cell phone operated land rover synopsis
Post on 22-Oct-2014
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AbstractConventionally, wireless controlled robots user circuits, which have a drawback of limited working range, limited frequency range and limited control. Use of mobile phones for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls.Although, the apperanceand capabilities of robot vary vastly, all robots share the feature of a mechanical, movables structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distent phases: perception, processing, action. Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the on board microcontroller and the task is performed using motors or with some other actuators. In the project the robot is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In the course of a call, if any button is pressed a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end called Dual Tone Multiple frequency (DTMF) tone. The robot receives these tones with help of phone stacked in the robot. The received tone is processed by the microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder ic cm8870 .these ic sends a signals to the the motor driver ic l293d which derives the motor forward,revarseetc
INTRODUCTIONRadio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device. The term is used frequently to refer to the control of model vehicles from a hand-held radio transmitter. Industrial, military, and scientific research organizations make [traffic] use of radio-controlled vehicles as well. A remote control vehicle is defined as any mobile device that is controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin external to the device. This is often a radio control device, cable between control and vehicle, or an infrared controller. A remote control vehicle (Also called as RCV) differs from a robot in that the RCV is always controlled by a human and takes no positive action autonomously. One of the key technologies which underpin this field is that of remote vehicle control. It is vital that a vehicle should be capable of proceeding accurately to a target area; maneuvering within that area to fulfill its mission and returning equally accurately and safely to base. Interface SPYROBO Cell phone as Cell phone as a Transmitter a Receiver
1.1 MOTIVATION AND PROPOSAL: Conventionally, wireless-controlled robots use RF circuits, which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and limited control. Use of a mobile phone for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distinct phases: reception, processing and action. Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the on-board microcontroller or processor, and the task (action) is performed using motors or with some other actuators. so the motive is that to increase the range of remote controlled products.for this mobile phone operated control is best because we can globalize our project & no limitation of range. We proposed this project to the Electronics & Communication Department so as to give a new direction to the above topic and to globalize the use of land rover with very less noise interference.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this project is to sence the temperature variations as well to detect light. For this we have used two different kinds of sensors that are temperature sensor i.e. LM35 and LDR(Light Dependent Resistor).Here LM 35 when detects the temperature above a particular threshold it becomes active and send feedback signal which is connected to the a buzzer via microcontroller. Simultaneously the sound of this buzzer is detected by microphone and which the receiver would be able to hear that sound. LDR here used is to detect light if the is insufficient light it can detect and switch on the led
SensorsThe sensors are the main part of this project . the various sensor used in this project are 1. LM 35 The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of C at room temperature and C over a full -55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35's low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low selfheating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55 to +150C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a -40 to +110C range (-10 with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.
A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor.A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby loweringresistance. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.
Extra features of the project:-
Here LM 35 when detects the temperature above a particular threshold it becomes active and send feedback signal which is connected to the a buzzer via microcontroller. Simultaneously the sound of this buzzer is detected by microphone and which the receiver would be able to hear that sound.
TECHNOLOGY USED 1. Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center.The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13,1984),and is standardized byITU-T Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4.Other multifrequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.As a method of in-band signaling, DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. Until better out-ofband signaling equipment was developed in the1990s, fast, unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere. Example:
2. Telephone KeypadThe contemporary keypad is laid out in a 3x4 grid, although the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four nowdefunct menu selector keys. When used to dial a telephone number, pressing a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simultaneous pure tone sinusoidal frequencies. The row in which the key appears determines the low frequency, and the column determines the high frequency. For example, pressing the 1 key will result in a sound composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone. The original keypads had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed.
A DTMF Telephone Keypad
DTMF Keypad Frequencies (With Sound Clips)
1209 Hz 697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz
1 4 7 *
2 5 8 0
3 6 9 #
A B C D
DTMF Event FrequenciesEvent Busy Signal Low Freq. High Freq.
480 Hz 350 Hz 440 Hz
620 Hz 440 Hz 480 Hz
Tones #, *, A, B, C, and D
The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers, and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role.Th