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  • CHARACTERISTICSOFPRIVATESECTOREMPLOYMENT

    U.S. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION

    2003

  • USING EEO-1 DATA TO EXAMINECHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    FOREWORD

    As never before, Americas economic prosperity is dependent on our ability tocompete in the global marketplace. Maintaining a competitive edge depends on thefull use of our nations talented workers, regardless of their race, ethnicity, color,religion, sex, age or disability. In the global economy, our nation enjoys anenormous labor market advantage when discriminatory employment practices areavoided. A useful step in fully utilizing our labor resources is to understand that thelabor market is changing and that some industries have been successful inexpanding their labor markets to take advantage of an increasingly diverse pool oftalented workers.

    As part of its mandate under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended,the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission requires periodic reports frompublic and private employers, and unions and labor organizations which indicate thecomposition of their work forces by sex and by race/ethnic category. Key amongthese reports is the EEO-1 which is collected annually from private employers with100 or more employees or federal contractors with 50 more employees. Individualemployers file separate reports for each of their facilities with 50 or more employees. Our EEO-1 reports provide a very rich data base for various uses. The Commissioninvests heavily in proactive prevention programs that are designed to anticipate andremove, from the workplace, potentially discriminatory practices. Consistent with thatgoal, this report seeks to assist employers make full use of Americas labor marketsby understanding more about the characteristics of those markets. A generaloverview of what the EEO-1 reports suggests about private sector employment isprovided for that purpose. I hope that this publication will be informative and assistyou in your efforts to develop and maintain inclusive and productive workplaces.

    Cari M. Dominguez, Chair U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

    2003

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Women represent 48 percent of all EEO-1 employment. Women exceed thisrepresentation as professionals, sales workers, office and clerical workersand as service workers. From 1990 to 2001 the percentage of womenemployed as officials and managers increased by 32 percent.

    The source of the highest per capita allegations of gender-baseddiscrimination was Automotive Dealers and Service Stations.

    African Americans represent 14 percent of all EEO-1 employment, the largest

    share of minority EEO-1 employment. African Americans exceed their totalrepresentation as office and clerical workers, operatives, laborers and serviceworkers. African American employment as Officials and Managers increasedby about one-third over the past decade.

    The industry with the largest per capita rate of race-based charge allegationswas Transportation Services.

    Hispanic employment in the private sector nearly doubled from 1990 to 2001reaching 11 percent in 2001. Hispanics employment as operatives, laborersand service workers exceeds 11 percent and Hispanic representation asOfficials and Managers increased by about 50 percent over the past decade.

    Asian employment while still a relatively small portion of the workforce (four

    percent) increased by 49 percent over that period. Asian Americans exceedfour percent in their employment as professionals and technicians. AsianAmerican representation as Officials and Managers increased by about 50percent over the past decade.

    Allegations on the basis of national origin would be filed by minority groupssuch as Hispanics and Asian Americans as well as others. Auto Repair,Services, and Parking and Apparel And Other Textile Products were thelargest sources of these type of allegations.

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    TOTAL EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    GROWTH AND DECLINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    DISTRIBUTION BY JOB GROUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    EMPLOYMENT AS OFFICIALS AND MANAGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    MOVEMENT OF WOMEN FROM WHITE COLLAR TOMANAGEMENT POSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    PER CAPITA CHARGE ALLEGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    1 See Section 5, Description of Job Categories in the EEO-1 instruction booklet at,http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/jobpat/e1instruct.htm l

    April 2003 Page 1

    INTRODUCTION

    Relying primarily on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commissions (EEOCs)EEO-1 report, characteristics of employment are examined from six differentperspectives: total employment, the growth and decline of employment by industry,employment by job group, employment of officials and managers, the movement ofwomen from white collar to management positions and the bases of chargeallegations by industry. The report seeks to capture these measures using the mostrecent data from 2001 and by examining recent trends from 1990.

    The annual EEO-1 report indicates the composition of an employers workforces bysex and by race/ethnic category. The EEO-1 collects data on nine major jobcategories: (1) officials and managers, (2) professionals, (3) technicians, (4) salesworkers, (5) office and clerical workers, (6) craft workers, (7) operatives, (8) laborersand (9) service workers.1 Race/ethnic designations used are White (not of Hispanicorigin), Black (not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, AmericanIndian or Alaskan Native. In addition to the workforce data provided by theemployer, information about each establishment is added to the database. Thisincludes the establishments North American Industrial Classification System codeand in early years, added the Standard Industrial Classification code.

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    April 2003 Page 2

    TOTAL EMPLOYMENT

    In examining the total employment of women over the past decade (1990 to 2001),the percentage of women has remained relatively constant. However theemployment of different race/ethnic groups has changed.

    Total Employment by Gender Race/Ethnic GroupEEO-1 Data 1990 to 2001

    African Americans represent the largest share of minority EEO-1employment.

    Hispanic employment in the private sector nearly doubled over the timeperiod.

    The gap between African American and Hispanic employment droppedfrom nearly six percent in 1990 to just three percent in 2001.

    Asian employment while still a relatively small portion of the workforceincreased by 49 percent over the period.

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    April 2003 Page 3

    Women and minority groups are not, of course, employed evenly among allindustries. The following tables rank industries (as defined by the North AmericanIndustrial Classification System, industry subsectors) based on the percentage ofwomen, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans/AlaskanNatives. Table 1 lists the ten industries where women have the highest percentageof employment. The highest percentage of women are employed in the Nursing &Residential Care Facilities industry.

    Table 1Ranking of Top Ten Industries

    Based on the Employment of WomenSource: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

    INDUSTRY

    EMPLOYMENT

    REPORTSFILED

    WOMENEMPLOYED

    WOMENPERCENT TOTAL

    Nursing & ResidentialCare Facilities

    978,609 82.52 1,185,908 7,747

    Hospitals 3,129,271 79.37 3,942,645 4,284

    Ambulatory Health CareServices

    702,175 77.19 909,656 4,507

    Apparel Manufacturing 126,918 67.89 186,951 796

    Insurance Carriers &Related Activities

    857,069 67.53 1,269,101 4,693

    Social Assistance 187,115 66.38 281,903 1,839

    General MerchandiseStores

    1,740,601 66.18 2,630,079 13,109

    Credit Intermediation &Related Activities

    886,423 66.06 1,341,891 6,094

    Clothing & ClothingAccessories Stores

    151,646 65.80 230,481 1,989

    Religious/Grantmaking/Prof/Like Organizations

    165,567 65.77 251,737 1,462

  • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYMENT

    April 2003 Page 4

    Table 2 provides the same type of listing for African Americans. While AfricanAmerican are also highly represented in the Nursing & Residential Care Facilitiesindustry, the industry with the largest proportion of African American employees isTransit and Ground Passenger Transportation.

    Table 2Top Ten Industries

    Based on the Employment of African AmericansSource: EEO-1 Reports for 2001

    INDUSTRY

    EMPLOYMENT

    REPORTSFILED

    AFRICANAMERICANS

    AFRICANAMERICANS

    PERCENT TOTAL

    Transit & GroundPassengerTransportation

    44,480 29.03 153,211 861

    Nursing & ResidentialCare Facilities

    334,930 28.