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Education trajectories: From early childhood to early adulthood across four countries 17 th GDN Annual Global Development Conference March 18 th Santiago Cueto Country Coordinator / Co-Principal Investigator (GRADE) Alejandra Miranda Asistente de investigación (GRADE)

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Page 1: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Education trajectories: From early childhood to early adulthood across four countries

17th GDN Annual Global Development Conference

March 18th

Santiago Cueto

Country Coordinator / Co-Principal

Investigator (GRADE)

Alejandra Miranda

Asistente de investigación (GRADE)

Page 2: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Introduction

• Access to education has expanded significantly over the past few decades. According to the EFA Report, 91% of children are enrolled in primary education, however, inequality remains an issue.

• Purpose of the paper: to present trajectories of two cohorts of children in four countries and present a few variables associated to these, to assess patterns of quality and inequity in opportunities and outcomes.

• This study used national data and also the Young Lives (YL) study dataset. This longitudinal study follows around 12,000 children from India, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Peru. YL follows two cohorts of children, the younger cohort (born around 2001) and the older cohort (born around 1994). The study has information from household surveys carried out in 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2013 (and 2016), plus a school survey.

Page 3: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Educational System in four countries

In India, the pre-primary stage is not part of the formal education structure. In Ethiopia, preschool education is not mandatory for all, therefore there is no official certification of it.

Page 4: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Gaps in achievement already exist by age 5 years

Page 5: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT score (%) at age 5 years by type of preschool (Peru)

PRONOEI Public Jardin Private Jardin Did not attend

Average 17.2% 23.9% 36.9% 15.9%

Gender

Boys 18.0% 24.7% 37.1% 15.5%

Girls 16.5% 23.1% 36.8% 16.3%

Gap (%) 1.6% 1.6% 0.3% -0.8%

Indigenous home

Spanish 19.2% 25.1% 37.7% 17.0%

Indigenous language 13.5% 14.6% 6.4% 12.0%

Gap (%) 5.7% 10.5% 31.3% 5.0%

Maternal education

Complete secondary or more 25.6% 31.0% 39.4% 27.6%

Incomplete secondary or less 15.1% 19.0% 29.9% 14.1%

Gap (%) 10.5% 12.0% 9.4% 13.5%

Baseline wealth index

Top quintile 36.3% 35.7% 40.1% 27.8%

Bottom quintile 12.6% 15.2% 21.8% 11.3%

Gap (%) 23.7% 20.5% 18.4% 16.5%

Page 6: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Average 10.50

Residence area

Urban 13.30

Rural 8.60

Gap (%) 4.71

Gender

Male 10.84

Female 10.11

Gap (%) 0.73

Wealth quintile (r1)

Top quintile 15.02

Bottom quintile 7.92

Gap (%) 7.10

Household head sex

Male 10.30

Female 11.35

Gap (%) -1.04

Mother's Level of education

Complete primary or above 15.72

Incomplete primary or below 9.52

Gap (%) 6.20

PPVT score (%) at age 5 years (Ethiopia, 2006)

Page 7: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT

Public Private

Average (of Younger Cohort) 18.0 25.1

Gender

Boys 18.4 26.0

Girls 17.6 24.3

Geographical

Urban 25.9 26.0

Uplands & remote coastal 16.0 NA

Maternal education

Lower Secondary or more 21.2 26.5

Incomplete primary or none 13.6 NA

Baseline wealth index

Top quintile 25.0 26.5

Bottom quintile 12.8 NA

PPVT score (%) at age 5 years by type of preschool (Vietnam)

Page 8: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Average 22.0

Gender

Boys 22.2

Girls 21.7

Gap (%) 0.5

Place of Residence

Urban 29.0

Rural 19.8

Gap (%) 9.2

Maternal education

No Education 17.7

Primary 23.7

Middle 24.4

Secondary and above 31.5

Gap (%) 13.9

Baseline wealth index

Top quintile 32.7

Bottom quintile 18.2

Gap (%) 14.5

PPVT score (%) at age 5 years (India)

Page 9: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Achievement at age 5 predicts later achievement

Page 10: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT score at age 5 and achievement at

older ages (younger cohort)

41.7%

51.2%

62.0%

48.8%

58.0%

66.2%

53.3%

62.4%

69.9%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0%

60.0%

70.0%

80.0%

First tertile Second tercile Third tercile

PPVT score at age 5

Mathematics at age 8 Mathematics at age 12 Reading at age 12

Page 11: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT score at age 5 and mathematics score at ages 8 and 12 (Younger Cohort)

34.6

41.5

48.6

38.2 42.8

51.1

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Bottom Middle Top

PPVT Scores at Age 5

Maths at age 8 Maths at age 12

in

Pe

rce

nta

ge

Page 12: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Educational opportunities are unequal

Page 13: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Teacher and school characteristics (Peru)

Private Public urban Rural in Spanish Rural bilingual

School

Running water 100.0% 93.3% 38.7% 45.0%

Telephone 95.0% 71.7% 3.2% 0.0%

Auditorium 25.0% 21.7% 12.9% 0.0%

Laboratory 35.0% 35.0% 6.5% 0.0%

Court for sports 40.0% 66.7% 29.0% 30.0%

Psychologist 60.0% 11.7% 3.2% 0.0%

Auxiliary personal 75.0% 21.7% 3.2% 5.0%

Teacher

Attended university 72.4% 59.8% 31.9% 49.5%

Years of experience 10.0 20.8 14.9 16.3

Received educational support 40.0% 30.7% 24.4% 28.9%

Pedagogical Content Knowledge 7.17 5.89 5.68 4.22

Page 14: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Teacher and school characteristics (Ethiopia)

Private Government (Urban) Government (rural)

School

Electricity 100% 91.2% 62.0%

Laboratory 23.5% 85.1% 55.0%

Piped water 94.1% 94.8% 53.9%

Sport fields 88.2% 90.8% 90.8%

Teacher

Attended University 14.3% 7.1% 1.1%

Years of experience 5.5 15.4 9.6

Missed school more than 5 days in this academic year 17.8% 40.9% 26.8%

Page 15: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Urban Delta Coastal Uplands

School

Principal with university degree 100 81.8 45.5 48.1

School owns tab water 76.3 0.0 20.0 14.3

Laboratory 97.9 88.0 73.6 59.0

Computer 97.5 23.9 41.7 12.7

Internet 97.5 19.1 20.2 12.7

Offer full-day schooling to all pupils 61.4 44.2 32.5 62.7

Teacher

Has completed university 68.2 39.4 22.8 39.2

Teaching experience (years) 17.4 17.7 17.5 17.0

Raw score in math 12.2 12.5 11.2 11.9

Raw score in Vietnamese 17.4 17.7 16.0 16.4

Does extra work to supplement income 2.1 19.9 35.1 7.8

Meet students’ parents more than 3 times/year 87.3 66.1 41.6 72.6

Teacher and school characteristics (Vietnam)

Page 16: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Teacher and school characteristics (India)

Private Public

School

Drinking water 95.9 68.0

Toilets 83.3 64.3

Separate Staff Room 61.1 20.0

Library 39.0 3.5

Playgrounds 69.0 76.9

Covered Space for Assembly 13.5 0.7

Teacher

Average Age 28.3 33.0

Attended university 83.6 79.7

Years of experience 4.6 7.7

Have Master degree and

above 6.3 0.5

Source: Singh & Sarkar, 2012

Page 17: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Education trajectories are not equal for all children

Page 18: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT score by age for the younger cohort (Peru)

39.7%

58.8%

80.8%

13.4%

39.7%

61.0%

0.0%

10.0%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0%

60.0%

70.0%

80.0%

90.0%

at age 5 at age 8 at age 12

Least vulnerable

Most vulnerable

Page 19: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

PPVT score by age for the younger cohort (Vietnam)

25

56.5

81.1

12.7

36.6

69.3

10

30

50

70

90

Age 5 Age 8 Age 12

Least vulnerable

Most vulnerable

Page 20: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

How is inequality promoted in educational systems?

Individual and family

characteristics

Students´ educational outcomes

Educational Opportunities

Page 21: Cueto trajectories 4 countries

Learn more:

www.ninosdelmilenio.org (for Peru, in Spanish)

www.younglives.org.uk

(for the four countries, in English)