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1 BRANDING DECISIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

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international decisions in branding

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Page 1: Branding

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BRANDING DECISIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL

MARKETING

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PRESENTED BY DINI JOHN.K

VIDHYASAGAR

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DEFINITION

American Marketing Management defines brand as “ A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers”.

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CONT….

In many countries, branding may nothing more than the simple process of putting a manufacture’s name, signature, or picture on a product or its package.

The branding process offers a backbone to the business by helping to define the companies' position in its market.

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cont…..

The basic purpose of branding are the same everywhere in the world.

In general functions of a brand are to:1. Create identification and brand

awareness,2. Guarantee a certain level of quality,

quantity and satisfaction,3. Help with promotion.

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cont…..

. If the markets are similar, a firm may be

able to use the standardization strategy by extending its brand image theme to other markets.

MNCs are also interested in creating global identity via some degree of standardization of a Corporate Visual Identity System (CVIS) in their multinational operations.

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BRAND STRATEGY

Corporate identification is a valuable asset in marketing, in both domestic and international markets.

Firms try to establishing market strength for each individual product line or brand.

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Cont….

In the context of international business, the factors that usually determine policy on identification are further complicated of nationalism, language and cultural differences and customer preferences that very distinctive characteristics in each market.

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BRANDING ALTERNATIVES

An overseas marketer has several alternative ways to decide on the brand name:

Use one name with no adaption to local markets. (one brand name world wide)

Use one name but adapt and modify it for each market.(modifying brand name in each market)

Use different names in different markets for the same products.(different brand names in different markets)

Use the company name as a brand name under one house style or the corporate umbrella approach.(company name as brand name)

1.

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One Brand Name Worldwide

This strategy is useful when the company primarily markets one product that is widely distributed, and the brand name does not seem to conflict with local culture of different societies.

Example:

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Advantages

Provides greater identification of the product with the company on an international basis.

Helps to achieve greater consistency and coordination of advertising and promotion on world wide basis.

Permits clear identification of brand with a company noted for quality or technical superiority.

Helps to eliminate confusion with products of other companies.

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Modifying Brand Name in Each Market

Some factors overseas may lead a company to adapt a brand name to suit local conditions.

For example: Nestle introduced several new products in Europe in the 1960s by modifying the brand name for each country. In Germany under the name “Nescafe Gold”, and in Britain “Nescafe Gold Blend”.

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Cont….

For e.g.: Unilever sold one of its detergents in Germany under the brand name Radion, but for several reasons it was sold under another name in Austria.

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Different Brand Names in Different Markets

Local brand names are often used :• when the brand name cannot be translated

into the local language;• when a product is manufactured, sold, and

consumed locally;• When it is leading selling brand and part of a

new local acquisition;• And when the company wants to play down

its foreignness and be thought of as a local company

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cont…

A local brand name is necessary for products for which there has been no local manufacturer and the imported international brand is too expensive for the typical local consumer.

Ex: British Tobacco Company

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company Name as Brand Name

Many companies use standard trademarks for all their products.

Trademarks in the form of symbols, logos, letters, and initials have all become forms of corporate identification.

Brand name is identified with the product, but the trademark goes further and identifies both the product and company.

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Cont…

The 3M company (Minnesota Mining Manufacturing) is an example of firm that has successfully taken the umbrella approach and has created a family look around its product.

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BRAND PIRACY

It is a act of naming a product in a manner which can result in confusion with other better known brands.

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Two Reasons of Brand of Piracy

1. A variety of U.S goods are held high esteem. E.g. Singer Sewing Machines.

2. The technological knowledge required to produce a counterfeit product is readily available.

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Three Forms of Piracy

1. Imitation: It means simply to copying an established brand. For e.g. a manufacturer in Italy may produce cheap jeans and put on the Calvin Klein Label for sales as a genuine Klein product.

2. Faking: It refers to identifying the fraudulent product with a symbol, logo, or brand name that is very similar to the famous brand. For e.g. in Europe several companies have sold jeans under the brand names of “Lewis”(in France), “Levy’s”(in Germany), which are pronounced similarly to Levi’s.

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Cont…

3. Preemption: Piracy through preemption of brand name is feasible in the countries where the law permits the wholesale registration of brand names. For e.g. In Monaco, a person registered 300 famous brand names such as Chase Manhattan, Bankers Trust, du Pont, Sears Texaco, NBC and CBS.

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Co-branding

Two companies join to create a new product carrying both their brands.

Examples:

Pizza Hut & Pepsi

McDonalds & movie Mulan

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Branding Identity

The brand identity is the visual and verbal articulation of a brand, including all pertinent design applications, such as logo, business card, letterhead, or pack

Brand identity can also be called corporate identity or visual identity.

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cont……

A brand identity usually consists of the following integrated components:

1. Brand name2. Packaging3. Logo 4. Web site5. Letterhead 6. Business card pertinent 7. Any other application to a particular

brand

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Brand licensing

Practice allowing other companies to use a brand name in exchange for a payment• Nabisco Licenses Its Oreo Brand to

Post Cereal

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Branding Loyalty

A customer’s favorable attitude toward a specific brand.

Three degrees of brand loyalty are1. Brand recognition: the degree of brand loyalty in

which a customer is aware that a brand exists and views the brand as an alternative purchase if their preferred brand is unavailable.

2. Brand preference: the degree of brand loyalty in which a customer prefers one brand over competitive offerings.

3. Brand insistence: the degree of brand loyalty in which a customer strongly prefers a specific brand and will accept no substitute.

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Branding Equity

The marketing and financial value associated with a brand’s strength in a market.

Major elements of brand equity are:

BRAND EQUITY

Brand name

awareness

Perceived brand quality

Brand loyalty

Brand associatio

ns

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REFERENCE Marketing By William Pride, Ferrell. The Fundamentals of Branding By Melissa

Davis. International Marketing Management By

Subhash C. Jain

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THANKS