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  • 8/6/2019 Case PNM Substation



    StandardizationT& D World Conference, 2004

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

  • 8/6/2019 Case PNM Substation


    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

    It Aint Rocket Science

    Substation Design

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    Tee Substation Design PNMs First Standardized Design

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    Actual "T" Station

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    3D-DASL Station Drawing

    H Type StationPNMs Second

    Standard Substation


    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    Actual "H" Substation

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

  • 8/6/2019 Case PNM Substation


    PNMs newest standard design


    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

    Standardization Allows

    for the Automation of the

    Construction Drawings

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    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

    58 Days from Signing of

    Contract to Energization ofEl Cerro Substation.

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    Transmission Station

    3D-DASL 345kV Standard Design Drawing

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    Station Designed, Procured, and Constructed

    4 Months 10 Days

    Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    Electricity Distribution SubstationGene Wolf , P.E., T& D World Conference, 2004

    Public Service New Mexico (PNM)Gene Wolf , P.E., Principal Engineer Stations, [email protected]

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 14

    Substation Designs in 6 Hours(normally 6 months)

    PNMs Second (Evolved)

    Standard Substation


    DASL provides common framework

    and common equipment modules

    Gene Wolf , P.E.T& D World Conference, 2004


    PNM = Public Service New Mexico

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 15

    58 Days

    from Signing of Contractto Energization

    of El Cerro Substation

    Usually 12-18 months

    2- Superimposed Computer Graphic 3- Completed Project

    Gene Wolf , P.E., PNM, T& D World Conference, 20041- Proposed Site

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 16

    Evolving Standards (Frameworks)(PNM Substation -

    PNM standardized a sub-station architecture that accommodates almost all

    needs. This provides the framework for reconfiguration, and includes anembedded infrastructure of conduits, standard conduit physical interfaces,

    specified space limits for equipment, and standardized concrete pads that

    can accommodate all transformer and switchgear options.

    Important for any agility framework are two deeper principles, in purposeful

    tension: requisite varietyinsists that a framework have standards for

    everything necessary, andparsimonyinsists that a framework not have anyunnecessarystandards. One too many will decrease agility. One too few

    pushes toward chaos.

    The nature of the framework both enables and limits agility. Maintaining and

    improving agility relies on managing framework evolution ... prudently. PNM's

    substation framework evolved through T, H and fly-through variations.

    Prudence in this evolution maintained conduit interface standards, importantfor continued module reuse; but added new module options for transmission

    input configurations and feeder output configurations. The third "fly-through"

    version changed the perimeter configuration to fit within a transmission line

    right-of-way; reducing difficulties with permitting and land acquisition.

    Prudent evolution did not impact theplug-compatibilityof existing equipment


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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 17

    Encapsulated modularity shares most-important-factor status with frameworks.

    These two principles alone provide basic agility. Without both, effective agility is


    PNM's prime module types include transformers, switchgear, transmission

    termination structures, low-voltage feeder circuits, and station steel. In each

    module type there are generally a few varieties, allowing configurations

    customized to a particular substation need.

    Transformer specification is what determines substation delivery capability.

    PNM found three varieties to be sufficient: 16, 22, and 33MVA. Limiting

    transformer types to a minimal three reduces spares inventory requirements

    while increasing the likelihood of a necessary spare on-hand.

    The encapsulatedrequirement for modules requires that they be functionally

    self-sufficient to meet their objective, and that the methods employed for

    meeting objectives are of no concern to the greater system. In the case of

    transformers, should technology evolve, a superior performing version may

    be substituted without unintended consequences from integration.

    Self Contained Units (Encapsulated Modularity)(PNM Substation -

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 18

    Facilitated Plug Compatibility(PNM Substation -

    Plug compatibility simply means that modules can be readily/easily/simplyplugged into the framework infrastructurewith no modification to anything.

    Facilitatedis the operable word, and has two facets: a standardized plug (orsocket) interface specification, and designated responsibility for the presence of

    the standardized interface on the module.

    PNM has provided an invariant standard interface spec to the transformermanufacture, and the manufacture delivers a plug compatible unit.

    Regardless of power ratings, hook-up interfaces are all identically located and

    identically specified, ready to mate with the framework infrastructure andcompatible with standardized equipment space allowance.

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    Facilitated Reuse(PNM Substation -

    Reusability of modules is a paramount advantage of agile systems but facilitatedis the operable word.

    Basicreuse-facilitation comes fromplug compatibilityand encapsulatedmodularity. Beyond that is the need to facilitate configuration and assembly byensuring that modules are both readily reusable and ready for reuse.

    Note that design has become a configuration and assembly activity, rather than acustom design-from-scratch activity with attendant human-error risk.

    PNM developed a custom AutoCAD-extension solution (3D-DASL) as theirsubstation design toolfacilitating ready reuse with added built in menus forquick drag-and-drop placement of stored pre-drawn modules, pre-drawnstandard layouts as frameworks, and built-in configuration restrictions thatensure the chosen modules are compatible with the power requirements.

    3D-DASL is structured to enforce framework and module standards; reducing

    the design time from six months to six hourswhile reducing risk byeliminating vulnerabilities.

    Ensuring that modules are ready for reuse is important in construction andoperational activities after design is done. This is accomplished withprocesses and responsibilities that enable timely acquisition of modules, andensures module inventory is sufficient and maintained in a state of readiness.

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 20

    Redundancy and Diversity(PNM Substation -

    Module redundancy means identical proven units are available for reusewith no

    surprises or unintended consequences.Module diversity means there are variations within a given module typeofferingconfiguration options for custom needs.

    Rather than increasing capacity with a custom designed higher-powertransformer, two standard modules could increase power delivery capacity

    without the risks of new design and first-time equipment. The three-varietytransformer diversity also gives them the ability to mix any variety for just thecapacity they need.

    The greater substation process includes people as working modules,particularly in design engineering. Here we see that diversity among

    engineers is facilitatedless experience and less training is required, makinga broader pool of capable engineers available when peak needs orretirements require new or additional resources.

    Redundancy also plays a key role in minimizing inventory costs, whilemaximizing inventory effectiveness and reducing the risk of prolonged


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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 21

    Elastic Capacity(PNM Substation -

    Effective capacity-demand response is often a prime driver for agile processdevelopment, and rears its head when demand doesn't meet expectations. Fixedcosts and capital investments often make downsizing uneconomical, while on theflip side, added capability can't be built fast enough.

    PNM has effective options to accommodate unexpected capacity demand. If

    demand does not materialize as expected, they can easily replace a largertransformer with a smaller one, and redeploy the larger one where it is moreeconomic.

    For increased demand they can upgrade the transformer, tap the dormantcapability to add an additional transformer, or even add a duplicatesubstation relatively quickly.

    On the peopled-side of the equation, peak design demands can employadditional engineers easily. And since the design engineering time has beenreduced so dramatically, existing engineers already spend the bulk of theirtime in other engineering activitiesa reduced substation design-load isbarely noticeable.

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 22

    Distributed Control and Information(PNM Substation -

    One of the three cornerstones of agility is knowledge management,another is decision-making support. These rely on information and decisioncontrol being in the right place at the right time.

    Effective decisions are made at the point of most knowledge. The most knowledge

    is available at the point of knowledge application and feedback learning.

    PNM's transformer and switchgearmanufacturer has the most knowledgeabout unit cost and performance options, and is expected and empowered byPNM to employ what they know to provide the best components to achieveobjectives.

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    Facilitated Deferred Commitment(PNM Substation -

    In order to avoid rework and waste when a situation changes mid-course, thisprinciple insists on just-in-time decision making, and facilitation of decision-implementation time reduction.

    PNM's reduction of design time from six months to six hours considerablyreduces implementation time and postpones the need for procurement and

    construction commitments to a bare minimum.

    Module standardization permits construction to proceed with sparesinventory before replacement modules are received.

    PNM negotiated a collaborative alliance with a single transformer and

    switchgear manufacturer, which facilitated a shortened procurement cycle byeliminating bid procedures, and facilitated a shortened manufacturing cycleby ordering units identical to previous ones. Orders for new transformers donot have to be placed long time in advance of projected needs that may notmaterialize

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    Flat (Non-Hierarchical) Interaction(PNM Substation -

    Seeking approvals and sign-offs, and filtering communications throughhierarchical silo managers, is both time consuming and knowledge reducing.

    The alliance with PNM's transformer manufacturer encourages directengineer-to-engineer collaboration.

    Standardized ordering and standardized design eliminates both internal andexternal approval cycles and review sign-offs.

    Risks of miscommunication and protracted approval cycles are gone.

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 25

    Self-Organization(PNM Substation -

    Self organization is an advanced principle employing modules that can make

    decisions and change the nature of their relationships with other modules bythemselves. Two cases at PNM:

    Active trust development -- Trust is a self-organizing driver in relationships.Trust develops or deteriorates as parties interact and as the parties in arelationship change. A permit agency scrutinizes plans with a healthy degree

    of skepticism, with people who spread thin with other priorities. As trustgrows, agency relationships evolve and self organize to acceleratesuccessive permitting activity. Facilitated by: Standard plans that have beenapproved in the past, delivering finished construction consistent withapproved plans, reinforcing trust development with post-constructionmeetings that show plans and promises matching results.

    Collaborative improvement -- PNM's process is being tested at Long IslandPower Authority and at Kansas City Power and Light, (December 2004). PNM'spurpose for broadened usage is to develop a community of users, with newand diverse needs, that will collaborate in a self-organizing fashion towardimproved functionality.

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    2006, RKDove, [email protected], Attributed Copies Permitted 26

    For PNM Agility Costs Less

    The PNM case study demonstrates thatagility can reduce bottom-line costs

    while reducing

    risk (response-sufficiency) and

    vulnerability (response-predictability).

    Reengineering existing processes and systems

    for agility does incur some costs,

    but a far greater cost is incurred with

    an inefficient and poorly-responsive status quo.

    When migration toward more agile processes

    is done incrementally and knowledgeably,

    extreme ROI can be realized,

    with immediate short-term bottom-line effect.