus

Description: This thick, leathery leaves minimize water loss, and funnels water and debris into the spongy mass of roots. 

FERNS• Can grow almost anywhere.• Have an underground stem called a

rhizome.• Leaves are called fronds.

Did You Know?Ferns are very ancient group of plants. They are supposed to

be older than land animals and even dinosaurs. They were

actually growing on Earth for 2 hundred million years.



• The vast majority of psilotophytes belong to the genus Psilotum, which contains 129 species of whisk ferns.

• They frequently grow as weeds in greenhouses.



• The only living genus is Equisetum, consisting of 15 species commonly known as horsetails.

• Horsetails are practically indistinguishable from fossils 400 million years old.

• Commonly known as “scouring rushes”

CLUB MOSSES (Phylum Lycophyta)Common Name: 

Creeping Club Moss

Scientific Name:  Lycopodium cernuum

Common Name:  Tree Club Moss

Scientific Name: 

Lycopodium deuterodensum

CLUB MOSSES (Phylum Lycophyta)

• Club Mosses have horizontal branching stems, both underground and above. 

• This is one of the oldest living plants still around on Earth.

• The plant itself was once used extensively as a Christmas green. 

SEED PLANTSSeed borne in plants(Gymnosperms)

Encephalartos sclavoi



Seed borne in plants(Gymnosperms)• The gymnosperms are a group of seed-

producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales.

• Gymnosperms have major economic uses. Pine, fir, spruce, and cedar are all examples of conifers that are used for lumber. Some other common uses for gymnosperms are soap, varnish, nail polish, food, gum, and perfumes.

Phylum Coniferophyta (CONIFERS)

Phylum Coniferophyta (CONIFERS)• Conifers adapted to temperate to

cold regions• Narrow leaves (needles) help to

conserve water• Covered by resins – for protection

from predators, fire, etc.

Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)

Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)

Phylum Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos)

Phylum Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos)• Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual

non-flowering plants.• Ginkgophyta has only on living

species – Ginkgo biloba.• The leaves are lobed.• Like Cycads, Ginkgos have separate

male and female trees.

Phylum Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)

Phylum Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)

• The gnetophytes differ from other gymnosperms in having vessel elements  as found in flowering plants.

• Usually dioecious with "flowers" unisexual in compound strobili or "inflorescences". 

Seed enclosed with a FruitPHYLUM Anthophyta (Angiosperms)

• Largest group of plants: 250,000 species!

Cahaba Paintbrush


Class Dicotyledonae (Dicots)

Class Dicotyledonae (Dicots)•  Flowering plants whose seed typically

has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.

• There are around 199,350 species within this group.

• Dicotyledons are not a monophyletic group, and therefore the names "dicotyledons" and "dicots" are paraphyletic terms. 

Class Monocotyledonae (Monocots)

Class Monocotyledonae (Monocots)•  Monocot seedlings typically have one

cotyledon (seed-leaf), in contrast to the two cotyledons typical of dicots. Monocots have been recognized at various taxonomic ranks, and under various names.

• There are 59,300 species of monocots.• The earliest fossils presumed to be

monocot remains date from the early Cretaceous period.