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CAMPUS DESIGNS FOR THE FUTURE Maree Conway ITPNZ Conference, Wellington, New Zealand 4 November 2005

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Keynote presentation on campus designs of the future. Presentation to Insitute of Technology and Polytechnics New Zealand, Wellington, 2005.


  • CAMPUS DESIGNS FOR THE FUTUREMaree ConwayITPNZ Conference, Wellington, New Zealand4 November 2005

  • UP FRONTA DISCLAIMERI am not an architect.

    I do not work, and never have worked, in a facilities or buildings department.

    I know very little about the principles that underpin the design of university campuses.

  • SO, WHAT AM I DOING HERE?25+ years in colleges of advanced education, TAFE institutes and universities in Australia.Range of administration and management jobs, and loved them all.1999: the Vice-Chancellor said to me: we want you to do foresight, a phrase which triggered a major and exciting - shift in career focus for me.2005: focus on integrating futures approaches into strategy development.

  • FOCUSFocus for this presentation is students, not the institution as part of a community, nor the staff who inhabit campuses, nor the buildings or surrounds.

    Our institutions serve a number of purposes, and our campuses can often be significant elements in the communities where we are located.

    But, my focus is on the interrelationship between campuses and student learning.

  • NOWExploring some of the major drivers of change into the future and how they will impact on campus design.

    In the workshop this afternoon, developing your ideas about what needs to be considered when thinking about the campus designs for the future.

    Lots of questions, no answers, and maybe some challenges.


    debatethe ways in which we can design our own response to the future in a global education environment.

    Linda SissonsPresidentITP New ZealandConference Brochure 2005

  • BRAVE WORDS!Designing your own response to the future infers:

    challenging unstated assumptions about the future yours, and your institutions,challenging the status quo, andthinking differently.

    I applaud you.if you are serious!

  • BRAVE WORDS!It is easy to pay lip service to the future.

    We all think about the future every day.

    The challenge, in an institutional sense, is to develop processes that shift that individual, and often unconscious, thinking to collective and conscious thinking.

  • BRAVE WORDS!But there are no future facts.

    We cannot know about the future in the same way that we know what happened in the past, and we know what is happening in the present.

  • BRAVE WORDS!However

    Our experience of the past and the present is conditioned by a range of factors that combine to condition how we:

    see and interpret the world, in order tomake sense and meaning of the world, so thatwe can continue to operate effectively in that world.

    We therefore need to understand our worldviews before we start thinking about, and interpreting, the future.

  • BRAVE WORDS!There is always more than one future.

    The future is not pre-determined we have alternatives.

    The future is not predictable we have choices.

    The future can be influenced there are consequences of our choices and action today and, hence, we have a responsibility to act wisely.

  • BRAVE WORDS!If you want to seriously design your own future, you will need to:

    be willing and open to having your worldviews challenged,

    develop overt processes in your institutions to let you think systematically about the future:in the same way that we all now think systematically about the past and the presentand data!

    and, perhaps most importantly, you must be willing to take the perspective of future generations.

  • A MESSAGE FROM FUTURE GENERATIONSYou are alive at a pivotal moment in humanitys development. You are making some of the most important choices in human history. Your era is marked by positive and negative potentials of such newness and magnitude that you can hardly understand them. Through your public policies and daily lives, the people of your era have tremendous power to influence the future course of humanitys story. We strongly care about your choices, of course, since we benefit or suffer from them quite directly. We live downstream from you in time; whatever you put into the stream flows on to our era. Allen Tough, A Message from Future Generations,

  • WHY THINK ABOUT THE FUTURE?All our knowledge is about the past, but all our decisions are about the future.Most of what we need to know to make good decisions today is outside our comprehension: we dont even know its there.

  • Inventions have long since reached their limit, and I see no hope for future development: Roman engineer Sextus Julius Frontinus, 1st Century ADHeavier than air flying machines are not possible: Lord Kelvin, President of the Royal Society, 1895Space flight is hokum: Astronomer Royal, 1956Stocks have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau: Irving Fisher, Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1929We dont like their sound, and guitar music is on the way out: Decca Recording Co. rejecting The Beatles, 1962.


  • 640K [of RAM] ought to be enough for anybody: Bill Gates, 1981 "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home: Ken Olson, founder of Digital Equipment, 1977I think there is a world market for maybe 5 computers: Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943The fact that conflicts with other countries [producing civilian casualties] have been conducted away from the U.S. homeland can be considered one of the more fortunate aspects of the American experience: Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) for the US Dept of Defence, 2001WHY THINK ABOUT THE FUTURE?

  • TYPES OF FUTURESPotential all futures, imagined or not yet imagined

    Possible - might happen (future knowledge)

    Plausible could happen (current knowledge)

    Probable - likely to happen (current trends)

    Preferable - want to happen (value judgements)


  • FUTURES TIMENear Term Future - Up to one year from now

    Short Term Future 1-5 years from now

    Mid-Term Future - 5 - 20 years from now

    Long Range Future - 20 - 50 years from now

    Far Future - 50 plus years from now


  • PastPresentFuture2005Strategy development needs to be designed to take advantage of the benefits of both hindsight and foresight.19252025Strategic HindsightStrategic ForesightFUTURES TIME AND PLANNING

    Strategy Decisions


  • CAMPUSES IN THE FUTURE?higher education administration will become less the management of campuses and will become more the management of the electronic distribution of knowledge to individual destinations, however remote.

    Levin, cited inClark Kerr, Uses of the University (5th edition, 2001).

  • CAMPUSES IN THE FUTURE?And Kerr suggests that:

    the further integration of higher education into markets and into industry [will result in] the disintegration of the once self-contained campus.Clark Kerr, Uses of the University (5th edition, 2001, p 227)


    A campus is wherever a student is


    The student is driven into the wilderness..

  • SOThere are two prevailing views about campuses in the future:

    you need physical campuses for learning to occur,

    or you dont?


    Campuses are, primarily, physical in nature.

    Technology that supports learning delivery is a key element of campus design.


    The system should be driven by student demand; student choice should be maximised.

  • AN ITPNZ ASSUMPTION?Are we, on 4 November 2005, in a position to know, with any certainty, what student demand and student choice will be like in 2025?

    If we are, then we are extraordinary human beings

    If we are not, then we need to learn as much about what the future MIGHT bring as we can BEFORE we make any decisions about campus design to take account of student demand and choice.

  • THE CAMPUS OF THE FUTUREAn Historic Event in Higher Education is Happening in Hawaii in 2006!!

  • THE CAMPUS OF THE FUTUREProvide an opportunity to explore a vision of the trends, challenges, and advancements anticipated for the Campus of the Future.

    A Futures Panel will kick off the program with an interactive overview of key trends and issues driving society and higher education. Join these exceptional panelists in charting the future course of your institution and clients.

  • THE CAMPUS OF THE FUTURESome session tracks:

    Stanford 2010Blurring the Boundaries: Hybrid Academic and Commercial SpacesInnovations in Teaching and Learning for the 21st CenturyNet Gen Students and Learning Spaces Using Building Design to Change Learning ParadigmsDesigning a 2015 Sustainability Plan is it possible?Envisioning the Sustainable CampusForecasting Trends in Student Life and Student TechnologyThe Future of Learning: Foresight in 2015Multimedia Technology and the Campus of the Future


    The program will look at design contributions of the past and looming physical challenges of the future for institutions of higher learning.

    UC Berkeley, 2000

  • DESIGNING THE CAMPUS OF TOMORROWAn ideal campus accommodates and embodies its universitys academic mission and values, and provides a stimulating place to study, work and interact, and to enjoy a remarkable time in ones life.

    Harvard University, June 2005

  • DESIGNING THE CAMPUS OF TOMORROWThe architecture and spatial organization of an institution must facilitate the teaching and research enterprise, portray the institutions academic mission, and enhance the quality of life on campus.

    Harvard University, June 2005

  • CAMPUS MASTER PLANNINGFuture development should capitalize on our spectacular lakefront setting and wonderful natural areas while preserving and enhancing those environments for future generations.

    University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005


    The campus of tomorrow is virtual?

  • AHYOU SAYBAH HUMBUG!That wont happen!!

    We will always need physical campuses.

    But have you asked the learners of tomorrow what they prefer?


    Are not campuses primarily designed to facilitate learning?

    Its about the learning (stupid), not the physical space or the technology (quote from participant at SCUP workshop, 2004).

  • THINKING OUTRAGEOUSLYWe need to engage in outrageous thinking about learning environments. Now, I realize that outrageous means exceeding all bounds of reasonableness; it means something shocking. However, I think that we need to deal with concepts of space and education that are indeed shocking. We need to realize that reasonableness is defined by present context. We further need to realize that what is unreasonableness today may be very reasonable in the 21st century and it is for the 21st century that we are contemplating education space.

    Hunkins, Reinventing Learning Spaces, 1994


    Declining support for compulsory campus-based experience for most students (Sperling, 2000).


    Rise of the virtual university the theme for the last decade has been globalise or die, the theme for the future of universities will be: virtualise or disappear (Inayataullah, 1999).


    Learning commons the future will be modelled by user demands and driven by technology (McWhinnie, 2003).

  • SOME RESEARCHEducational Delivery via Gaming Combining content with video games and computer games to more successfully engage the new generations in learning

    Marc Prensky:

    Twitch speedMulti-taskingShort attention spans brains have been trained to work in this way.

  • BUT

    Technical developments over the past few years have opened up new possibilities and changes in social and learning behaviours. This does not necessarily indicate dramatic change. Technical possibilities for the revolution of tertiary education have been available for decades but most accredited programs operate more or less traditionally.Ling, 2004

  • WHAT IS NOW MAINSTREAMWidespread use of data projection in presentations.Support of face-to-face teaching with online learning materials, online commercial learning materials, and the of online communications for group and student-teacher interaction.Audio-visual and online optional alternatives to face-to-face attendance.Electronic library services.Rise of problem-based and syndicate-based learning in some discipline areas.

  • ACTIVECAMPUS PROJECT, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGOActiveClass uses PDAs in the classroom to enable collaboration between students and professors by serving as a moderator for interaction in the classroom. Students can ask questions anonymously and vote on the relative importance of others questions using their PDAs. This enables the instructor to focus on the greatest interest and instructional needs of the class as a whole. ActiveCampus Explorer helps students engage in campus life by using their location on campus to provide information to their PDA.

  • ACTIVECAMPUS PROJECT, UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGOThe ActiveCampus project is in high gear this quarter, and has quite a few new things to present! ActiveCampus now does ICQ, AIM, MSN, Yahoo, and Jabber instant messenging, so you can stay in touch with your friends from ActiveCampus on your PDA all over campus. You can also now use native instant messenging clients like Exodus to connect to ActiveCampus! There's even a SOAP layer so you can write your own location-aware applications against ActiveCampus.



  • CHANGING LEARNING DELIVERYeLearningwhere we are nowteachers have control of use of technology, and therefore its effectiveness for learning (Finn and Vanderham, 2004).

    mLearning technology converging on the mobile phone and PDAsstudents will have control of the use of technology and its effectiveness for learning m-learning is mobile learning: using mobile technologies (such as mobile phones and hand-held computers) to enhance the learning processthe feedback received from learners and tutors involved has shown that m-learning is a success.

  • CHANGING LEARNING DELIVERYStanford on iTunes podcasting

    Downloads of faculty lectures, campus events, performances, book readings, music recorded by Stanford students and even podcasts of Stanford football games, eventually available to public.Controlled-access website for students to download course materials - course lectures and other audio content and, eventually, video content (when video iPod becomes available). Impact of video lectures on actual lecture attendance will be monitored closely.

  • GENERATIONAL CHANGESThese developments and thinking reflect our response to changes in our world in the early 21st century.

    Those who will enter our institutions in 2025 are probably around 4 or 5 years old now, and are members of what some people call the FERAL generation.

    How will they want to learn in 2025? How will their learning preferences influence campus designs?

    What developments do we need to put in place in 2005 to be able to meet their learning needs in 2025?


    We are designing campuses for future generations of learners.

    We need to imagine their needs, their technology, their preferences.


    Baby Boomers1946 1964Digital ImmigrantsGeneration X1965 1981Generation YMillennials, Dot ComsNet Gen1982 2000Digital Natives

    Father: GoogleMother: IMGeneration ZFerals2001

  • Conventional SpeedStep-by-StepLinear ProcessingText FirstWork-OrientedStand-Alone 2004 Marc Prensky

  • Our e-Life

    Communicating email, IM, chat

    Sharing Blogs, webcams

    Buying & Selling ebay, papers

    Exchanging music, movies, humor

    Creating sites, avatars, mods

    Meeting 3D chat rooms, dating

    Collectingmp3, video, sensor data

    Searching Info, connections, people

    Analyzing SETI, drug molecules

    Reporting Moblogs, photos

    Programming Open systems, mods search

    SocializingLearning social behavior, influence

    Growing UpExploring, transgressing

    Coordinating Projects, workgroups, MMORPGs

    Evaluating Reputation systemsEpinions, Amazon, Slashdot

    Gaming Solo, 1-on-1, small & large groups

    LearningAbout stuff that interests them

    EvolvingPeripheral, emergent behaviors

    2004 Marc Prensky

  • DIGITAL NATIVES 2nd I arrived home from the university last December to meet a sullen, unresponsive teenage boy: my brother. As I watched him plant himself in front of the computer each night and rush, in between chores, to check his buddy list, I couldnt help but pull rank. You know, in my day, we used to call our friends over winter break. And we had to actually have our friends over to play games; we couldnt just do it on the Internet, I said. He rolled his eyes. Right, right, I know. And your cell phones only made phone calls. Suddenly, I felt quite old.

    The truth is, I havent called a friend just to chat since my freshman year. But the technology that revolutionized my university experience has transformed my younger brothers middle and high school experience. The technology that captivated my imagination as a teenager is a fossil in his eyes.

    The next generation of learners will raise only more questions on college and university campuses. Their lives will be that much more reliant on technology, their attention spans that much shorter. They will have little concept of checkbooks and scant recollection of landline telephones. Their needs and their values will require a reevaluation of the concepts noted here.

    By the time this next generation arrives on campus, the Net Generation will be relics: members of the first generation of Internet youth, students who attended college when the Web was still new, page loading was still slow, and landline telephones were still in use.

    Father Google and Mother IM: Confessions of a Net Gen Learner, EDUCAUSE r e v i e w September/October 2005

  • XAVIER UNIVERSITYThe university is forming a 10-year plan that will change the way it educates its students and reshape those old baby boomer buildings.

    It calls for more space where students, faculty and the community can work together, and it also provides for updated technology. It's all to help better serve the millennials, who have begun to dominate college campuses in the last year or two.

  • SO What will the ferals expect of their campuses? Will they expect a campus at all?

    And, how can campuses be designed now that will suit their needs, rather than waiting until they are on the doorstep?

  • CAMPUS DESIGNS OF THE FUTUREThere is a step before the design of campuses happensto take the perspective of future generations of students.

    Involve students in campus design, maybe students who are still in high school?

    None of this is probably new, but we need to pay more than lip service to the future.

    How can we integrate thinking about the future into our campus design processes?

  • WHY THINK ABOUT CAMPUS DESIGNS OF THE FUTURE?What we dont know we dont know about campus designWhat we know we dont know about campus designAll our knowledge about campus design is learned from the past, but all our decisions are about the future.Most of what we need to know to make good decisions today about campus design is outside our comprehension: we dont even know its there.What we know about campus design



    **I know nothing about the technical side of campus design. The closest Ive come to any design project is renovating our house and finding out just how much cement goes into footings, and how expensive that wet mud is! And, I do have a new appreciation for the intricacies of the building trades. So, I am not going to talk about how to design campuses, or green buildings, or open space. Rather, Id like to explore with you some of the drivers of change that are likely to affect how we think about designing campuses into the future.

    So, Im taking one step back from the process to do a bit of reflection. My starting point is that, rather than taking for granted the assumptions upon which campus design is now based, let us spend some time today thinking about how we might need to challenge those assumptions if we are to develop campuses that meet the needs of students in the future.*Okay, so if I know nothing about campus design, why am I here? I have had a long perhaps too long career in tertiary education management and it has been great.

    For me, the best part of that career has been the last six years when I have begun to use futures approaches in my work, and I am now completing the Masters in Strategic Foresight at Swinburne. While I was at Swinburne, I was involved in its Campus Master Planning process, and I did some environmental scanning for them on the future of learning spaces.

    My focus now in 2005 is working out how to integrate futures approaches into strategy development, in ways that make sense to individuals. My work is focusing around the exploring the range of potential futures for tertiary education institutions, particularly the contested images of those futures held by staff.

    Thats the topic for another presentation, but Im happy to talk with you later if you are interested.

    *This morning, I want to focus on the interrelationship between campuses and student learning. So, I wont touch on a great number of other elements of the campus design process.

    This might be annoying to some of you, and I apologise for that, but for me, decisions about campus designs are led primarily although not exclusively - by decisions about student learning.*So, we will explore a few of the major drivers of change affecting institutions and how they will impact on campus design.

    For those of you who attend the workshop this afternoon, we continue this exploration a little further by tapping into your ideas about the topic.

    Right now, I have lots of questions, no answers, and perhaps a few challenges for you.*Now, in the conference brochure for this event, your President made this statementthat we wanted to come together to debate the ways in which we can design our own response to the future in a global education environment*These are brave words. Designing your own response to the future infers that you are willing to explore the unknowable, and think the unthinkable. That you want to see what the future might hold, rather than just continuing to extrapolate out from the present. That you want to CREATE your future, rather than be part of someone elses future.

    *I say this, because it is easy to pay lip service to the future.

    We all think about the future every day, and this ability to take the future into account in our thinking is an innate human capacity. Butthat thinking usually occurs within the brains and minds of individuals.

    For an organisation to develop the ability to think systematically about the future, requires the development of some overt processes that will shift the individual, and often unconscious, thinking about the future, to a collective and conscious form.

    Now, this is a bit tricky because, right now, we are heavily focused on data driven decision making. Where do the ideas and images, thoughts and views of individuals fit into that schema? How can we validate this sort of qualitative information in the same way that we now, almost unconsciously, rely on quantitative data?

    What processes can we put in place in our institutions to promote the shift from individual to collective thinking?

    *Because there are no facts about the future in a data sense, and because there are therefore more than one set of possibilities, it is often difficult to treat the future in the same way that we treat the past and the present. We know what happened in the past, and we know what is going on in the present because we are living it and feeling it.

    But our experience of the present is conditioned by a whole range of factors that determine how we see the world and interpret it to make meaning of it so that we can continue to operate in that world.

    *How we view the world is conditioned by our worldviews, by the filters through which we see the world. Ill say that againHow we see and interpret the world and how we make sense and meaning of the world, are conditioned by our filters and our worldviews.

    So, we need to be pretty clear about what our worldview is before we start thinking about, and interpreting, the future.*Because there is always more than one future. The hallmark of the future is uncertainty. No one knows what is going to happen in 20 years (and if someone tells you they do, they are very misguided). Unless it is a career limiting move, you might want to point this out to them.

    Since our ideas and images about what MIGHT happen what is plausible and what is not - are conditioned by our worldviews and our perspectives on the past and the present, we need to understand a few basics about thinking about the future.

    We have alternatives today, because the future is not pre-determined. If it was pre-determined, why bother to act?

    The future is not predicable, so we have choices to make today.

    The future can therefore be influenced by us but there are consequences for our choices into the future, since our choices today WILL affect future generations, so we have a significant responsibility to act wisely when we make decisions today.

    So, before we make decisions, we need to understand the perspective we as individuals and as an institution, are using to inform those decisions. That perspective might be right for the present, but will it be right for the future?*So, if you really want to design your own future, you will need to be willing to have your worldviews challenged not to shoot them down in flames, but to see if they will remain robust assumptions into the future.

    We need to develop overt processes in our institutions that allow us to challenge assumptions and think systematically about the future to the same degree that we think about the past and the present. A particular issue for me is being able to strengthen decision making by not relying solely on data, but to integrate different perspectives, and different types of information, including ideas and images held by individuals.

    To think about the future systematically, we need to take a meta-view. As well as considering the past and the present, we need to include the perspective of future generations in our decision making.

    CHECK FOR REACTIONS Now, I have to say that, often when I talk about this stuff, folks begin to twitch in their seats, mumbling comments such as what a load of rubbish or words to that effect. If you are having those sorts of reactions, can I ask you to hang in there a bit longer?*But consider a statement like this from Allen Tough, a futurist who has written about how we might be able to stand in the shoes of future generations. Its a message to each of us here as individuals.

    We have choices, and we have a responsibility to act wisely in the present. *Okay, futures lecture over

    If we assume certainty in our strategic processes, whether those processes be about institutional direction, or campus design, we are missing out.

    At best it is misguided to assert certainty about the future, at worst it is arrogant. *Lets reflect for a moment on the comments of some misguided people who have claimed certainty over time. We need to acknowledge the need to systematically explore future uncertainty, if only to avoid making statements llike these.*And these

    There is an awful lot about the future which we just dont know, and it is arrogant to feign certainty.

    We have to build into our strategy development and our campus design the use of processes which allow us to deal with complexity and uncertainty into the future.*The future is potentially both imaginable and unimaginable.

    There are futures that are possible, and that might happen the beam me up Scotty type of future where the knowledge to make it happen does not yet exist.

    There are plausible futures, which could happen, and which are based on knowledge that does exist at the moment the futures made possible by nanotechnology are only just beginning to emerge.

    Probable futures are those which we are beginning to experience now they are based on current trends that are already happening.

    And preferable futures are those we hold dear, those based on value judgements, and those which we want passionately to happen. *So if we are thinking about campus designs for the future, for example, it makes sense to explore more than what trends and current thinking are telling us.

    If we confine our thinking to the trends that are already around us, we will have a set of options to play around with. But, those options will be limited because we are not moving into the realm of what we dont know we dont know.

    If we move on to thinking about plausible futures, and what campuses might look like in those futures, then we will have stronger campus designs in the present.

    We can develop scenarios about what might be plausible, and then challenge those scenarios with wildcards low impact, but high probability events.

    The point here is that we are not trying to predict the future, but to strengthen our thinking about what the future might hold, and to increase the range of plausible options available to us.

    *Now, I am not saying that we dont take the future into account already, but we usually rely on trends and current research to inform our thinking. Thats probably okay for the near term and short term future, but will it be enough for the mid-term future and beyond?

    For example, technology is having such a significant impact on learning delivery in the present that we need to try to understand its impact in long range and far futures before we design a building that might be a white elephant in 2025.*So, put simply, our thinking and decisions in the present about strategy in general, and campus design in particular, needs to be undertaken in ways that take advantage of both the past and the present that is, the benefits of strategic hindsight and strategic foresight.*So, here are our physical campuses today. We probably also have significant virtual campus operations as well?

    I got these from your websites, so I hope I didnt contravene any copyright laws!*What will campuses need to be in the future? Arthur Levin, cited by Clark Kerr in his book, Uses of the University, suggests that the work of universities will become more about the distribution knowledge than managing campuses.**So, let us consider then, if knowledge will be electronically distributed, and the traditional campus might be facing self-disintegration, that a campus in the future will be wherever a student is.*Kerr actually isnt impressed, however, by talk of virtual universities and online education. He thinks that this sort of focus will drive students into a wilderness that is not campus based, and students learning will suffer as a result.*There seems then to be two prevailing views about campuses into the future and I am speaking very generally here.

    You either need physical campuses for effective learning, or you dont.

    The USA seems to be a contradiction: we have the University of Phoenix and the Western Governors University leading the way on online learning, while we have major universities and colleges across the country investing heavily in physical infrastructure.


    We should recognise that the buildings we are building today are for our current generations, and not for future generations of students. No matter how cutting edge we think our campus designs are, they are limited by our imaginations, and our imaginations are limited by our worldviews.

    *So, are there then not two underpinning assumptions about campuses we are designing today: that campuses will need to remain physical in nature for learning to occur, and technology that supports learning delivery will have to be a key element in campus design.

    Now, this slide is probably a wild generalisation, but the fact that we are spending millions putting up new buildings suggests that we believe that buildings will continue to be useful in terms of learning, for some time into the future.

    What if our assumptions are wrong?*What are the implications of this statement ( Key Issues Facing the Tertiary Education Sector) for campus design? Now, I am taking it out of context since the paper related to resourcing tertiary education.

    The focus on students in funding issues might suggest that their needs and their learning preferences should also drive how we design our campuses for the future?

    That is if we are going to let student demand and student choice determine how we fund our institutions, does it follow that we are willing to let student demand and student choice determine how we design our campuses?*Butagain, are we today in any position to claim certainly about what student demand and student choice will be in 20 years?

    We would be extraordinary human beings, who had crystal balls that actually worked, if we knew the answer to this question. Because we cant know the answer, we need to explore what student preferences might be like in the future, before we start thinking about how to design campuses.

    Now, I know we all do this to some extent already, but we need to be brave and look out 20 years.*And, we are very lucky, because look what is happening next year in Hawaii!!


    *This conference is an overt process, designed to let us think about what the future might bring, before we start making decisions.

    The strategy is risky though, because it is predicated on the assumption that people will be willing to suspend their worldviews, and take the perspective of future generations, rather than using their own perspective in the here and now to make judgements about campus designs of the future.*Here are the examples of some of the papers that will be presented. All future focusedwhich is good.

    Net Gen is big in the USA at the moment Educause, the organisation whose mission is to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology, is playing a big role in promoting the concept of the Net Gen or the Millennials as the first generation of students now entering college whose learning preferences are different to what we consider to be the norm. More about that later.*Okay, some other campus design activities going on in recent years.

    UC Berkeley says it will design its campus of tomorrow taking the past into account and looking at the looming physical challenges of the future. has it decided what those looming physical challenges are? Have they stood in the present and looked to the future and used todays assumptions? Or, have they stood in the future, and looked back to the present, challenging todays assumptions to see if they remain robust?*I will have to defer to the campus designers among you to tell me afterwards how a campus can be designed to embody an institutions mission and values, because I figure its the people in the institution that embody those things rather than the buildings per se. But that might be my worldview at work I have to say, though, that I like the last bit of this quotation, because I had a remarkable time when I went to university in the late 1970s on a physical campus but, I had an equally remarkable experience last year, when I did the first year of my Masters degree as an online student. There were some similarities:small groups I was in the first intake of students at Griffith University in Queensland which was pretty special, and I was in the first intake of students into the online course it might have been the first nature of both these experiences that made them special, but I think it was the small numbers,caring teachers in both cases, I was really lucky to have teachers who cared about how I did, and wanted me to do well and I guess they could care because they had small numbers of students to deal with, anda sense of community in Griffiths case, because we were first, and we were helping to define something new and special, and through the intensity of the experience in the online activity, we developed a strong sense of community, so that when we did come together right at the end of the course, we were immediately comfortable with each other.

    So the quality of the learning experience was the common element, not whether I was sitting in a physical classroom or in front of a computer.

    *And, not only that, the campus must let teaching and research happen, that mission thing again, as well as improving our quality of life....note the terms architecture and spatial organization theres that assumption about physical campuses again.

    There is also a lot of work going on about interaction spaces on campuses designing ways for people to interact informally, and viewing the whole campus as an interactive learning device.*Again, campus planning in the physical sense.

    Most of the campus plans I read while preparing this talk were remarkable in their inclusion of phrases like this one enhancing those environments for future generations, which infers that the future is being taken into account.

    I would have to be shown how they have systematically considered the future before I believed them, however, because after 25+ years writing up reports, plans and strategies, I know all about the political nuances about selecting topical phrases to earn brownie points and the cynic in me says that enhancing those environments for future generations is one of those phrases.

    I suspect here, and in other examples, we have a case of lip service being paid to the future. I would love to be proven wrong.

    *Because, if they had really explored the future, they should have addressed this question:


    And then been explicit in their reasons for dismissing it.

    Now, to be fair, they may have done this thinking, and decided that their future is not in the virtual realm but, even so, how are they dealing with trends that suggest that virtual learning in a whole range of forms some of which may not have yet been invented is going to play a big part in how students prefer to learn beyond the current generation of students?

    Already, in the USA, the growth rate in online enrolments has moved from 19.8% in 2003, to 24.8% in 2004. This is a trend that is not going away.*Okay, right about now, that thought in you head that this is all a bit fluffy and irrelevant is probably beginning to get a tad stronger.

    Thats fine, if we are making judgements from our perspectives in the here and now. Butconsider the perspective of future learners? Let go of your worldview for a moment, and try and see the future of campuses through the perspective of someone learning in 2025.

    One thing that comes up regularly in the work that I do is the idea that some time into the future, we will have microchips (or their next iteration) implanted in our brains to facilitate knowledge transfer, making the traditional campus redundant. It doesnt sound plausible right now, but it is a potential outcome.

    Since we cant ask students in 2025 what they want from their campuses, we have to imagine what they might want.

    *Because, after all, are not campuses primarily designed to facilitate learning?

    The current research and there is a lot of it on classroom design and the design of learning spaces, and the use of technology in learning delivery, is indicative of this focus.


    We need to be brave in our thinking about learning environments. We need to be outrageous. Because from that thinking will come ideas for campus design that might fit the future.

    Note here too, the plea to step out of our perspective when doing this thinking since our perspective may not be valid into the future.*Some other research that is going on at the moment.**Learning commons are actually mainstream now, but how they develop into the future is still up for grabs.*Some really interesting work is being done by Marc Prensky and others on delivering learning from games.

    Prensky has coined (I think) the term twitch speed to define how new generations are experiencing the world. Some people blame Sesame Street for the start of this trend all that jumping around encouraged children to expect rapid change that required short attention spans.

    How many of you have teenage children whose rooms are a mess (yeah, thats consistent from generation to generation), and how many of those children multi-task when they are supposed to be quietly focused on their homework?

    Consider that our perspective of what is the right way to do homework is probably outmoded.*Is this because the technology is not good enough, or because we are not ready to consider how we might use the technology to meet the needs of learners of the future?

    Recognising here, of course, that our decisions in the present are always constrained by financial and political realities.*This is a list of what is mainstream now in terms of electronic or online delivery.

    What might this list say in five years time? Remembering that five years ago 3G phones and iPODs werent on the market?*The University of San Diego is running a project called Active Campus. It gives its undergraduate IT students a PDA, with the aim of researching how educational communities can be sustained through mobile computing.

    There are two bits to it classroom use, and campus use. The latter has a buddy system which lets you see where your friends are on campus. You can then message them to arrange a meeting. Information about events on campus is also pushed to the PDAs.

    *I had to include this quote though, because Id not heard of some of these things, and I like to think of myself as a bit of a techno-phile. There is a new language out there that is native to our children, but which we will need to learn.

    *We did this as part of our work on the Swinburne Scenarios Project in 2002 on how universities generally are changing. This slide shows the characteristics of the traditional university. This model, by the way, is the one I think a lot of people are still using as the reference point for discussions about what a university SHOULD be.

    Im not sure what is happening in NZ, but in Australia, we still hold true to this idea of the university (no matter what the government in power says). We stress, for example, that a real university must have both teaching and research, but we never really explore below the surface as to why that nexus might be necessary. By the way, have you had a discussion recently about the nexus between teaching and research believe me, you dont want to go there, very messy!*Whereas, what is happening in the real world, is that a new learning model is evolving, where universities need to transform (once again) into a different kind of beast to be able to meet the demands of the external environment.

    Now, we did this in 2002, and none of this seems particularly new and different now. At the time, we were pretty excited by how it all came together to give us a picture of where Swinburne might need to go in the future. *eLearning is mainstream.

    Technology is converging on the mobile phone. The newest focus is arcade quality games on mobile phones.

    When mLearning is the norm, what will our campuses need to look like? Well explore this a little more in this afternoons workshop as well.*Introduced this year, Stanford and Apple have entered into a partnership to deliver content via the iPod and podcasting.

    The last comment that the impact on face-to-face lectures is key if students in the future prefer to get their course content delivered outside the classroom, what is the future of the classroom? *The students who will be entering our institutions, either physically or virtually, in 2025 are about 4 or 5 years old now. They are ferals. *Remember, we are designing campuses for future generations of learners. We need to take their perspective, to imagine their needs, their technology, their preferences for learning.*Prensky coined the terms digital natives and digital immigrants to describe the differences between the generations.

    Generation Y grew up with the internet, while Generation Z have never known a world without the internet. There are the first digital native generations.

    They see the world differently, and they will learn differently. Prensky has a great powerpoint on his website about this in which he suggests that the Millennials are saying to their teachers engage us or enrage us!

    *This slide is one of Mark Prenskys which demonstrates the difference between the digital immigants and digital natives.

    *How the millenials do things differently.

    And, how much more fun are his slides than mine!!*Okay, a long quote that breaks all the rules of powerpoints. Its a quote from an article written by a Net Gen student which points out that while our attention is currently focused on the needs of the Net Gen as they begin to enter tertiary education, we need to start thinking about the needs of the next generation Generation Z or the ferals.*Similarly, Xavier University is designing its buildings for the Net Gen. What about the Ferals? Can we start designing buildings for them now?*A couple of final questions.

    *So, to close, there is a step before the design of campuses happens we need to take the perspective of future generations of students (and there are lots of futures approaches that can help you do this).

    Maybe we should routinely involve students in campus design, maybe students who are still in high school. Id be interested to hear from folks who already do this.

    The challenge for us then is how do we integrate systematic thinking about the future into our campus design processes.*Lets return to this slide for a moment. Remember that what we dont know we dont know because of our worldviews and filters about campus design is a lot!

    We need to use processes that let us reduce this part of the equation and build the other two parts. The workshop this afternoon will explore some of those processes. *