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Design & Development of e-governance Model
SHEELA PRIYA & R.RADHAKRISHNAN, M.E, Ph.D
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Hi tech Information and communication technologies can make a significant contribution to theachievement of good governance goals. The main aim of the research work is to design the e-governance model for improving and strengthening government processes (e-administration), connectingcitizens (e-citizens and e-services), and building external interactions (e-society). Web enabled networktechnology provide a wonderful opportunity to implement e-governance model in web environment. e-
government is a form of e-business in governance and refers to the processes and structures pertinent tothe delivery of electronic services to the public (citizens and businesses). The network is fiber-based, andthe software architecture is 3-tier browser-based.
Keywords: G2C (Government to Citizen)), G2G (Government to Government), G2B (Government toBusiness)
In e-governance all interaction with government can be done through one counter 24 hours a day, 7 daysa week, without waiting in lines. In the near future this will be possible if governments are willing todecentralise responsibilities and processes, and if they start to use electronic means such as the Internet.Each citizen can then contact the government through a website where all forms, legislation, news andother information will be available. e-governance define application of electronic meansin
y the interaction between government and citizens and government and businesses, as well as
y internal government operations
The spread of information and communication technology (ICT) brings hope that government cantransform their activities through web enabled environment. e-government is the use of ICT to promotemore efficient and effective government, facilitate more accessible government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accessible to citizens.
The three main target groups that can be distinguished in e-governance concepts are government,citizens and businesses. The most common interactions in e-governance, G2C, G2B and G2G, arepresented schematically in Figure 1. Gartner, an international consultancy firm, has formulated a four-phase e-governance model. This can serve as a reference for governments to position where a project
fits in the overall evolution of an e-governance strategy.
According to Gartner, e-governance have the following four phases:
In the f irst phase, e-governance means being present on the web, providing the public (G2C & G2B) with
relevant information. The format of the early government web sites is similar to that of a brochure or leaflet. In the second phase, the interaction between government and the public (G2C & G2B) isstimulated with various applications. People can ask questions via e-mail, use search engines, anddownload forms and documents. With phase three, the complexity of the technology is increasing, butcustomer (G2C & G2B) value is also higher. Complete transactions can be done without going to anoffice. Examples of online services are filing income tax, filing property tax, extending/renewal of licenses,visa and passports and online voting. The f ourth phase is the when all information systems are integratedand the public can get G2C & G2B services at one (virtual) counter. The model presented can serve as areference for governments to position where projects fit in the overall evolution of their e-governanceimplementation.
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The model can also support governments in defining an e-governance vision and strategy. A vision is ahigh-level goal, or ambition level, of government regarding the democracy, government and businessaspects of e-governance.
A strategy consists of plans that translate the vision into SMART (simple, measurable, accountable,realistic and time-related) projects
e-Governance does not cover e-commerce and e-business applications that focus solely or mainly on theprivate sector. There are three main domains of e-governance:
y I mproving government processes: e-Administration
y C onnecting citizens: e-C itizens and e-Services
y Building interactions with and within civil society: e-Society
Improving Processes: e-Administratione-administration initiatives deal particularly with improving the internal workings of the public sector. Itincludes
C utting process costs: improving the input: output ratio by cutting financial costs and time costs. CreatingNational ID system, that shows all the details of individual person.
M anaging process per f ormance: planning, monitoring and controlling the performance of processresources (human, financial and other). Launching Integrated HR and Payroll system for state wise.
M aking strategic connections in government: connecting arms, agencies, levels and data stores of government to strengthen capacity to investigate, develop and implement the strategy and policy thatguides government processes.
Connecting Citizens: e-Citizens and e-ServicesSuch initiatives deal particularly with the relationship between government and citizens. It involves
T alking to citizens: providing citizens with details of public sector activities.
Listening to citizens: increasing the input of citizens into public sector decisions and actions.
I mproving public services: improving the services delivered to members of the public along dimensionssuch as quality, convenience and cost.
Building External Interactions: e-SocietySuch initiatives deal particularly with the relationship between public agencies and other institutions ±other public agencies, private sector service providers, non-profit and community organisations ± and withthe relationship between civil society institutions. It consists of
W orking better with business: improving the interaction between government and business.
Developing communities: building the social and economic capacities and capital of local communities.
Building partnerships: strengthening institutional relationships
Benefits to Government
y Increased employee productivity.
y Facilitation of information reuse across and within the departments of Government.
y Reduced system maintenance and training requirements by adopting standard systems andprocesses.
y Cost-effectiveness in the operation of Government agencies.
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y Improvement in Government-to-Government (G2G) interfaces
Benefits to Citizen and Business
y Electronic delivery of services to meet citizen expectations and requirements
y Convenient, anytime, anywhere citizen services
y Support for e-commerce initiatives ( e.g. online filing, payment)y Significant improvement in Government to Citizen (GTC), and Government to Business (G2B)
Challenges for development
In this section, the challenges of e-governance for developing countries are investigated. Four SWOT-analyses are presented, with a focus on political, social, economic and technologicalaspects. The following factors have to be taken into account when examining the risk of implementing e-governance solutions.
y Political stability (democracy or dictatorial regime)
y The importance of government identity (fragmentation or integration)
Economic structure (education, agriculture, industry or service)y Government structure (centralised or decentralised)
y Constituent demand (push or pull)
Technology associated with e-governance y Development Active server page, Oracle 9.i, VBScript, Web Server, Developer 2000
y Data warehousing, data mining, Geographic information system
y Knowledge management
y Business process re-engineering
y Internet, Intranet and WAN.
y Architecture (Security, Infrastructure and Functional)
y Change management
The e-governance vision differs from country to country, state to state, and regions to region as it shouldreflect the needs and aspirations of those countries, states and regions. The core project areas areNational ID card, e-procurement, HRMS and Revenue earning departments. E-governance improvesdelivery of messages to the citizens as well as citizens can easily access the data through Internet or Intranet.
www.panasia.org.sg/nepalnet/ technology/ ict/e_gov_1.htm www.the-south-asian.com/oct2001/E-Governance .htm www.e-gov.gr/programme.htmlJai-Kisan Jai-Hind
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